Red Hat

RedHatRed Hat,
On July 31, 2018, Red Hat announced the release of Istio 1.0, a microservices management program used in tandem with the Kubernetes platform. The software purports to provide "traffic management, service identity and security, policy enforcement and telemetry" services in order to streamline Kubernetes use under the various Fedora-based operating systems. Red Hat's Brian Redbeard Harring described Istio as "aiming to be a control plane, similar to the Kubernetes control plane, for configuring a series of proxy servers that get injected between application components". Red Hat markets a version of OpenStack which helps manage a data center in the manner of cloud computing.

OS-level virtualization

operating-system-level virtualizationcontainersoperating system-level virtualization
Operating-system-level virtualization usually imposes less overhead than full virtualization because programs in OS-level virtual partitions use the operating system's normal system call interface and do not need to be subjected to emulation or be run in an intermediate virtual machine, as is the case with full virtualization (such as VMware ESXi, QEMU or Hyper-V) and paravirtualization (such as Xen or User-mode Linux). This form of virtualization also does not require hardware support for efficient performance.


OpenShift OriginRed Hat OpenShift
Its flagship product is the OpenShift Container Platform—an on-premises platform as a service built around Docker containers orchestrated and managed by Kubernetes on a foundation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The family's other products provide this platform through different environments: OKD serves as the community-driven upstream (akin to CentOS), OpenShift Online is the platform offered as software as a service, and Openshift Dedicated is the platform offered as a managed service. OpenShift originally came from Red Hat's acquisition of Makara - a company with a proprietary PaaS solution based on Linux containers.

Computer cluster

Large-scale cluster management at Google with Borg, April 2015, by Abhishek Verma, Luis Pedrosa, Madhukar Korupolu, David Oppenheimer, Eric Tune and John Wilkes.

Container Linux

Comparison of application virtualization software – various portable and scripting language virtual machines. Comparison of platform virtualization software – various emulators and hypervisors, which emulate the whole physical computers. LXC (Linux Containers) – an environment for running multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a single Linux control host. Operating-system-level virtualization implementations – based on operating system kernel's support for multiple isolated userspace instances. Software as a service (SaaS) – a software licensing and delivery model that hosts the software centrally and licenses it on a subscription basis.

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Amazon EC2EC2Elastic Compute Cloud
Each virtual machine, called an "instance", functions as a virtual private server. Amazon sizes instances based on "Elastic Compute Units". The performance of otherwise identical virtual machines may vary. On November 28, 2017, AWS announced a bare-metal instance type offering marking a remarkable departure from exclusively offering virtualized instance types. As of January 2019, the following instance types were offered:, the following paying method for instance were offered:, Amazon charged about $0.0058/hour ($4.176/month) for the smallest "Nano Instance" (t2.nano) virtual machine running Linux or Windows. Storage-optimized instances cost as much as $4.992/hour (i3.16xlarge).

Cloud computing

cloudcloud-basedcloud services
"Infrastructure as a service" (IaaS) refers to online services that provide high-level APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc. A hypervisor runs the virtual machines as guests. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operational system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements. Linux containers run in isolated partitions of a single Linux kernel running directly on the physical hardware.

Linux kernel

LinuxLinux kernel mainlinekernel
Its developers had first started contributing to the kernel in 2009 to improve the performance of Linux virtual machines running on top of the Windows Hyper-V hypervisor. Stable 3.x.y kernels were released until 3.19 in February 2015, with development releases carrying the -rc designation. To account for the occasional special patch release, the version 3 series of the kernel added a fourth digit to the version numbering. In April 2015, Torvalds released kernel version 4.0. By February 2015 the Linux kernel had received contributions from nearly 12,000 programmers from more than 1,200 companies, including some of the world's largest software and hardware vendors.

Windows Subsystem for Linux

WSLa subsystemis also available for Windows 10
In September 2018, Microsoft said that "WSL requires fewer resources (CPU, memory, and storage) than a full virtual machine" (which prior to WSL was the most direct way to run Linux software in a Windows environment), while also allowing users to use Windows apps and Linux tools on the same set of files. LXSS Manager Service is the service in charge of interacting with the subsystem (through the drivers lxss.sys and lxcore.sys), and the way that Bash.exe (not to be confused with the Shells provided by the Linux distributions) launches the Linux processes, as well as handling the Linux system calls and the binary locks during their execution.


MinIO server can be installed on physical or virtual machines or launched as Docker containers and deployed on container orchestration platforms like Kubernetes, Mesosphere, and Docker Swarm. The MinIO Client provides an alternative to standard UNIX commands (e.g.,,,,, etc), adding support for Amazon S3-compatible cloud storage services (AWS Signature v2 and v4). MinIO Client is supported on Linux, Mac and Windows platforms. MinIO Client SDK provides a simple API to access any Amazon S3-compatible object storage server. Language bindings are available for Go, Java, Python, JavaScript, Haskell, and languages hosted on the .NET Framework.

Open coopetition

Along with this lines, the pioneering scholarly work of Germonprez et al. (2013) reported on how key business actors within the financial services industry that traditionally viewed open-source software with skepticism, tied up an open-source ‘community of competitors’. By taking the case of OpenMAMA, a Middleware Agnostic Messaging API used by some of the world's largest financial players, they show that corporate market rivals (e.g., J. P. Morgan, Bank of America, IBM and BMC) can coexist in open-source communities, and intentionally coordinate activities or mutual benefits in precise, market focused, and non-differentiating engagements.

Go (programming language)

GoGo programming languageGolang
Docker, a set of tools for deploying Linux containers. Ethereum, The go-ethereum implementation of the Ethereum Virtual Machine blockchain for the Ether cryptocurrency. Hugo, a static site generator. InfluxDB, an open source database specifically to handle time series data with high availability and high performance requirements. InterPlanetary File System, a content-addressable, peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol. Juju, a service orchestration tool by Canonical, packagers of Ubuntu Linux. Kubernetes container management system. Lightning Network, a bitcoin network that allows for fast Bitcoin transactions and scalability. Mattermost, a teamchat system.


LXC containersContainerLinux containers
The Linux kernel provides the cgroups functionality that allows limitation and prioritization of resources (CPU, memory, block I/O, network, etc.) without the need for starting any virtual machines, and also namespace isolation functionality that allows complete isolation of an application's view of the operating environment, including process trees, networking, user IDs and mounted file systems. LXC combines the kernel's cgroups and support for isolated namespaces to provide an isolated environment for applications. Early versions of Docker used LXC as the container execution driver, though LXC was made optional in v0.9 and support was dropped in Docker v1.10.


In August 2014 it acquired the dotCloud brand from American company Docker, Inc. dotCloud was a Platform as a service company using the open-source Docker software; it was the original developer of Docker. In January 2016 the company sent out a letter to its customers that it was shutting down. "Unfortunately I have to inform you, that cloudControl our German parent company has filed for bankruptcy. Due to this, dotCloud will be shutdown on February 29, 2016. To avoid service disruption of your apps hosted on dotCloud or prevent data loss, you are required to migrate your applications." cloudControl went bankrupt in December 2015 and was acquired by Exoscale in March 2016.


microserviceMicroservice architecturefine ''vs'' coarse grained SOA
In a service mesh, each service instance is paired with an instance of a reverse proxy server, called a service proxy, sidecar proxy, or sidecar. The service instance and sidecar proxy share a container, and the containers are managed by a container orchestration tool such as Kubernetes, Nomad, Docker Swarm, or DC/OS. The service proxies are responsible for communication with other service instances and can support capabilities such as service (instance) discovery, load balancing, authentication and authorization, secure communications, and others.

Linux Foundation

The Linux FoundationPatent CommonsEmbedded Linux Conference
It can be used for tracing microservice-based architectures, including distributed context propagation, distributed transaction monitoring, root cause analysis, service dependency analysis, and performance/latency optimization. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation Technical Oversight Committee voted to accept Jaeger as the 12th hosted project in September 2017. Linkerd is a CNCF member project, providing resilient service mesh for cloud native applications. The tool is based on the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) "for developers to help improve communications among microservices." Notary is an open source project that allows anyone to have trust over arbitrary collections of data.

Borg (cluster manager)

Borg is a cluster manager used by Google. It led to widespread use of similar approaches such as Docker and Kubernetes. * A New Era of Container Cluster Management with Kubernetes Apache Mesos. List of cluster management software. Kubernetes. DC/OS. Operating-system-level virtualization (containerization).


cgroupcontrol groupControl Groups
Large-scale cluster management at Google with Borg, April 2015, by Abhishek Verma, Luis Pedrosa, Madhukar Korupolu, David Oppenheimer, Eric Tune and John Wilkes. Job Objects, similar feature on Windows.

List of cluster management software

Kubernetes, founded by Google Inc, from the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Heartbeat, from Linux-HA. Docker Swarm. Red Hat cluster suite. Nomad, from HashiCorp. Service Fabric, from Microsoft. non-HA. oneSIS. OpenHPC. Rocks Cluster Distribution. Stacki, from StackIQ. YARN, distributed with Apache Hadoop. xCAT. Warewulf. Foreman. Borg, used at Google. Bright Cluster Manager, from Bright Computing. CycleCloud, from Cycle Computing. HPE Performance Cluster Manager, from HPE. IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms, from IBM. IBM Platform Cluster Manager, Community Edition (no charge infrastructure management). Microsoft Cluster Server, from Microsoft.


Most recently gVisor has been integrated with Google Kubernetes Engine and it allows users to sandbox their Kubernetes pods for use cases like SaaS and multitenancy.


Small size service allows the architecture of an individual service to emerge through continuous refactoring, hence reducing the need for a big upfront design, allows for releasing the software early and continuously. DevOps automation can be achieved by repackaging platforms, systems, and applications into reusable building blocks through the use of technologies such as virtual machines and containerization.

Platform as a service

PaaSplatform-as-a-servicePlatform as a Service (PaaS)
As a private service (software or appliance) behind a firewall. As software deployed on a public infrastructure as a service. Infrastructure as a service. Mobile Backend as a service. Network as a service. Serverless computing. Software as a service.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
The patch led to issues with the Microsoft Azure virtual machines reliant on Intel's CPU architecture. On January 12, Microsoft released PowerShell Core 6.0 for the macOS and Linux operating systems. In February 2018, Microsoft killed notification support for their Windows Phone devices which effectively ended firmware updates for the discontinued devices. In March 2018, Microsoft recalled Windows 10 S to change it to a mode for the Windows operating system rather than a separate and unique operating system. In March the company also established guidelines that censor users of Office 365 from using profanity in private documents.

Kernel (operating system)

kerneloperating system kernelkernels
Hence the first such system was called Virtual Machine or VM. Although Mach, developed at Carnegie Mellon University from 1985 to 1994, is the best-known general-purpose microkernel, other microkernels have been developed with more specific aims. The L4 microkernel family (mainly the L3 and the L4 kernel) was created to demonstrate that microkernels are not necessarily slow. Newer implementations such as Fiasco and Pistachio are able to run Linux next to other L4 processes in separate address spaces.


GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM. GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages.