Levack, Roy Porter, Bengt Ankarloo: Witchcraft and magic in Europe Dummy, the Witch of Sible Hedingham. Krystyna Ceynowa. Barbara Zdunk. Uwe Brodersen: Jordemødre, Hekse og Kloge Koner (Midwives, witches and cunning women) (In Danish). Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, Brian P. Levack, Roy Porter, Bengt Ankarloo: Witchcraft and magic in Europe.
witch trialswitch trials in Early Modern Europewitchcraft
Despite the official ending of the trials for witchcraft, there would still be occasional unofficial killings of those accused in parts of Europe, such as was seen in the cases of Anna Klemens in Denmark (1800), Krystyna Ceynowa in Poland (1836), and Dummy, the Witch of Sible Hedingham in England (1863). In France, there was sporadic violence and even murder in the 1830s, with one woman reportedly burnt in a village square in Nord. In the 1830s a prosecution for witchcraft was commenced against a man in Fentress County, Tennessee, named either Joseph or William Stout, based upon his alleged influence over the health of a young woman.
Witchcraft (or witchery) is the practice of magical skills and abilities. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision; therefore cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution.
ordealordeal by firetrial by fire
Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience. The test was one of life or death, and the proof of innocence was survival. In some cases, the accused was considered innocent if they escaped injury or if their injuries healed.
Dummy, the Witch of Sible Hedingham, similar case in Great Britain. Krystyna Ceynowa, similar case in Poland. (Danish). Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, Brian P. Levack, Roy Porter, Bengt Ankarloo: Witchcraft and magic in Europe.
Halstead, EssexHalstedUrban District of Halstead
Dummy, the Witch of Sible Hedingham (c. 1788 – September 4, 1863), a deaf-mute charged with witchcraft, was beaten by a mob and died in Halstead workhouse. Samuel Courtauld (1793–1881), opened a textile mill here in 1818. George Courtauld (1802–1861), textile magnate, was married here in 1829. Isaac Baker Brown (1811–1873), notable gynaecologist and obstetrician, went to school here. Augustine Stow (1833–1903), Australian politician, was born here. Decimus Alfred Ball (1836–1890), notable slum landlord in London, was born here. Sir John Mark Davies (1840–1919), Australian politician, was born here.
Sible Hedingham, Essex
. * Dummy, the Witch of Sible Hedingham J. Redwood Anderson (1883–1964), poet died here. Savitri Devi (1905–1982), prominent proponent of animal rights, deep ecology and Nazism, who died here. Sir John Hawkwood (1320–1394), English mercenary (or condottiere) who was active in 14th-century Italy. John Hilton (surgeon) FRCS, FRS, FZS (1805–1878), Surgeon Extraordinary to Queen Victoria and greatest anatomist of his time. Samuel Wilbore (1595-1656) – a founder of Portsmouth Colony (Rhode Island, US; 7 March 1638) as a religious dissenter from the Plymouth Colony of Boston, Massachusetts.
Krystyna Ceynowa, a somewhat later case of an illegal witch trial in Poland.
first-degree murderfirst degree murdersecond-degree murder
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group. It is most often used to characterize informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, convicted transgressor, or to intimidate a group. It can also be an extreme form of informal group social control, and it is often conducted with the display of a public spectacle (often in the form of hanging) for maximum intimidation. Instances of lynchings and similar mob violence can be found in every society.
witch huntwitch trialwitch trials
A witch-hunt or a witch purge is a search for people who have been labelled "witches" or a search for evidence of witchcraft, and it often involves a moral panic or mass hysteria. The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions, with the most recent estimate at 40,000. The last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century.
Magic is a category into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. Emerging within Western culture, the term has historically often had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being socially unacceptable, primitive, or foreign. The concept has been adopted by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, who have proposed various different—and often mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. Many contemporary scholars regard the concept to be so problematic that they reject it altogether.
deaf and dumbdeaf mutedeaf and mute
Deaf-mute is a term which was used historically to identify a person who was either deaf using a sign language or both deaf and could not speak. The term continues to be used to refer to deaf people who cannot speak an oral language or have some degree of speaking ability, but choose not to speak because of the negative or unwanted attention atypical voices sometimes attract. Such people communicate using sign language. Some consider it to be a derogatory term if used outside its historical context; the preferred term today is simply "deaf".
Chałupy (Chalëpë, Ceynowa or Ziegenhagen) is a Polish village and seaside resort with conditions favorable for windsurfing and kitesurfing, in Gmina Władysławowo. It is situated between Władysławowo and Kuźnica on the Hel Peninsula on the southern Baltic Sea in Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. Its population in 2009 was 376.
For the Tintin character, see Ridgewell (comics)''
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died. The treatment of widows and widowers around the world varies.
In England and Wales, a workhouse (tloty ) was a total institution where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. (In Scotland, they were usually known as poorhouses.) The earliest known use of the term workhouse is from 1631, in an account by the mayor of Abingdon reporting that "wee haue erected wthn our borough a workehouse to sett poore people to worke".
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.
Hel Peninsula (Mierzeja Helska, Półwysep Helski; Hélskô Sztremlëzna; Halbinsel Hela or Putziger Nehrung) is a 35-km-long sand bar peninsula in northern Poland separating the Bay of Puck from the open Baltic Sea. It is located in Puck County of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniaNecrotizing pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.
The Province of Prussia (Provinz Preußen; Prowincjô Prësë) was a province of Prussia from 1829 to 1878. Prussia was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1829 from the provinces of East Prussia and West Prussia, and was dissolved in 1878 when the merger was reversed.
A crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks. The most common sign of infection is an expanding area of redness on the skin, known as erythema migrans, that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 70–80% of infected people develop a rash. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and tiredness. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others.
A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gases or smoke produced by a boiler, stove, furnace, incinerator or fireplace from human living areas. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney effect. The space inside a chimney is called the flue. Chimneys are adjacent to large industrial refineries, fossil fuel combustion facilities or part of buildings, steam locomotives and ships.