United States Army Rangers

RangerU.S. Army RangersArmy Ranger
MG James Earl Rudder - Commander of the 2nd Ranger Battalion during World War II; later president of Texas A&M University; led the Ranger assault on Pointe du Hoc on D-Day. Perry Saturn - professional wrestler; real name Perry Satullo. SFC Randy Shughart – started his Army career as a Ranger; later selected for Delta Force; Medal of Honor recipient sniper; killed during the Battle of Mogadishu. COL Arthur D. Simons – Army Ranger in World War II; later leader of Operation Ivory Coast, an effort to rescue prisoners of war in Vietnam. COL Michael D. Steele. Phil Stern – Hollywood and jazz photographer who joined Darby's Rangers as an official photographer during World War II.

1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

1st Canadian Tank Brigade1st Canadian Army Tank BrigadeCanadian
In its two incarnations as 1st Tank and 1st Armoured, the brigade's service at Dieppe, France, in Sicily, Italy, and Northwest Europe earned it the distinction of the longest and widest service of any brigade of the Canadian Army during the Second World War. Headquarters Squadron, 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. 11th Armoured Regiment (The Ontario Regiment). 12th Armoured Regiment (Three Rivers Regiment). 14th Armoured Regiment (The Calgary Regiment).

Seine-Maritime

Seine-InférieureSeine MaritimeSeine Inférieure
World War II. In 1942, during occupation by Nazi Germany, at the channel coast of Seine-Inférieure took place two Allied raids, the Bruneval raid and Dieppe raid. 2005 - Inhabitants renamed. Previously lacking a demonym, the inhabitants of Seine-Maritime (as the department had been renamed in 1955) determined, following a public consultation, that they should be known in official documents as "Seinomarins" (males) and "Seinomarines" (females). The Seine valley. The Seine flows through the provincial capital Rouen. The chalk plateau Pays de Caux, with its abrupt coastline (the Alabaster Coast). The Norman Pays de Bray, with its hills and bocage landscape.

Dieppe

Dieppe, Seine-MaritimeDieppe, FranceDieppe (Seine-Maritime)
During the later 19th century, Dieppe became popular with English artists as a beach resort. Prominent literary figures such as Arthur Symons loved to keep up with the latest fads of avant-garde France here, and during "the season" sometimes stayed for weeks on end. Dieppe was occupied by German naval and army forces after the fall of France in 1940. In order to allow a better defence of the coast against a possible Allied landing, the Germans destroyed the mauresque casino that was located near the beach area. The destruction of the casino had only begun at the time of the Dieppe Raid. The Dieppe Raid in the Second World War was a costly battle for the Allies.

Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma

Lord MountbattenLouis MountbattenLord Louis Mountbatten
His relations with Canadian veterans, who blamed him for the losses, "remained frosty" after the war. Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on D-Day nearly two years later. However, military historians such as former Royal Marine Julian Thompson have written that these lessons should not have needed a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised.

German military administration in occupied France during World War II

occupied FranceGerman occupation of FranceGerman occupation
When the bulk of the Wehrmacht was fighting on the eastern front, German units were rotated to France to rest and refit. The number of troops increased when the threat of Allied invasion began looming large, with the Dieppe raid marking its real beginning. The actions of British Commandos against German troops brought Hitler to condemn them as irregular warfare. In his Commando Order he denied them lawful combatant status, and ordered them to be handed over to the SS security service when captured and liable to be summarily executed. As the war went on, garrisoning the Atlantic Wall and suppressing the resistance became heavier and heavier duties.

Combined Operations Headquarters

Combined OperationsCombined Operations Pilotage PartiesChief of Combined Operations
Combined Operations Headquarters was a department of the British War Office set up during Second World War to harass the Germans on the European continent by means of raids carried out by use of combined naval and army forces. Admiral of the Fleet Roger Keyes was the first director, from 17 July 1940 to 27 October 1941, replaced first by Lord Louis Mountbatten and then Major General Robert Laycock (October 1943 – 1947). The main forces used by Combined Operations were the Commandos. It comprised background staff whose job was to plan operations and to develop ideas and equipment to harass the enemy in any way possible.

Churchill tank

ChurchillChurchill AVREChurchill tanks
The Churchill first saw combat on 19 August 1942, in the Dieppe Raid in France. The Dieppe raid was planned to temporarily take control of the French port of Dieppe using a strong force of about 6,000 troops – mostly drawn from inexperienced Canadian units. The operation, codenamed Rutter, would test the feasibility of opposed landings. Nearly 60 Churchill tanks from the 14th (Reserve) Army Tank Regiment, (The Calgary Regiment (Tank)), were allocated to support the infantry and commandos; they would be put ashore by Landing Craft Tank vessels, along with the supporting engineers.

302nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

302nd Static Infantry Division302nd302nd Infantry Division
Dieppe Raid. Operation Jubilee order of battle. Division (military). Military unit. List of German divisions in World War II. Heer. Wehrmacht. " 302. Infanterie-Division". German language article. Retrieved April 9, 2005. Hargreaves, Richard (2006). “The Germans in Normandy”, Pen and Sword, ISBN: 1-84415-447-5.

HMS Brocklesby (L42)

HMS ''Brocklesby
She served during the Second World War, spending much of the time in the English Channel and Mediterranean, taking part in the Dieppe Raid in 1942, and the Allied landings in Sicily and at Salerno in 1943. After the war, she was used as a sonar trials ship until 1963, and was sold for scrap in 1968. HMS Brocklesby was ordered from Cammell Laird on 4 September 1939, one of 17 Hunt-class destroyers ordered from various shipbuilders on that date, (including two from Lairds), which followed on from 20 ships ordered earlier in the year.

English Channel

Channelthe Channelcross-channel
World War II Eye Witness Account – Audio Recording Air Battle over the English Channel (1940).

John Durnford-Slater

John
Brigadier John Frederick Durnford-Slater, DSO and bar (1909–5 February 1972) was a British Army officer who was credited with raising the first Army commando unit during the Second World War. An officer in the Royal Artillery who eventually rose to the rank of brigadier, he was responsible for developing many of aspects of the commando concept. Commanding No. 3 Commando he participated in raids on Guernsey, the Lofoten Islands, Vaagso, Dieppe and Sicily.

Berneval-le-Grand

Berneval
Most of his former friends abandoned him, but André Gide came to meet him at the Hôtel de la Plage (destroyed during the Second World War). He found Wilde a broken man, still a prisoner in his soul despite his freedom. In Berneval, Wilde wrote The Ballad of Reading Gaol. Edward Vincent Loustalot, regarded as the first American soldier killed by the Germans in the Second World War, died here on 19 August 1942. During the 1970s, a large part of Walerian Borowczyk's film, Les Contes immoraux (Eng: Immoral Tales), was made in Berneval in the Grand Hôtel, Avenue du Capitaine-Porthéous. Auguste Renoir, Pissarro and Hippolyte Camille Delpy, among others, painted landscapes in Berneval-le-Grand.

Ordnance QF 6-pounder

6-pounderOrdnance QF 6 pounderQF 6 pounder
The Ordnance Quick-Firing 6-pounder 7 cwt, or just 6-pounder, was a British 57 mm gun, serving as a primary anti-tank gun of the British Army during World War II, as well as the main armament for a number of armoured fighting vehicles. Although planned before the start of the war, it did not reach service until the North African Campaign in April 1942. There, it replaced the 2-pounder as an anti-tank gun, allowing the 25 pounder gun-howitzer to revert to its intended artillery role. The United States Army also adopted the 6-pounder as their primary anti-tank gun as the 57 mm Gun M1.

Operation Sledgehammer

Sledgehammerlarge-scale attack
The operation was eagerly pressed for by both the United States military and the Soviet Union, but rejected by the British, who felt a landing in France was premature, and hence impractical. This perception was reinforced by the failure of the smaller Dieppe Raid in August 1942. As a result, Sledgehammer was never carried out, and instead the British proposal for an invasion of French North Africa took place in November 1942 under the code name Operation Torch. After the United States entered World War II, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff pressed for an invasion of mainland Europe via the English Channel "as soon as possible", i.e. the early part of 1942.

No. 30 Commando

30 Assault Unit30th Assault Unit30 Commando
'''No. 30 Commando, from 1943–1946 known as 30 Assault Unit''', was a British Commando unit during the Second World War, originally formed to gather intelligence. According to some accounts, the unit was reportedly deployed for the first time during the Dieppe Raid in August 1942, in an unsuccessful attempt to capture an Enigma machine and related materiel. In September 1942, its formation was officially authorised, under the auspices of the Director of Naval Intelligence. Known initially as the Special Intelligence Unit, it comprised 33 (Royal Marines) Troop, 34 (Army) Troop, 35 (Royal Air Force) Troop and 36 (Royal Navy) Troop.

Jagdgeschwader 2

JG 2Jagdgeschwader'' 22
Jagdgeschwader 2 (JG 2) "Richthofen" was a German fighter wing during World War II. The unit was formed from parts of the 131st Fighter Wing on 1 May 1939 in Döberitz and its first commander was Colonel Robert Ritter von Greim. At the outbreak of the war, the unit was based in the Berlin area under Luftgaukommando III. Its sub-units were equipped with the Messerschmitt Bf 109 variants. In preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, most fighter units were transferred to Germany's eastern borders by May 1941 but JG 2 and JG 26 were left in north-west Europe where their aim was interdiction of Royal Air Force (RAF) daytime operations over Europe.

Operation Atlantic

AtlanticFaubourg de VaucellesOperations ''Atlantic
Operation Atlantic (18–21 July 1944) was a Canadian offensive during the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War. The offensive, launched in conjunction with Operation Goodwood by the Second Army, was part of operations to seize the French city of Caen and vicinity from German forces. It was initially successful, with gains made on the flanks of the Orne River near Saint-André-sur-Orne but an attack by the 4th and 6th Canadian Infantry Brigades of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, against strongly defended German positions on Verrières Ridge to the south was a costly failure.

Jagdgeschwader 26

JG 26Jagdgeschwader'' 2626
Jagdgeschwader 26 (JG 26) Schlageter was a German fighter-wing of World War II. It operated mainly in Western Europe against Great Britain, France and the United States, but also saw service against the Soviet Union. It was named after Albert Leo Schlageter, a World War I veteran and Freikorps member arrested and executed by the French for sabotage in 1923. The I. and II. Gruppe of JG 26 was formed 1 May 1939 in Odendorf and Bönninghardt from I. and II./Jagdgeschwader 132 (JG 132). Initially they had a strength of three squadrons per Gruppe, but in 1943 they had their strength increased to four. The III. Gruppe was formed 23 September 1939 in Werl from parts of I. and II./JG 26.

Operation Uranus

UranusencirclementStalingrad counteroffensive
Operation Uranus (Опера́ция «Ура́н», romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23 November 1942 strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army. The operation was executed at roughly the midpoint of the five-month long Battle of Stalingrad, and was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced in September 1942, and was developed simultaneously with plans to envelop and destroy German Army Group Center (Operation Mars) and German forces in the Caucasus.

HMS Berkeley (L17)

(HMS ''Berkeley'')BerkeleyHMS ''Berkeley
Berkeley continued convoy escort duties until July 1942, when she was selected to be part of the naval force supporting Operation Jubilee. On 18 August 1942, Berkeley escorted the Dieppe raiding force. During a 19 August air attack, she was hit by two bombs dropped from Focke-Wulf Fw 190 s, which broke her keel and killed 13 ratings. As the damage was beyond control, she was abandoned and then scuttled by torpedoes from the escort destroyer. *

North American P-51 Mustang

P-51 MustangP-51F-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang: The Story of Manufacturing North American's Legendary World War II Fighter in Original Photos. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-58007-152-9. O'Leary, Michael. USAAF Fighters of World War Two. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1986. ISBN: 0-7137-1839-0. Olmsted, Merle. The 357th Over Europe: the 357th Fighter Group in World War II. St. Paul, Minnesota: Phalanx Publishing, 1994. ISBN: 0-933424-73-6. Pace, Steve. "Mustang – Thoroughbred Stallion of the Air". Stroud, UK: Fonthill Media, 2012. ISBN: 978-1-78155-051-9. Pearcy, Arthur. Lend-Lease Aircraft in World War II. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1996. ISBN: 1-85310-443-4. Sgarlato, Nico.

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers unit
At least two U.S. citizens, several British and a New Zealander served with the Standarte in the course of World War II. "Three English volunteers are known to have served in this unit, Railton Freeman (aka Royston and Metcalfe), who was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment after the War, Dennis John Leister (aka Beckwith) and Francis Paul Maton (aka Wood) as well as one from New Zealand: Roy Nicholias Courlander (aka Regan).

Commando

commandosArmy ComandosCommando Infantry
Since the 20th century and World War II in particular, commandos have been set apart from other military units by virtue of their extreme training regimes; these are usually associated with the awarding of green berets which originated with British Commandos. The British Commandos were instrumental in founding many other international commando units during World War II. Some international commando units were formed from members who served as part of or alongside British Commandos, such as the Dutch Korps Commandotroepen (who still wear the recognition flash insignia of the British Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife), the Belgian 5th Special Air Service, or Greek Sacred Band.

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Lord LovatThe Lord Lovat15th Lord Lovat
In June 1939, just months before the Second World War, Lord Lovat also resigned his reserve commission. In July, however, as war approached, he was mobilized as a captain in the Lovat Scouts. The following year, he volunteered to join one of the new commando units being formed by the British Army, and was eventually attached to No. 4 Commando. On 3 March 1941, Nos 3 and 4 Commando launched a raid on the German-occupied Lofoten Islands. In the successful raid, the commandos destroyed fish-oil factories, petrol dumps, and 11 ships. They also seized encryption equipment and codebooks.