High-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI 1.4HDMI 2.0
Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is an adaptation of HDMI intended to connect mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and displays. Unlike DVI, which is compatible with HDMI using only passive cables and adapters, MHL requires that the HDMI socket be MHL-enabled, otherwise an active adapter (or dongle) is required to convert the signal to HDMI. MHL is developed by a consortium of five consumer electronics manufacturers, several of which are also behind HDMI. MHL pares down the three TMDS channels in a standard HDMI connection to a single one running over any connector that provides at least five pins.


USB 2.0Universal Serial BusMicro USB
USB provides three isochronous (fixed-bandwidth) synchronization types, all of which are used by audio devices: While the USB spec originally described asynchronous mode being used in "low cost speakers" and adaptive mode in "high-end digital speakers", the opposite perception exists in the hi-fi world, where asynchronous mode is advertised as a feature, and adaptive/synchronous modes have a bad reputation. In reality, all the types can be high-quality or low-quality, depending on the quality of their engineering and the application.

Reverse engineering

reverse engineeredreverse engineerreverse-engineered
Dongle. Forensic engineering. Industrial CT scanning. Interactive Disassembler. Knowledge Discovery Metamodel. Laser scanner. List of production topics. Listeroid Engines. Logic analyzer. Paycheck. Product teardown. Repurposing. Retrodiction. Sega v. Accolade. Software archaeology. Software cracking. Structured light digitizer. Value engineering. Elvidge, Julia, "Using Reverse Engineering to Discover Patent Infringement," Chipworks, Sept. 2010. Online: http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=44063. Hausi A. Müller and Holger M. Kienle, "A Small Primer on Software Reverse Engineering," Technical Report, University of Victoria, 17 pages, March 2009.

Lockout chip

lock-out chiplocking out
A notable example is the lockout chip found in Nintendo's Nintendo Entertainment System (called 10NES), designed to prevent "unlicensed" manufacturers from creating games for the console. The presence of the chip forced unlicensed companies to raise the price of each cartridge (due to a bypass chip having to be added to the cartridge), and allowed Nintendo a foothold for a lawsuit. Lockout functions are commonly used in printers to prevent the manufacture of third-party ink or toner cartridges. Regional lockout. 10NES/CIC(Nintendo). Vendor lock-in. Dongle. Lexmark Int'l v. Static Control Components, a U.S. Sixth Circuit case rejecting copyright-related claims in lockout chips.

ROM cartridge

cartridgecartridgesgame cartridge
NES/Famicom (with its clones like Terminator). SNES/Super Famicom. Nintendo 64. Game Boy. Game Boy Color. Game Boy Advance. Virtual Boy. Pokémon mini. Nintendo DS. Nintendo 3DS. Nintendo Switch. SG-1000 Mark I/SG-1000 Mark II. Sega Master System/Sega Mark III. Sega Genesis/Mega Drive. Sega Game Gear. Sega 32X. Neo Geo. Neo Geo Pocket. Neo Geo Pocket Color. Neo Geo X. Leapster. LeapPad. LeapTV. Pixter. Smart Cycle. ROM image. Dongle. Port expander. RAM pack. Currah.


WiFiwireless internetwireless
Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a wireless network. These adapters connect to devices using various external or internal interconnects such as PCI, miniPCI, USB, ExpressCard, Cardbus and PC Card., most newer laptop computers come equipped with built in internal adapters. Wireless routers integrate a Wireless Access Point, Ethernet switch, and internal router firmware application that provides IP routing, NAT, and DNS forwarding through an integrated WAN-interface. A wireless router allows wired and wireless Ethernet LAN devices to connect to a (usually) single WAN device such as a cable modem, DSL modem or optical modem.

CIC (Nintendo)

10NESCIClockout chip
The Checking Integrated Circuit, or CIC, is a lockout chip designed for the Nintendo Entertainment System which had three main purposes: Improved designs of the CIC chip were also used in the later Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Nintendo 64, although running an updated security program which performs additional checks. The 10NES system is a lock-out system designed for the North American and European versions of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. The chip is a lock which can be opened by a key in the games, designed to restrict the software that could be operated on the system.

Stick PC

On July 24 2013, Google introduced the Google Chromecast, a streaming device similar in function and design to a stick PC. On November 19, 2014, Amazon released a smaller version of the Amazon Fire TV called the Fire TV Stick. In March 2015, ASUS and Google introduced the Chromebit, a stick PC based on the Rockchip RK3288 SoC and running Google's Chrome OS. In 2016, Intel introduced the Intel Compute Stick. In July 2017, Intel released the Movidius Neural Compute Stick which included a Vision Processing Unit for vision-specific AI workload.

Amazon Fire TV

Fire TVAmazon Fire TV StickFireTV
Codenamed "Montoya", it has a dongle form factor that plugs into an HDMI port, and maintains much of the functionality of the larger Fire TV. Its hardware is slightly different, it has 1 GB of RAM, 8 GB of internal storage, weighs 0.9 oz. (25.1 g) and it uses a Broadcom BCM28155 1.0 GHz Cortex-A9 processor and a Broadcom VideoCore IV GPU. Wireless hardware includes a dual-band 802.11 a/b/g/n Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 3.0 The Fire TV Stick is bundled with a remote control, in either of two variants; one with voice search on the remote and one without Alexa. On October 20, 2016, Amazon released the Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote, codenamed "Tank".


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Google LLC
In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, that allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions. In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media. G Suite is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support.

Copy protection

anti-piracycopy-protectedcopy protected
Classic NES Series features a "mirroring". If a Classic NES Series game is emulated or the cart doesn't feature "mirroring", the player will fall victim to copy protection. For example, in "Classic NES Series - Castlevania", the player becomes unable to move the character at all. Digital rights management. Digital watermarking. Floating licensing. Cheat cartridge. License manager. List of copy protection schemes. Software anti-tamper. Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal. Tamper resistance. Trade group efforts against file sharing. V-Max Copy Protection on the C64. Copy Protection in depth. Evaluating New Copy-Prevention Techniques for Audio CDs.


Bluetooth 4.0Bluetooth 5.0Bluetooth 2.0
A personal computer that does not have embedded Bluetooth can use a Bluetooth adapter that enables the PC to communicate with Bluetooth devices. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth radio, others require an external adapter, typically in the form of a small USB "dongle." Unlike its predecessor, IrDA, which requires a separate adapter for each device, Bluetooth lets multiple devices communicate with a computer over a single adapter. For Microsoft platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and SP3 releases work natively with Bluetooth v1.1, v2.0 and v2.0+EDR.

Nintendo 64

N64Ultra 64.mpk
Around the end of the 1980s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES (SNES), was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, and relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo also faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies. Silicon Graphics, Inc.

Sega Genesis

Mega DriveSega Mega DriveMega Drive/Genesis
The North American release in 1991 of the Super Famicom, rebranded as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe that has often been termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.

Video game console

consolegame consoleconsoles
In 1983, Nintendo released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. The Famicom supported high-resolution sprites, larger color palettes, and tiled backgrounds, which allowed Famicom games to have more detailed graphics than games of prior consoles. Nintendo began attempts to bring their Famicom to the U.S. after the video game market had crashed. In the U.S., video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older game consoles, Nintendo released their Famicom as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR, included a plastic "robot" (R.O.B.), and was initially advertised as a toy.

Commodore 64

Even though other computers quickly caught up with it, the C64 remained a strong competitor to the later video game consoles Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) and Sega Master System, thanks in part to its by-then established software base, especially outside North America, where it comprehensively outsold the NES. Because of lower incomes and the domination of the Sinclair Spectrum in the UK, almost all British C64 software used cassette tapes. Few cassette C64 programs were released in the US after 1983, and in North America, the diskette was the principal method of software distribution.

Digital rights management

DRMDRM-freedigital restrictions management
One of the oldest and least complicated DRM protection methods for computer and Nintendo Entertainment System games was when the game would pause and prompt the player to look up a certain page in a booklet or manual that came with the game; if the player lacked access to such material, they would not be able to continue the game. A product key, a typically alphanumerical serial number used to represent a license to a particular piece of software, serve a similar function.

Google Chrome

ChromeChrome browserGoogle Chrome Extensions
Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase. Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company", and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt admitted that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind." In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared.


PC EngineTurboGrafx-CDPC-Engine
Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, and later on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU, a 16-bit video color encoder, and a 16-bit video display controller. The GPUs are capable of displaying 482 colors simultaneously, out of 512. With dimensions of just 14 cm × 14 cm × 3.8 cm (5.5 in × 5.5 in × 1.5 in), the Japanese PC Engine is the smallest major home game console ever made. Games were stored on a HuCard cartridge, or in CD-ROM optical format with the TurboGrafx-CD add-on.

Nexus Q

The Nexus Q received a de facto successor in July 2013 with the unveiling of Chromecast, a streaming device that similarly allows users to queue the playback of remote content ("cast") via a mobile device. Chromecast is contrasted by its compact HDMI dongle form factor, the availability of an SDK that allows third-party services to integrate with the device, and its considerably lower price in comparison to the Nexus Q. In late 2014, Google and Asus released a second Nexus-branded digital media player known as the Nexus Player, which served as a launch device for the digital media player and smart TV platform Android TV. * Gross, Doug, "Google's new Nexus Q: Made in the U.S.A.

Product key

activation codeCD keylicense key
A product key, also known as a software key, is a specific software-based key for a computer program. It certifies that the copy of the program is original. Activation is sometimes done offline by entering the key, or with software like Windows 8.1, online activation is required to prevent multiple people using the same key. Not all software has a product key, as some publishers may choose to use a different method to protect their copyright, or in some cases, such as free or open source software, copyright protection is not used.

Digital media player

Digital media receivermedia playermedia players
Digital media adapter. Digital media connect. Digital media extender. Digital media hub. Digital media player. Digital media streamer. Digital media receiver. Digital media renderer. Digital video receiver. Digital video streamer. HD Media Player. HDD media player. Media Extender. Media Regulator. Net connected media player. Network connected media player. Network media player. Networked Digital Video Disc. Networked entertainment gateway. Smart Television media player. Smart Television player. Streaming media box. Streaming media player. Streaming video player. Wireless Media Adapter. OTT player. Over-the-Top player. YouTube Player Support.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Standard peripheral buses often used for adding expansion cards in personal computers include PCI, PCI Express (PCIe), and AGP (a high-speed PCI bus dedicated to graphics adapters, found in older computers). Most modern personal computers have multiple physical PCI Express expansion slots, with some of the having PCI slots as well. A peripheral is "a device connected to a computer to provide communication (such as input and output) or auxiliary functions (such as additional storage)". Peripherals generally connect to the computer through the use of USB ports or inputs located on the I/O panel.

Serial port

serialserial portsserial line
If it is necessary to connect two DTE devices (or two DCE devices but that is more unusual) a cross-over null modem, in the form of either an adapter or a cable, must be used. Generally, serial port connectors are gendered, only allowing connectors to mate with a connector of the opposite gender. With D-subminiature connectors, the male connectors have protruding pins, and female connectors have corresponding round sockets. Either type of connector can be mounted on equipment or a panel; or terminate a cable. Connectors mounted on DTE are likely to be male, and those mounted on DCE are likely to be female (with the cable connectors being the opposite).


MykotronxRainbow TechnologiesMediaSentry
SafeNet, Inc. was an information security company based in Belcamp, Maryland, United States, which was acquired in August 2014 by the French security company Gemalto. SafeNet's products are marketed under the SafeNet product brand, and include solutions for enterprise authentication, data encryption, and key management. SafeNet's software monetization products are sold under Gemalto's Sentinel brand.