Diagram. Table (information). Drakon-chart. Exploratory data analysis. Graphic organizer. Information graphics. Mathematical diagram. Official statistics. Plot (graphics). Edward Tufte. Brinton, Willard Cope. Graphic methods for presenting facts. The Engineering magazine company, 1914. Karsten, Karl G. Charts and graphs: An introduction to graphic methods in the control and analysis of statistics. Prentice-Hall, 1923, 1925.

Radar chart

polar chartStar plotCircular charts
Polar area diagram. Parallel coordinates.

State diagram

StatechartState machine diagramstate transition diagram
Hereby "each diagram usually represents objects of a single class and track the different states of its objects through the system". State diagrams can be used to graphically represent finite state machines. This was introduced by C.E. Shannon and W. Weaver in their 1949 book "The Mathematical Theory of Communication". Another source is Taylor Booth in his 1967 book "Sequential Machines and Automata Theory". Another possible representation is the State transition table.

Bar chart

bar graphgraphicalgraphical timeline
Diagrams of the velocity of a constantly accelerating object against time published in The Latitude of Forms (attributed to Jacobus de Sancto Martino or, perhaps, to Nicole Oresme) about 300 years before can be interpreted as "proto bar charts". Bar charts have a discrete domain of categories, and are usually scaled so that all the data can fit on the chart. When there is no natural ordering of the categories being compared, bars on the chart may be arranged in any order. Bar charts arranged from highest to lowest incidence are called Pareto charts. Bar graphs/charts provide a visual presentation of categorical data.

Cluster diagram

Specific types of cluster diagrams are: Image:Skyscrapercompare.svg|Comparison diagram of sky scraper Image:M3 color magnitude diagram it.jpg|Astronomic cluster diagram of the Messier 3 globular cluster Image:Biositemap iTools NCBC.png|Biositemap diagram Image:EvaporacaoDeNuvem.png|Cluster chart in brainstorming Image:Motherboard diagram.svg|Computer architecture diagram of a PC Image:IEEE 802.15.4 cluster tree.png|Computer network diagram Image:WorldWideWebAroundWikipedia.png|Internet diagram Image:NDE Context Diagram (vector).svg|System context diagram Image:ClassAdapter.png|UML Class diagram Image:Component-4.png|UML Component diagram Image

Unified Modeling Language

UMLUnified Modelling Languageinteraction diagram
For example, the component diagram describes how a software system is split up into components and shows the dependencies among these components. Behavior diagrams emphasize what must happen in the system being modeled. Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behavior of a system, they are used extensively to describe the functionality of software systems. As an example, the activity diagram describes the business and operational step-by-step activities of the components in a system. Interaction diagrams, a subset of behavior diagrams, emphasize the flow of control and data among the things in the system being modeled.

Scatter plot

scatterplotscatter plotsscatter diagram
A mosaic plot, fluctuation diagram, or faceted bar chart may be used to display two categorical variables. Other plots are used for one categorical and one quantitative variables. *Rug plot What is a scatterplot?. Correlation scatter-plot matrix for ordered-categorical data – Explanation and R code. Density scatterplot for large datasets (hundreds of millions of points).

Line chart

lineline graphCentralograph
For example, if one were to collect data on the speed of a body at certain points in time, one could visualize the data by a data table such as the following: The table representation of data is a great way of displaying exact values, but can be a poor way to understand the underlying patterns that those values represent. Because of these qualities, the table display is often erroneously conflated with the data itself; whereas it is just another visualization of the data. Understanding the process described by the data in the table is aided by producing a graph or line chart of Speed versus Time. Such a visualisation appears in the figure to the right.

Smith chart

\Gamma\, may be expressed in magnitude and angle on a polar diagram. Any actual reflection coefficient must have a magnitude of less than or equal to unity so, at the test frequency, this may be expressed by a point inside a circle of unity radius. The Smith chart is actually constructed on such a polar diagram. The Smith chart scaling is designed in such a way that reflection coefficient can be converted to normalised impedance or vice versa.


These pyramids are typically diagrammed with a tree or triangle diagram (but note that not all triangle/pyramid diagrams are hierarchical; for example, the 1992 USDA food guide pyramid), both of which serve to emphasize the size differences between the levels. An example of a triangle diagram appears to the right. An organizational chart is the diagram of a hierarchy within an organization, and is depicted in tree form in, below. More recently, as computers have allowed the storage and navigation of ever larger data sets, various methods have been developed to represent hierarchies in a manner that makes more efficient use of the available space on a computer's screen.

Structure chart

System context diagram. Decomposition diagram. Function model. HIPO. Structured Analysis and Design Technique. Warnier/Orr diagram. Work breakdown structure. Sarah Brooks (1981). "Structure Charts and Basic Programming". in: MATYC Journal, v15 n2 p. 107-112 Spring 1981. Tom DeMarco (1979). Structured Analysis and System Specification. Prentice Hall. Edward Yourdon (1999). Modern Structured Analysis, Yourdon Press Computing Series, 1999. Structure charts Overview. (broken link). State Court Structure Charts, a series of examples. Structure Charts (.doc).

Data model

structured datastructuredData models
Common models include:, justifying the name) referencing any number of "dimension tables". The star schema is considered an important special case of the snowflake schema. A data structure diagram (DSD) is a diagram and data model used to describe conceptual data models by providing graphical notations which document entities and their relationships, and the constraints that bind them. The basic graphic elements of DSDs are boxes, representing entities, and arrows, representing relationships. Data structure diagrams are most useful for documenting complex data entities. Data structure diagrams are an extension of the entity-relationship model (ER model).

Plot (graphics)

plotdata plotplots
Diagram. Graph of a function. Line chart. List of graphical methods. List of plotting programs.

Organizational structure

organizational designorganisational structureoperating structure
The failure of this structure became the main reason for the company restructuring into a matrix. Starbucks is one of the numerous large organizations that successfully developed the matrix structure supporting their focused strategy. Its design combines functional and product based divisions, with employees reporting to two heads. Some experts also mention the multinational design, common in global companies, such as Procter & Gamble, Toyota and Unilever. This structure can be seen as a complex form of the matrix, as it maintains coordination among products, functions and geographic areas.

Block diagram

block-diagramblock flow diagramblock flow diagrams
Functional flow block diagram. One-line diagram. Reliability block diagram. Schematic diagram. Signal-flow graph.

Technical drawing

Historical technical diagrams and drawings at NASA. A history of CAD. Drafting Standards.

Activity diagram

activitiesactivity modelActivity
Activity diagrams can be regarded as a form of a structured flowchart combined with a traditional data flow diagram. Typical flowchart techniques lack constructs for expressing concurrency. However, the join and split symbols in activity diagrams only resolve this for simple cases; the meaning of the model is not clear when they are arbitrarily combined with decisions or loops. While in UML 1.x, activity diagrams were a specialized form of state diagrams, in UML 2.x, the activity diagrams were reformalized to be based on Petri net-like semantics, increasing the scope of situations that can be modeled using activity diagrams.

Concept map

concept mappingconcept mapsbubble map
A concept map or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool that instructional designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as causes, requires, or contributes to. The technique for visualizing these relationships among different concepts is called concept mapping.


flow chartflowchartsflow charts
Activity diagram. Control flow diagram. Control flow graph. Data flow diagram. Deployment flowchart. Drakon-chart. Flow map. Functional flow block diagram. Nassi–Shneiderman diagram. State diagram. Warnier/Orr diagram. Why-because analysis. Augmented transition network. Business process mapping. Interactive EasyFlow. Process architecture. Pseudocode. Recursive transition network. Unified Modeling Language (UML). Workflow. ISO 5807:1985. ISO 10628: Flow Diagrams For Process Plants – General Rules. ECMA 4: Flowcharts (withdrawn – list of withdrawn standards). Schultheiss, Louis A., and Edward M. Heiliger. " Techniques of flow-charting." (1963); with introduction by Edward Heiliger.

Venn diagram

Venn diagramsLogic diagramVenn
For instance, in a two-set Venn diagram, one circle may represent the group of all wooden objects, while another circle may represent the set of all tables. The overlapping region or intersection would then represent the set of all wooden tables. Shapes other than circles can be employed as shown below by Venn's own higher set diagrams. Venn diagrams do not generally contain information on the relative or absolute sizes (cardinality) of sets; i.e. they are schematic diagrams. Venn diagrams are similar to Euler diagrams.

N2 chart

N'' 2 chartN2N2 diagram
The N 2 chart, also referred to as N 2 diagram, N-squared diagram or N-squared chart, is a diagram in the shape of a matrix, representing functional or physical interfaces between system elements. It is used to systematically identify, define, tabulate, design, and analyze functional and physical interfaces. It applies to system interfaces and hardware and/or software interfaces. The N-squared chart was invented by the systems engineer Robert J. Lano, while working at TRW in the 1970s and first published in a 1977 TRW internal report. The N 2 diagram has been used extensively to develop data interfaces, primarily in the software areas.

Event-driven process chain

Event-driven Process ChainsEvent-driven process chains (EPC)
To employ the process path symbol in an Event-driven Process Chain diagram, a symbol is connected to the process path symbol, indicating that the process diagrammed incorporates the entirety of a second process which, for diagrammatic simplicity, is represented by a single symbol. BPMN. DRAKON. Flowchart. Petri net. Process mining. Swim lane. Workflow. Event chain diagram.

Mind map

mind mappingmind mapsmindmapping
Buzan suggests the following guidelines for creating mind maps: As with other diagramming tools, mind maps can be used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and organizing information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing.

Bipartite graph

bipartitebipartite graphsbipartiteness
In computer science, a Petri net is a mathematical modeling tool used in analysis and simulations of concurrent systems. A system is modeled as a bipartite directed graph with two sets of nodes: A set of "place" nodes that contain resources, and a set of "event" nodes which generate and/or consume resources. There are additional constraints on the nodes and edges that constrain the behavior of the system. Petri nets utilize the properties of bipartite directed graphs and other properties to allow mathematical proofs of the behavior of systems while also allowing easy implementation of simulations of the system.

Sankey diagram

Sankey diagrams are named after Irish Captain Matthew Henry Phineas Riall Sankey, who used this type of diagram in 1898 in a classic figure (see diagram) showing the energy efficiency of a steam engine. The original charts in black and white displayed just one type of flow (e.g. steam); using colors for different types of flows lets the diagram express additional variables. One of the most famous Sankey diagrams is Charles Minard's Map of Napoleon's Russian Campaign of 1812. It is a flow map, overlaying a Sankey diagram onto a geographical map. It was created in 1869, so it actually predates Sankey's 'first' Sankey diagram of 1898.