Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Other recreational nicotine products include chewing tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, snuff, pipe tobacco, and snus. According to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, nicotine in any form is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to nicotine and nicotine polacrilex gum is contraindicated in individuals with temporomandibular joint disease. Nicotine is not completely harmless, but it is safer than inhaled tobacco smoke. As medicine, nicotine is used to help with quitting smoking and has good safety in this form.

Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid

e-liquide-cigarette aerosolaerosol
Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Although some e-juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of responders use products that contain nicotine. A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine. Diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, and acetoin and are used as a flavoring agents to give a buttery or caramel flavor. The primary parts that make up an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge (tank), a heating element/atomizer, a microprocessor, a lithium based battery, and possibly a LED light on the end.

Tobacco smoking

smokingcigarette smokingsmoker
Electronic cigarette. Herbal cigarette. List of cigarette smoke carcinogens. Tobacco advertising. Tobacco control. Snuff (tobacco). Tobacco History Links – repository from Tobacco.org. Surgeon General: Tobacco Cessation. CDC: Smoking & Tobacco Use. WHO: Tobacco Free Initiative. The Tobacco Atlas. Tobacco Viz. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996–2012.

Hookah

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A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA: ; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
Cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while metal atoms are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. Some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell; then a separator is used to prevent mixing of the electrolytes while allowing ions to flow between half-cells to complete the electrical circuit. Each half-cell has an electromotive force (emf, measured in volts) relative to a standard. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. Thus, if the electrodes have emfs and, then the net emf is ; in other words, the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

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The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, is a federal statute in the United States that was signed into law by President Barack Obama on June 22, 2009. The Act gives the Food and Drug Administration the power to regulate the tobacco industry. A signature element of the law imposes new warnings and labels on tobacco packaging and their advertisements, with the goal of discouraging minors and young adults from smoking. The Act also bans flavored cigarettes, places limits on the advertising of tobacco products to minors and requires tobacco companies to seek FDA approval for new tobacco products.

Good manufacturing practice

GMPcGMPgood manufacturing practices
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices. These guidelines provide minimum requirements that a manufacturer must meet to assure that their products are consistently high in quality, from batch to batch, for their intended use. The rules that govern each industry may differ significantly; however, the main purpose of GMP is always to prevent harm from occurring to the end user.

Smoking ban

ban on smokingbannedsmoke-free laws
On 30 October 2013, the city council agreed to raise the age to buy any kind of tobacco and even electronic cigarettes from 18 years of age to 21 years of age. In the United States, a small number of cities, including New York and suburbs of Boston such as Needham, Massachusetts, have 21 years of age as the minimum age to purchase cigarettes; in most other areas the legal age is 18 or 19. Using sales and tobacco tax data from 216 cities and counties over 11 years, the researchers projected that seven of the states would have no economic impact, and West Virginia would see a 1 percent boost in restaurant jobs if a statewide smoking ban was adopted.

Dragonite International

In 2013, Imperial Tobacco purchased Dragonite's electronic cigarette division. It was formerly known as Ruyan Group (Holdings) Limited (Simplified Chinese:如烟集团有限公司; Traditional Chinese: 如煙集團有限公司; Pinyin: rúyān Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī), and initially, Golden Dragon Group (Holdings). Mr. Hon Lik (now Ruyan America's Chairman) patented a design (using high-frequency electronics) and is the original inventor of the first e-cigarettes sold (2003) and Ruyan has registered patents in more than 40 countries since 2003. Ruyan began to form the idea for the electronic cigarette in 2000. In 2003, SBT was established, and the first patent was registered in the same year in China.

Smoking cessation

quit smokingquitting smokingtobacco cessation
These include nicotine lozenges that are sucked, nicotine gum and inhalers, nicotine patches, as well as electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarette: There is limited supporting evidence in helping people quit smoking. The available evidence for their effectiveness in abstaining from smoking is inconclusive. A 2018 review stated for people who are only willing to vape to quit smoking, they recommended that these people be told that little is known regarding the long-term harms related to vaping. A 2016 UK Royal College of Physicians report supports the use of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.

Nicotine poisoning

acute nicotine toxicityTobacco intoxication
Calls to US poison control centers related to e-cigarette exposures involved inhalations, eye exposures, skin exposures, and ingestion, in both adults and young children. Minor, moderate, and serious adverse effects involved adults and young children. Minor effects correlated with e-cigarette liquid poisoning were tachycardia, tremor, chest pain and hypertension. More serious effects were bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, respiratory paralysis, atrial fibrillation and dyspnea. The exact correlation is not fully known between these effects and e-cigarettes. 58% of e-cigarette calls to US poison control centers were related to children 5 years old or less.

Glycerol

glyceringlycerine1,2,3-propanetriol
Glycerin, along with propylene glycol, is a common component of e-liquid, a solution used with electronic vaporizers (electronic cigarettes). This glycerol is heated with an atomizer (a heating coil often made of Kanthal wire), producing the aerosol that delivers nicotine to the user. Like ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, glycerol is a non-ionic kosmotrope that forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, competing with water-water hydrogen bonds. This interaction disrupts the formation of ice. The minimum freezing point temperature is about −36 F corresponding to 70% glycerol in water.

Electronic cigarettes in Australia

A 2013 national survey found that 15.4% of Australians aged over 14 years had used e-cigarettes in the last 12 months. Concerns have arisen that the e-cigarettes are not suitable for youth as they can act as a gateway towards real cigarette smoking in the future. Currently there are no laws in Australia pertaining to the regulation of electronic cigarettes. Although there are a number of laws relating the regulation of nicotine as it is seen as a "schedule 7 dangerous poison." The sale of e-cigarettes have to be registered with the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) previously in order to be sold lawfully (Victoria, 2015).

Electric smoking system

heat-not-burn tobacco productiQOS
Electronic tobacco products using dry material are regulated as e-cigarettes in South Korea by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korea regulates e-cigarettes differently than traditional cigarettes for tax reasons. As a result, iQOS are taxed at a decreased rate, compared to the 75% incurred on normal cigarettes. Action on Smoking and Health stated in 2016 that "unless and until independent evidence shows that IQOS and similar products are substantially less harmful than smoking then these products should be regulated in the same way as other tobacco products."

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
Electronic cigarette: A large proportion of e-cigarette use is recreational. Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Nicotine is highly addictive, comparable to heroin or cocaine. Some people have also used to e cigarette to smoke cannabis or other drugs and there are certain e cigarettes specifically made for the use of smoking liquid cannabis. Ketamine: An anesthetic used legally by paramedics and doctors in emergency situations for its dissociative and analgesic qualities and illegally in the club drug scene. LSD: A popular ergoline derivative, that was first synthesized in 1938 by Hofmann.

Safety of electronic cigarettes

health risks of e-cigarettesharmfulsafety
The UK ASH expressed concern that "The growth of this false perception risks discouraging many smokers from using electronic cigarettes to quit and keep them smoking instead which would be bad for their health and the health of those around them." A 2015 PHE report noted that in the US belief among respondents to a survey that vaping was safer than smoking cigarettes fell from 82% in 2010 to 51% in 2014. The report blamed "misinterpreted research findings", attracting negative media coverage, for the growth in the "inaccurate" belief that e-cigarettes were as harmful as smoking. Regulation of electronic cigarettes. Positions of medical organizations on electronic cigarettes.

Tobacco harm reduction

Electronic cigarettes are a promising harm reduction technology because they deliver nicotine without the dangerous chemicals in tobacco smoke, while remaining attractive to smokers. While the eventual regulatory status of e-cigarettes in many countries remains uncertain, public health advocates view electronic cigarette as having a valid place within tobacco harm reduction strategy. In a first step towards the regulation of e-cigarettes, the MHRA granted Marketing Authorisations (licences) for the medicinal products e-Voke 10 mg and 15 mg Electronic Inhaler (PL 40317/0001-2) on 16 November 2015.

Nicotine replacement therapy

nicotine replacement productsnicotine replacementnicotine replacement therapies
In 2015, NRT sales fell for the first time since 2008 while sales for e-cigarettes continued to increase at a substantial rate. This had led to speculation that UK smokers are trying to quit with e-cigarettes rather than NRT methods. E-cigarettes are often, although not always, designed to look and feel like cigarettes. They have been marketed as less harmful alternatives to cigarettes, but very few are as yet approved as NRTs in any jurisdiction. Some electronic cigarettes have coarsely adjustable nicotine levels. Some healthcare groups have hesitated to recommend e-cigarettes for quitting smoking, because of limited evidence of effectiveness and safety. The U.S.

Evolv

DNA40
In the Spring of 2018, Evolv's DNA 250c became the first chip to offer a function called Replay, allowing the user to replicate the exact vape in flavor and warmth with each puff after selecting one they preferred. * Construction of electronic cigarettes

Heating element

electrical heatingelementfilament
A heating element converts electrical energy into heat through the process of Joule heating. Electric current passing through the element encounters resistance, resulting in heating of the element. Unlike the Peltier effect, this process is independent of the direction of current flow.