OpenShift OriginRed Hat OpenShift
Its flagship product is the OpenShift Container Platform—an on-premises platform as a service built around Docker containers orchestrated and managed by Kubernetes on a foundation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The family's other products provide this platform through different environments: OKD serves as the community-driven upstream (akin to CentOS), OpenShift Online is the platform offered as software as a service, and Openshift Dedicated is the platform offered as a managed service. OpenShift originally came from Red Hat's acquisition of Makara - a company with a proprietary PaaS solution based on Linux containers.

Red Hat

RedHatRed Hat,
On July 31, 2018, Red Hat announced the release of Istio 1.0, a microservices management program used in tandem with the Kubernetes platform. The software purports to provide "traffic management, service identity and security, policy enforcement and telemetry" services in order to streamline Kubernetes use under the various Fedora-based operating systems. Red Hat's Brian Redbeard Harring described Istio as "aiming to be a control plane, similar to the Kubernetes control plane, for configuring a series of proxy servers that get injected between application components". Red Hat markets a version of OpenStack which helps manage a data center in the manner of cloud computing.

Open coopetition

Along with this lines, the pioneering scholarly work of Germonprez et al. (2013) reported on how key business actors within the financial services industry that traditionally viewed open-source software with skepticism, tied up an open-source ‘community of competitors’. By taking the case of OpenMAMA, a Middleware Agnostic Messaging API used by some of the world's largest financial players, they show that corporate market rivals (e.g., J. P. Morgan, Bank of America, IBM and BMC) can coexist in open-source communities, and intentionally coordinate activities or mutual benefits in precise, market focused, and non-differentiating engagements.

Go (programming language)

GoGo programming languageGolang
Container Linux (formerly CoreOS), a Linux-based operating system that uses Docker containers and rkt containers. Couchbase, Query and Indexing services within the Couchbase Server. Dropbox, who migrated some of their critical components from Python to Go. Ethereum, a cryptocurrency. Google, for many projects, notably including download server Heroku, for Doozer, a lock service. Hyperledger Fabric, an open source, enterprise-focused distributed ledger project. MongoDB, tools for administering MongoDB instances. Netflix, for two portions of their server architecture. Nutanix, for a variety of micro-services in its Enterprise Cloud OS.


In August 2014 it acquired the dotCloud brand from American company Docker, Inc. dotCloud was a Platform as a service company using the open-source Docker software; it was the original developer of Docker. In January 2016 the company sent out a letter to its customers that it was shutting down. "Unfortunately I have to inform you, that cloudControl our German parent company has filed for bankruptcy. Due to this, dotCloud will be shutdown on February 29, 2016. To avoid service disruption of your apps hosted on dotCloud or prevent data loss, you are required to migrate your applications." cloudControl went bankrupt in December 2015 and was acquired by Exoscale in March 2016.


microserviceMicroservice architecturefine ''vs'' coarse grained SOA
In a service mesh, each service instance is paired with an instance of a reverse proxy server, called a service proxy, sidecar proxy, or sidecar. The service instance and sidecar proxy share a container, and the containers are managed by a container orchestration tool such as Kubernetes, Nomad, Docker Swarm, or DC/OS. The service proxies are responsible for communication with other service instances and can support capabilities such as service (instance) discovery, load balancing, authentication and authorization, secure communications, and others.

OS-level virtualization

operating-system-level virtualizationcontainersoperating system-level virtualization
System administrators may also use it for consolidating server hardware by moving services on separate hosts into containers on the one server. Other typical scenarios include separating several programs to separate containers for improved security, hardware independence, and added resource management features. The improved security provided by the use of a chroot mechanism, however, is nowhere near ironclad. Operating-system-level virtualization implementations capable of live migration can also be used for dynamic load balancing of containers between nodes in a cluster.

Linux Foundation

The Linux FoundationPatent CommonsEmbedded Linux Conference
In 2015, Docker donated the OCI Specification to The Linux Foundation with a reference implementation called runc. CoreDNS, a DNS server that chains plugins, is a Cloud Native Computing Foundation member project. Originally built at Lyft to move their architecture away from a monolith, Envoy is a high-performance open source edge and service proxy that makes the network transparent to applications. Lyft contributed Envoy to Cloud Native Computing Foundation in September 2017.

Borg (cluster manager)

Borg is a cluster manager used by Google. It led to widespread use of similar approaches such as Docker and Kubernetes. * A New Era of Container Cluster Management with Kubernetes Apache Mesos. List of cluster management software. Kubernetes. DC/OS. Operating-system-level virtualization (containerization).


cgroupcontrol groupControl Groups
Large-scale cluster management at Google with Borg, April 2015, by Abhishek Verma, Luis Pedrosa, Madhukar Korupolu, David Oppenheimer, Eric Tune and John Wilkes. Job Objects, similar feature on Windows.

List of cluster management software

Kubernetes, founded by Google Inc, from the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Heartbeat, from Linux-HA. Docker Swarm. Red Hat cluster suite. Nomad, from HashiCorp. Service Fabric, from Microsoft. non-HA. oneSIS. OpenHPC. Rocks Cluster Distribution. Stacki, from StackIQ. YARN, distributed with Apache Hadoop. xCAT. Warewulf. Foreman. Borg, used at Google. Bright Cluster Manager, from Bright Computing. CycleCloud, from Cycle Computing. HPE Performance Cluster Manager, from HPE. IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms, from IBM. IBM Platform Cluster Manager, Community Edition (no charge infrastructure management). Microsoft Cluster Server, from Microsoft.


Most recently gVisor has been integrated with Google Kubernetes Engine and it allows users to sandbox their Kubernetes pods for use cases like SaaS and multitenancy.

Container Linux

Beside the configuration management, etcd also provides service discovery by allowing deployed applications to announce themselves and the services they offer. Communication with etcd is performed through an exposed REST-based API, which internally uses JSON on top of HTTP; the API may be used directly (through curl or wget, for example), or indirectly through etcdctl, which is a specialized command-line utility also supplied by CoreOS. . Etcd is also used in Kubernetes software. Container Linux also provides the fleet cluster manager which controls Container Linux's separate systemd instances at the cluster level.

Platform as a service

PaaSplatform-as-a-servicePlatform as a Service (PaaS)
As a private service (software or appliance) behind a firewall. As software deployed on a public infrastructure as a service. Infrastructure as a service. Mobile Backend as a service. Network as a service. Serverless computing. Software as a service.

Cloud computing

cloudcloud-basedcloud services
Hybrid cloud can also mean the ability to connect collocation, managed and/or dedicated services with cloud resources. Gartner defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers. A hybrid cloud service crosses isolation and provider boundaries so that it can't be simply put in one category of private, public, or community cloud service. It allows one to extend either the capacity or the capability of a cloud service, by aggregation, integration or customization with another cloud service. Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops, laptops, tabs, gadgets, and servers, including Internet search (with Bing), the digital services market (through MSN), mixed reality (HoloLens), cloud computing (Azure), and software development (Visual Studio). Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, and later envisioned a "devices and services" strategy.

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Amazon EC2EC2Elastic Compute Cloud
Since May 2011, Amazon CloudWatch accepts custom metrics that can be submitted programmatically via Web Services API and then monitored the same way as all other internal metrics, including setting up the alarms for them, and since July 2014 Cloudwatch Logs service is also available. Basic Amazon CloudWatch is included in [[ Amazon Free Tier]] service. Amazon's auto-scaling feature of EC2 allows it to automatically adapt computing capacity to site traffic. The schedule-based (e.g. time-of-the-day) and rule-based (e.g. CPU utilization thresholds) auto scaling mechanisms are easy to use and efficient for simple applications.

Linux kernel

LinuxLinux kernel mainlinekernel
For example, they may allow for privilege escalation or create denial-of-service attack vectors. Over the years, numerous such flaws were found and fixed in the Linux kernel. New security features are frequently implemented to improve the Linux kernel's security. Critics have accused kernel developers of covering up security flaws or at least not announcing them; in 2008, Linus Torvalds responded to this with the following: "I personally consider security bugs to be just "normal bugs".

Application programming interface

APIAPIsapplication programming interfaces
Web APIs are the defined interfaces through which interactions happen between an enterprise and applications that use its assets, which also is a Service Level Agreement (SLA) to specify the functional provider and expose the service path or URL for its API users. An API approach is an architectural approach that revolves around providing a program interface to a set of services to different applications serving different types of consumers.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
In May 2017, Google enabled a new "Personal" tab in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts' various services, including email messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos. Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from various websites. Google also hosts Google Books, a service which searches the text found in books in its database and shows limited previews or and the full book where allowed. As per its 2017 Annual report, Google generates most of its revenues from advertising.

Computer cluster

Large-scale cluster management at Google with Borg, April 2015, by Abhishek Verma, Luis Pedrosa, Madhukar Korupolu, David Oppenheimer, Eric Tune and John Wilkes.

Apache License

Apache License 2.0Apache 2.0Apache
The Apache License is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). It allows users to use the software for any purpose, to distribute it, to modify it, and to distribute modified versions of the software under the terms of the license, without concern for royalties. The ASF and its projects release their software products under the Apache License. The license is also used by many non-ASF projects.

Y Combinator

Y-CombinatorY Combinator (company)YCombinator
The company includes visiting partners Kevin Hale, Solomon Hykes, Holly Liu, Diego Rey, Aaron Epstein. In 2018, Y Combinator announced that Qi Lu, a former CEO of Baidu and Bing, would join the company as CEO of YC China. In March 2019, Y Combinator announced its president Sam Altman would be transitioning into a Chairman position to focus more on OpenAI. Y Combinator has been blamed for its encouragement of the ageism culture in Silicon Valley. Paul Graham said in 2005 that people over 38 lacked the energy to launch startups. It was also at a Y Combinator event, the 2007 Startup School, that Mark Zuckerberg said, "Young people are just smarter".

Windows Subsystem for Linux

WSLa subsystemis also available for Windows 10
LXSS Manager Service is the service in charge of interacting with the subsystem (through the drivers lxss.sys and lxcore.sys), and the way that Bash.exe (not to be confused with the Shells provided by the Linux distributions) launches the Linux processes, as well as handling the Linux system calls and the binary locks during their execution. All Linux processes invoked by a particular user go into a "Linux Instance" (usually, the first invoked process is init). Once all the applications are closed, the instance is closed. The command is used to manage distributions in the Windows Subsystem for Linux on the command-line.

List of commercial open-source applications and services

The purpose of this table is to provide reference information about the provenance and history of notable commercial open-source applications, adopting Business models for open-source software, alphabetized by the product/service name. It is not to be used or interpreted as an advertisement for the vendors.