Micro HDMIHDMI 1.4micro-HDMI
Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is an adaptation of HDMI intended to connect mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and displays. Unlike DVI, which is compatible with HDMI using only passive cables and adapters, MHL requires that the HDMI socket be MHL-enabled, otherwise an active adapter (or dongle) is required to convert the signal to HDMI. MHL is developed by a consortium of five consumer electronics manufacturers, several of which are also behind HDMI. MHL pares down the three TMDS channels in a standard HDMI connection to a single one running over any connector that provides at least five pins.


USB 2.0micro-USBmicro USB
USB mice and keyboards can usually be used with older computers that have PS/2 connectors with the aid of a small USB-to-PS/2 adapter. For mice and keyboards with dual-protocol support, an adaptor that contains no logic circuitry may be used: the hardware in the USB keyboard or mouse is designed to detect whether it is connected to a USB or PS/2 port, and communicate using the appropriate protocol. Converters also exist that connect PS/2 keyboards and mice (usually one of each) to a USB port. These devices present two HID endpoints to the system and use a microcontroller to perform bidirectional data translation between the two standards.

CIC (Nintendo)

10NESCIClockout chip
The Checking Integrated Circuit, or CIC, is a lockout chip designed for the Nintendo Entertainment System which had three main purposes: Improved designs of the CIC chip were also used in the later Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Nintendo 64, although running an updated security program which performs additional checks. The 10NES system is a lock-out system designed for the North American and European versions of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console. The chip is a lock which can be opened by a key in the games, designed to restrict the software that could be operated on the system.

Video game console

consolegame consoleconsoles
In 1983, Nintendo released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. The Famicom supported high-resolution sprites, larger color palettes, and tiled backgrounds. This allowed Famicom games to be longer and have more detailed graphics. Nintendo began attempts to bring their Famicom to the U.S. after the video game market had crashed. In the U.S., video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older game consoles, Nintendo released their Famicom as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR, included a plastic "robot" (R.O.B.), and was initially advertised as a toy.

Reverse engineering

reverse engineeredreverse engineerreverse-engineered
A typical example of this would be the reverse engineering of a cylinder head, which includes freeform cast features, such as water jackets and high tolerance machined areas. Reverse engineering is also used by businesses to bring existing physical geometry into digital product development environments, to make a digital 3D record of their own products, or to assess competitors' products. It is used to analyse, for instance, how a product works, what it does, and what components it consists of, estimate costs, and identify potential patent infringement, etc. Value engineering is a related activity also used by businesses.

ROM cartridge

cartridgecartridgesgame cartridge
NES/Famicom (with its clones like Terminator). SNES/Super Famicom. Nintendo 64. Game Boy. Game Boy Color. Game Boy Advance. Virtual Boy. Pokémon mini. Nintendo DS. Nintendo 3DS. Nintendo Switch. SG-1000 Mark I/SG-1000 Mark II. Sega Master System/Sega Mark III. Sega Genesis/Mega Drive. Sega Game Gear. Sega 32X. Neo Geo. Neo Geo Pocket. Neo Geo Pocket Color. Neo Geo X. Leapster. LeapPad. LeapTV. Pixter. Smart Cycle. ROM image. Dongle. Port expander. RAM pack. Currah.


WiFiwireless internetwireless
Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a wireless network. These adapters connect to devices using various external or internal interconnects such as PCI, miniPCI, USB, ExpressCard, Cardbus and PC Card., most newer laptop computers come equipped with built in internal adapters. Wireless routers integrate a Wireless Access Point, Ethernet switch, and internal router firmware application that provides IP routing, NAT, and DNS forwarding through an integrated WAN-interface. A wireless router allows wired and wireless Ethernet LAN devices to connect to a (usually) single WAN device such as a cable modem or a DSL modem.


The "standard" straight game adapter connector (introduced by IBM) has three ground pins and four +5 V power pins, and the MIDI adaptation replaces one of the grounds and one of the +5 V pins, both on the bottom row of pins, with MIDI In and MIDI Out signal pins. (There is no MIDI Thru provided.) Creative Labs introduced this adaptation.


Google Inc.Google, Inc.Googling
In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, that allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions. In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media. In April 2016, Recode reported that Google had hired Rick Osterloh, Motorola Mobility's former President, to head Google's new hardware division.


Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR4.0Bluetooth 2.1+EDR
A personal computer that does not have embedded Bluetooth can use a Bluetooth adapter that enables the PC to communicate with Bluetooth devices. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth radio, others require an external adapter, typically in the form of a small USB "dongle." Unlike its predecessor, IrDA, which requires a separate adapter for each device, Bluetooth lets multiple devices communicate with a computer over a single adapter. For Microsoft platforms, Windows XP Service Pack 2 and SP3 releases work natively with Bluetooth v1.1, v2.0 and v2.0+EDR.

Sega Genesis

Mega Drive/GenesisGenesisMega Drive
The release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System two years after the Genesis resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe that has often been termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.

Commodore 64

Even though other computers quickly caught up with it, the C64 remained a strong competitor to the later video game consoles Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) and Sega Master System, thanks in part to its by-then established software base, especially outside North America, where it comprehensively outsold the NES. Because of lower incomes and the domination of the Sinclair Spectrum in the UK, almost all British C64 software used cassette tapes. Few cassette C64 programs were released in the US after 1983, and in North America the diskette was the principal method of software distribution.

AC adapter

power adapterexternal power suppliespower brick
An AC adapter, AC/DC adapter, or AC/DC converter is a type of external power supply, often enclosed in a case similar to an AC plug. Other common names include plug pack, plug-in adapter, adapter block, domestic mains adapter, line power adapter, wall wart, power brick, and power adapter. Adapters for battery-powered equipment may be described as chargers or rechargers (see also battery charger). AC adapters are used with electrical devices that require power but do not contain internal components to derive the required voltage and power from mains power. The internal circuitry of an external power supply is very similar to the design that would be used for a built-in or internal supply.

Nintendo 64

N64.mpk64-bit console
Around the end of the 1980s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Although the NES follow-up console, the Super NES (SNES), was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, and relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its competitors. Further complicating matters, Nintendo also faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies. Silicon Graphics, Inc.

Amazon Fire TV

Fire TVAmazon FireFireTV
The Fire TV Stick 4K delivers Ultra HD and HDR streaming through an HDMI dongle that costs $50. It is the first media stick to support Dolby Atmos, Dolby Vision and HDR10+ that promises higher video and audio quality to compatible audio systems and TVs. The device also syncs with Amazon's Alexa Voice Remote with features like Bluetooth, "multi-directional" infrared and buttons for power, volume and muting. Furthermore, Amazon announced that in-app Alexa control will be featured in more specialized video service, such as AMC, HBO Now, A&E, VH1 and Sony Crackle, among others.


Dongle. Freecycling. Green Bags. Hacksaw. KISS principle. Loophole. Micro-Sustainability. New old stock. Planned obsolescence. Rechargeable battery. Recycling. Remanufacturing. Retrocomputing. Reuse. Reverse engineering. Scrap. Sneakernet. Reusing water bottles. Used good. Waste minimization. Windowfarm. Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew, a Buddhist temple in Thailand made from one million discarded beer bottles.

Google Chrome

ChromeChrome browserGoogle Chrome Extension
Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox and Chromebase. Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company," and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars." After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt admitted that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind." In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared.

Video game crash of 1983

1983 video game crash1983 crashcrashed
By, three years after its introduction, 6.5 million Japanese homes—19% of the population—owned a Family Computer, and Nintendo began exporting it to the U.S.; by the Nintendo Entertainment System was very popular in North America. When the U.S. video game market recovered in the late 1980s the NES was by far the dominant console, leaving only a fraction of the market to a resurgent Atari. By 1989, home video game sales in the United States had reached $5 billion, surpassing the 1982 peak of $3 billion during the previous generation.

Super Nintendo Entertainment System

Super NESSuper FamicomSNES
List of Super Nintendo Entertainment System accessories. Nintendo Selects.


PC EngineTurboGrafx-CDPC-Engine
Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, and later on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU, a 16-bit video color encoder, and a 16-bit video display controller. The GPUs are capable of displaying 482 colors simultaneously, out of 512. With dimensions of just 14 cm × 14 cm × 3.8 cm (5.5 in × 5.5 in × 1.5 in), the Japanese PC Engine is the smallest major home game console ever made. Games were stored on a HuCard cartridge, or in CD-ROM optical format with the TurboGrafx-CD add-on.

Tengen (company)

Meanwhile, Tengen secretly worked to bypass Nintendo's lock-out chip called 10NES that gave it control over which games were published for the NES. While numerous manufacturers managed to override this chip by zapping it with a voltage spike, Tengen engineers feared this could potentially damage NES consoles and expose them to unnecessary liability. The other problem was that Nintendo made frequent modifications to the NES to prevent this technique from working. Instead the company chose to reverse engineer the chip and decipher the code required to unlock it. However, the engineers were unable to do so, and the launch date for its first batch of games was rapidly approaching.

Nexus Q

The Nexus Q received a de facto successor in July 2013 with the unveiling of Chromecast, a streaming device that similarly allows users to queue the playback of remote content ("cast") via a mobile device. Chromecast is contrasted by its compact HDMI dongle form factor, the availability of an SDK that allows third-party services to integrate with the device, and its considerably lower price in comparison to the Nexus Q. In late 2014, Google and Asus released a second Nexus-branded digital media player known as the Nexus Player, which served as a launch device for the digital media player and smart TV platform Android TV. * Gross, Doug, "Google's new Nexus Q: Made in the U.S.A.

Stick PC

On July 24 2013, Google introduced the Google Chromecast., a streaming device similar in function and design to a stick PC. On November 19, 2014, Amazon released a smaller version of the Fire TV called the Fire TV Stick. In March 2015, ASUS and Google introduced the Chromebit, a stick PC based on the Rockchip RK3288 SoC and running Google's Chrome OS. in 2016, Intel introduced the Intel Compute Stick. In july 2018, Intel created the Movidius Neural Compute Stick this one include a Vision Processing Unit for vision specific AI Workload.

Digital media player

digital media receivermedia playersmedia player
Digital media adapter. Digital media connect. Digital media extender. Digital media hub. Digital media player. Digital media streamer. Digital media receiver. Digital media renderer. Digital video receiver. Digital video streamer. HD Media Player. HDD media player. Media Extender. Media Regulator. Net connected media player. Network connected media player. Network media player. Networked Digital Video Disc. Networked entertainment gateway. Smart Television media player. Smart Television player. Streaming media box. Streaming media player. Streaming video player. Wireless Media Adapter. OTT player. Over-the-Top player. YouTube Player Support.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Computer communications involve internal modem cards, modems, network adapter cards, and routers. Common peripherals and adapter cards include headsets, joysticks, microphones, printers, scanners, sound adapter cards (as a separate card rather than located on the motherboard), speakers and webcams. Computer software is any kind of computer program, procedure, or documentation that performs some task on a computer system.