Sui dynasty

SuiSui ChinaSui Empire
Towards the late Northern and Southern dynasties, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi in 577 and reunified northern China, The century trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese by the northern dynasties, which were ruled by ethnic minority Xianbei, would become inevitable. By this time, the later founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, an ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the Northern Zhou court. His daughter was the Empress Dowager, and her stepson, Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, was a child. After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui.

Northern Zhou

Northern Zhou dynastyZhou dynastyfrom China
After his death in 580, when he was already nominally retired (Taishang Huang), Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian took power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing, establishing Sui. The young Emperor Jing and the imperial Yuwen clan, were subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. The area was known as Guannei 關內. The Northern Zhou drew upon the Zhou dynasty for inspiration. The Northern Zhou military included Han Chinese. * List of pre-modern great powers * Book of Zhou. History of Northern Dynasties. Zizhi Tongjian.

Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou

Emperor JingYuwen ChanJing Di
Two months later, he had Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty, with Yang taking the throne as its Emperor Wen. Emperor Wen created the young emperor the Duke of Jie. However, he had all of close male clansmen of the duke—all other male descendants of Emperor Jing's great-grandfather Yuwen Tai—put to death, as well as Emperor Jing's brothers Yuwen Kan the Duke of Lai and Yuwen Shu, the Duke of Yan. He also executed those of Yuwen Tai's elder brother Yuwen Hao.

Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou

Emperor XuanYuwen YunXuan Di
Empress Yang's mother, Duchess Dugu Qieluo, had to plead earnestly for Empress Yang's life, before he finally spared Empress Yang. Meanwhile, however, Emperor Xuan was suspicious of the abilities of Empress Yang's father Yang Jian, and he considered killing Yang Jian but ultimately did not do so. As Yang Jian and Zheng Yi were friends, Yang Jian made a secret request to Zheng to give him a post away from the capital, and soon, by Zheng's recommendation, Emperor Xuan made Yang Jian the commander of the forces against Chen (as he then prepared another attack against Chen). Before the army could depart, however, Emperor Xuan suddenly grew ill in summer 580.

Yang Su

By 600, Emperor Wen's crown prince Yang Yong had lost the favor of Emperor Wen and Empress Dugu, over his wastefulness (which displeased Emperor Wen) and having many concubines (which displeased Empress Dugu). Yang Guang, whom Emperor Wen and Empress Dugu, had for some time plotted to replace Yang Yong, sent his associate Yuwen Shu to persuade Yang Su's brother Yang Yuē that, as Yang Su did not have a good relationship with Yang Yong, that if Emperor Wen died, Yang Su and his brothers would soon be in danger under Yang Yong's rule. Rather, Yuwen suggested, Yang Su should form a pact with Yang Guang and try to have Yang Guang made crown prince.

Zhu Manyue

Consort Zhu Manyue
Emperor Xuan died in 580, and Empress Yang's father Yang Jian became regent. Three of Emperor Xuan's empresses, other than Empresses Yang and Zhu, became Buddhist nuns, but Empress Zhu did not at this point, and was honored as empress dowager (along with Empress Yang) but with the secondary title of Di Taihou, lower than Empress Dowager Yang's title of Huang Taihou . In 581, Yang Jian seized the throne from Emperor Jing, ending Northern Zhou and establishing the Sui dynasty. Emperor Jing and other members of the imperial Yuwen clan were soon slaughtered. Empress Dowager Zhu became a Buddhist nun and took the name Fajing.


Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married. The inability to marry may be due to multiple factors such as differences in social rank status, an existing marriage, religious or professional prohibitions (for example Roman soldiers), or a lack of recognition by appropriate authorities. The woman or man in such a relationship is referred to as a concubine. In Judaism, a concubine is a marital companion of inferior status to a wife. A concubine among polygamous peoples is a secondary wife, usually of inferior rank.

Yuchi Jiong

Yuchi Jiong (died 580), courtesy name Bojuluo, was a general of the Chinese/Xianbei states Western Wei and Northern Zhou. He first came to prominence while his uncle Yuwen Tai served as the paramount general of Western Wei, and subsequently served Northern Zhou after the Yuwen clan established the state after Yuwen Tai's death. In 580, believing that the regent Yang Jian had designs on the throne, Yuchi rose against Yang but was soon defeated. He committed suicide. It is not known when Yuchi Jiong was born.

Yang Liang

Sui war of succession
He was a son of Emperor Wen and his wife Empress Dugu, who, during his father's reign, controlled the region north of the Yellow River. After his father's death in 604, he rose against his brother Emperor Yang, but was soon defeated by Emperor Yang's general Yang Su and forced to surrender. He was reduced to commoner rank and imprisoned for the rest of his life. It is not known exactly when Yang Liang was born, but it is known that he was the youngest of the five sons of Yang Jian and Yang Jian's wife Dugu Qieluo.

Queen Dugu (TV series)

Queen DuguQueen Dugu'' (TV series)
It is based on the life of Dugu Jialuo and her husband Yang Jian. It started airing online via iQiyi, Youku and Tencent on February 11, 2019. *The Legend of Dugu Rong Dui Zhuang - Joey Yung. Yi Nian San Qian - Zhang Lei, Liu Xijun. Tian Gao - Yisa Yu. Xiu Xiu - Zeng Yiming.

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou

Emperor WuYuwen YongWu Di
In spring 565, Emperor Wu sent his brother Yuwen Chun the Duke of Chen, Yuwen Gui the Duke of Xu, Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu, and Yang Jian (楊薦, different person than the more-known Yang Jian, referenced above and below) the Duke of Nanyang, to lead a ceremonial guard corps to Tujue to welcome back Ashina Qijin's daughter for marriage to him. However, when they arrived at Ashina Qijin's headquarters, he turned against the treaty and detained Yuwen Chun and his attendants. In 566, the non-Chinese tribes of Xin Province (信州, modern eastern Chongqing) rebelled and captured Baidicheng, under the leadership of the chieftains Ran Lingxian and Xiang Wuziwang .

Northern Wei

Northern Wei DynastyWeiand future dynasties
In 581, the Northern Zhou official Yang Jian had the emperor to yield the throne to him, establishing Sui Dynasty, finally extinguishing imperial rule of the Xianbei. The Northern Wei dynasty was the most long-lived and most powerful of the northern dynasties prior to the reunification of China by the Sui dynasty. Northern Wei art came under influence of Indian and Central Asia traditions through the mean of trade routes. Most importantly for Chinese art history, the Wei rulers converted to Buddhism and became great patrons of Buddhist arts.

Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor GaozuLi YuanGaozu
Li Bing died in 572, and Li Yuan inherited the title of Duke of Tang, a title he continued to hold after the throne was seized by Emperor Wen of Sui (Yang Jian) in 581, establishing Sui Dynasty, as Emperor Wen's wife, Empress Dugu, was an aunt of his. At some point, he married Lady Dou, a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and Northern Zhou's Princess Xiangyang (Yuwen Tai's daughter) as his wife and duchess. During Emperor Wen's reign (581–604), Li Yuan served three terms as a provincial governor.

Yuwen Shu

Yang Yue, in turn, persuaded Yang Su, who subsequently persuaded Emperor Wen and Emperor Wen's wife Empress Dugu that Yang Yong should be deposed. Emperor Wen and Empress Dugu agreed, and in 600 Emperor Wen deposed Yang Yong and replaced him with Yang Guang. Yang Guang made Yuwen Shu a commander of his palace guards and gave his daughter, the Princess Nanyang, to Yuwen Shu's son Yuwen Shiji in marriage. In 604, while Emperor Wen was ill, Yuwen Shu was one of the guard commanders that Yang Guang summoned to guard Emperor Wen's vacation palace Renshou Palace (仁壽宮, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi).

Crown prince

Crown PrincessHereditary Princecrown-prince
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The female form of the title is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, to the wife of the person styled crown prince.

Emperor Taizong of Tang

Emperor TaizongLi ShiminTaizong
Li Shimin's grandmother Duchess Dugu was a sister of Empress Dugu, both of whom were daughters of Dugu Xin, a major Xianbei general during Sui's predecessor dynasty Northern Zhou. Li Shimin's mother, Li Yuan's wife Duchess Dou, was a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and his wife, Northern Zhou's Princess Xiangyang. Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, and two younger brothers, Li Yuanba, who would die in 614, and Li Yuanji – and at least one daughter (the later Princess Pingyang). Li Yuan named Li Shimin "Shimin" as a shortened form of the phrase "save the earth and pacify the people".

Chen Shubao

By winter 588, the Sui attack was in full operation, with three major prongs commanded by Emperor Wen's sons, Yang Guang (later Emperor Yang of Sui) and Yang Jun, and Yang Su, and with Yang Guang in overall command of the operation, assisted by Gao Jiong. Reports from the upper Yangtze, however, were being suppressed by Shi Wenqing and Shen Keqing and never reached Chen Shubao, as Shi, not realizing the seriousness of the Sui threat, did not want anything to interfere with his own plans to become the governor of Xiang Province (湘州, roughly modern Changsha, Hunan).

Yang Xiu (Sui dynasty)

Yang Xiu
It is not known exactly when Yang Xiu was born, but it is known that he was the fourth of the five sons of Yang Jian and Yang Jian's wife Dugu Qieluo. As the third of his older brothers, Yang Jun, was born in 571 (his younger brother, Yang Liang, similarly has an unknown birth year) and he was already born at least by the time that Yang Jian seized the throne from Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty as its Emperor Wen in 581, he would have been born sometime between 572 and 579. In 581, after Emperor Wen took the throne, he appointed both of his sons as imperial princes, and Yang Xiu was appointed the Prince of Yue.

Book of Sui

Sui ShuSuishudynastic history of Sui
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty. It ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. It was commissioned by Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty, and written by a team of prominent scholars, including Yan Shigu, Kong Yingda, and Zhangsun Wuji, with Wei Zheng as the lead author. It was completed in 636 AD.

Yuwen Tai

Emperor WenYu-Wen Tai
In winter 537, the Western Wei general Dugu Xin captured the former Northern Wei capital Luoyang, and several other nearby provinces also surrendered to Western Wei. In spring 538, in order to create an alliance with Rouran, Yuwen first had Emperor Wen bestow the title of Princess Huazheng to Yuan Yi, the daughter of a member of the imperial clan, to marry her to Yujiulü Tahan, the brother of Rouran's Chiliantoubingdoufa Khan Yujiulü Anagui. But Yuwen, believing that to be insufficient, requested Emperor Wen divorce his wife Empress Yifu and marry Yujiulü Anagui's daughter.


ChengzhouLuoyang CityLuoyang, China
When Emperor Yang of Sui took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father Emperor Wen of Sui's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an. During the Tang dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu, the "Eastern Capital", and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world. At the interval of Tang dynasty, the first and the only empress in Chinese history – Empress Wu, moved the capital of her Zhou Dynasty to Luoyang and named it as Shen Du (Capital of the God).


After it was built in 611 by Emperor Yang of Sui, the tower stood at a height of 330 ft tall (90 ft. taller than the brick-constructed Giant Wild Goose Pagoda) and 120 paces in circumference; unfortunately it no longer stands. 20 walled and gated wards. 3 Buddhist monasteries. 7 Daoist abbeys. 11 Family shrines. 1 Inn. An event in 815 where assassins murdered Chancellor Wu as he was leaving the eastern gate of the northeasternmost ward in south central Chang'an; the event took place just before dawn.


KoguryoKoguryŏGoguryeo Kingdom
The 613 and 614 campaigns were aborted after launch—the 613 campaign was terminated when the Sui general Yang Xuangan rebelled against Emperor Yang, while the 614 campaign was terminated after Goguryeo offered a truce and returned Husi Zheng, a defecting Sui general who had fled to Goguryeo, Emperor Yang later had Husi executed. Emperor Yang planned another attack on Goguryeo in 615, but due to Sui's deteroriating internal state he was never able to launch it. Sui was weakened due to rebellions against Emperor Yang's rule and his failed attempts to conquer Goguryeo. They could not attack further because the provinces in the Sui heartland would not send logistical support.

Western Wei

Western Wei dynasty
As with the Northern Wei state that preceded it, the ruling family of Western Wei were members of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei. After the Xianbei general Yuwen Tai killed the Northern Wei emperor Yuan Xiu, he installed Yuan Baoju as emperor of Western Wei while Yuwen Tai would remain as the virtual ruler. Although smaller than the Eastern Wei in territory and population, Western Wei was able to withstand the attacks from the eastern empire. Due to its better economical conditions, Western Wei was even able to conquer the whole western part of the Liang empire in the south and occupied the territory of modern Sichuan.

Taishang Huang

Jōkō of Japanretired emperorJōkō
In 617, Li Yuan (later Emperor Gaozu of Tang) bestowed the title Taishang Huang upon Emperor Yang of Sui in absentia. Here, Li Yuan used the honorific as a legitimating cover for his seizure of power, in which the newly-installed Yang You served as his puppet emperor. In 626 during the Xuanwu Gate Incident, Prince Li Shimin of Tang led his armed men in a coup for the throne. During the course of the coup, he succeeded in killing his rival brothers, Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji. Within three days, Emperor Gaozu created Li Shimin as his heir. On the ninth day of the eight month, Emperor Gaozu abdicated in favor for his son Li Shimin (who became Emperor Taizong).