One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. The company was historically an exemplary company-state rather than a pure for-profit corporation. Originally a government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General.
VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
It was worth 16 penning or 8 duit. Twenty stuivers equalled a guilder. It circulated until the Napoleonic Wars. After the conflict, the Netherlands decimalised its guilder into 100 cents. Two stuivers equalled a dubbeltje - the ten-cent coin. After the decimalisation of Dutch currency, the name "stuiver" was preserved as a nickname for the five-cent coin until the introduction of the euro. The word can still refer to the five euro cent coin, which has almost exactly the same diameter and colour despite being over twice the value of the older coin. The English denomination name stiver (used in colonial Sri Lanka and Guyana) is derived from stuiver.
States GeneralStates-GeneralStates-General of the Netherlands
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer). Both chambers meet at the Binnenhof in The Hague.
Java IslandJavaneseJava, Indonesia
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ) is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million (Java only) or 145 million (including the inhabitants of its surrounding islands), Java has 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies.
Capethe Capethe Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop ; Kaap de Goede Hoop ; Cabo da Boa Esperança ) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa.
Cape Town, South AfricaCape Town, Western CapeCape
Cape Town (Khoekhoe: ǁHuiǃgaeb; Kaapstad ; Xhosa: iKapa; South Sotho: Motse Kapa) is a legislative capital of South Africa. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the primate city of the Western Cape province. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality.
CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka (, ; ශ්රී ලංකා '; இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka''', is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.
spice routespicespepper trade
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World. These spices found their way into the Middle East before the beginning of the Christian era, where the true sources of these spices were withheld by the traders and associated with fantastic tales.
Dutch Malabar, also known by the name of its main settlement Cochin, was the title of a commandment of the Dutch East India Company on the Malabar Coast between 1661 and 1795, and is part of what is today collectively referred to as Dutch India. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, and ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795. They possessed military outposts in 11 locations: Alleppey, Ayacotta, Chendamangalam, Pappinivattom, Ponnani, Pallipuram, Cranganore (from 15January 1662), Chetwai, Cannanore (from 15February 1663), Cochin (7January 1663 – 1795), and Quilon (29December 1658 – 14 April 1659 and from 24December 1661).
ZealandProvince of ZeelandSealand
Zeeland (, ; Zeelandic: Zeêland ; historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and peninsulas (hence its name, meaning "Sealand") and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. Its area is about 2,930 km2, of which almost 1,140 km2 is water, and it has a population of about 380,000.
guldenJavan rupeeNetherlands Indian gulden
Daendels appropriated the private Javan duit-issuing enterprise in 1808, gradually replacing the VOC mongram with the simple letters 'LN'. In the period 1808–1810 both forms of duit were minted, while 1811 duits only exist bearing the LN monogram. In addition to the duits, 1⁄2 stuiver and stuiver pieces were minted locally in copper in 1810 and 1811, while many foreign coins were counterstamped LN. The only coins to be imported from Holland during this period were 1⁄2 duit and duit coins of the 'INDIA BATAV' pattern. The counterstamps foreign coins are forgeries made in the beginning of the 1900s.
This guilder was divided into 20 stuivers, each of 8 duiten or 16 penningen. The guilder gradually replaced other silver coin denominations circulating in the United Netherlands: the florijn (28 stuivers), the daalder (1 1⁄2 guilders or 30 stuivers), the rijksdaalder (2 1⁄2 guilders or 50 stuivers), the silver ducat (same value as the rijksdaalder) and the silver rider ducaton (3 guilders or 60 stuivers). Between 1810 and 1814, the Netherlands was annexed to France and the French franc circulated. After the Napoleonic wars, the Kingdom of the Netherlands readopted the guilder. In 1817 it became decimalised, with one guilder equal to 100 cents.
Batavia's Graveyard: The True Story of the Mad Heretic Who Led History's Bloodiest Mutiny
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company
Het Gezantschap der Neêrlandtsche Oost-Indische Compagnie
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company Blussé, L. & R. Falkenburg (1987) Johan Nieuwhofs beelden van een Chinareis, 1655-1657. Middelburg. Sun, Jing (2013) The illusion of verisimilitude: Johan Nieuhof’s images of China, PhD dissertation Leiden University pdf. Ulrichs, F. (2003) Johan Nieuhofs Blick auf China (1655-1657). Die Kuperstiche in seinem Chinabuch und ihre Wirkung auf den Verleger Jacob van Meurs, Sinologica Coloniensia 21, Harrossowitz Verlag Wiesbaden. ISBN: 3-447-04708-9.
Islands of Angry Ghosts: Murder, Mayhem and Mutiny: The Story of the Batavia
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet at complete review (aggregation of reviews). List of characters in The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet. Analysis of The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet on Lit React.
Hero Zheng Chenggong
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company * Vincent Zhao as Zheng Chenggong. Jiang Qinqin as Xue Liang. Du Zhiguo as Zheng Zhilong. Shimada Yôko as Tagawa Matsu. Xu Min as Longwu Emperor. Zhang Shan as Li Wei. Jiang Guoyin. Wang Ling. Xu Yuanqi.
. * List of works about the Dutch East India Company *Whipping up a storm, composing Batavia: an interview with Richard Mills / Anna Goldsworthy. In: Context (Summer 2000/2001), Issue: 20, 43-50 For a synopsis and review of the Melbourne premiere performance, see * by Chris Boyd, 19 May 2001, Australian Financial Review. For a synopsis and review of the Perth performance, see * [https://web.archive.org/web/20050104131255/http://www.andante.com/article/article.cfm?id=23134 Could This Be The Great Australian Opera? by Sandra Bowdler, (February 2004)].
Megacorporation, mega-corporation, or megacorp, a term popularized by William Gibson, derives from the combination of the prefix mega- with the word corporation. It has become widespread in cyberpunk literature. It refers to a corporation (normally fictional) that is a massive conglomerate (usually private), holding monopolistic or near-monopolistic control over multiple markets (thus exhibiting both a horizontal and a vertical monopoly). Megacorps are so powerful that they can ignore the law, possess their own heavily armed (often military-sized) private armies, be the operator of a privatized police force, hold "sovereign" territory, and even act as outright governments.
Professor Sinnappah Arasaratnam (20 March 1930 – 4 October 1998) was a Ceylonese academic, historian and author, born in Sri Lanka during British colonial rule. Known as Arasa, he was a lecturer at the University of Ceylon, University of Malaya and University of New England (Australia).
Leonard Blussé (born July 23, 1946, in Rotterdam) is a Dutch historian concerned with the field of Asian-European relations. Blussé has a prolific written output in his field, having authored, co-authored or edited more than twenty books since 2000.
Bruijn, J. R.J.R. BruijnJaap Bruijn
Jacobus Ruurd "Jaap" Bruijn (born in 1938 in The Hague), is one of the best known and respected Dutch maritime historians. He was professor of maritime history at the University of Leiden from 1979 until his retirement in 2003. During his 41-year teaching career as The Netherlands' only university professor of maritime history, he guided the doctoral theses of no fewer than 43 graduate students.
Femme Simon Gaastra (born 23 July 1945 in Leeuwarden, Netherlands) was a Dutch Professor of maritime history at the University of Leiden and a leading expert on the history of the Dutch East India Company.
Om Prakash (born January 1940, in Delhi) is an Indian economic historian. He is noted for his work on the Dutch East India company in Bengal, and also for his work on coinage, precious metal trade, and other aspects of pre-colonial commerce between Europe and India. In 2005, he was knighted by the Dutch queen.