Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei MongolInner
At the same time, what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was controlled by the Xianbei, who would, later on, eclipse the Xiongnu in power and influence. During the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD), Xiongnu who surrendered to the Han dynasty began to be settled in Hetao and intermingled with the Han immigrants in the area. Later on during the Western Jin dynasty, it was a Xiongnu noble from Hetao, Liu Yuan, who established the Han Zhao kingdom in the region, thereby beginning the Sixteen Kingdoms period that saw the disintegration of northern China under a variety of Han and non-Han (including Xiongnu and Xianbei) regimes.


GuanglingYangchowYangzhou, Jiangsu
Under Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–617), Yangzhou was the southern capital of China. It was called Jiangdu upon the completion of the Grand Canal until the fall of the Sui dynasty. By the mid 610s, a combination of fruitless attempts to conquer the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, together with natural disasters and provincial unrest, ensured many people Emperor Yang had lost the legitimacy of his monarchy. As revolts spread across China in 616, the Emperor abandoned the North and meanwhile withdrew to Jiangdu, where he remained until his assassination in 618.

Former Yan

During the winter of 342, the Xianbei of Former Yan, ruled by the Murong clan, attacked and destroyed Goguryeo's capital, Hwando, capturing 50,000 Goguryeo men and women to use as slave labor in addition to taking the queen mother and queen prisoner, and forced King Gogukwon to flee for a while. The Xianbei also devastated Buyeo in 346, accelerating Buyeo migration to the Korean peninsula. Their capital was Yan (Beijing) in 350, then Yecheng in 357, and finally Luoyang in 364. Xianbei. List of past Chinese ethnic groups. Wu Hu.

Grand Canal (China)

Grand CanalGrand Canal of ChinaBeijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal
Between 604 and 609, Emperor Yang Guang (or Sui Yangdi) of the Sui dynasty ordered a number of canals be dug in a 'Y' shape, from Hangzhou in the south to terminate in (modern) Beijing and in the capital region along the Yellow River valley. When the canal was completed it linked the systems of the Qiantang River, the Yangtze River, the Huai River, the Yellow River, the Wei River and the Hai River. Its southern section, running between Hangzhou and the Yangtze, was named the Jiangnan River (the river ‘South of the Yangtze’).


Xiongnu EmpireSouthern XiongnuNorthern Xiongnu
In 49 AD, Tsi Yung, a Han governor of Liaodong, allied with the Wuhuan and Xianbei, attacked the Northern Xiongnu. The Northern Xiongnu suffered two major defeats: one at the hands of the Xianbei in 85 AD, and by the Han during the Battle of Ikh Bayan, in 89 AD. The northern chanyu fled to the north-west with his subjects. In about 155 AD, the Northern Xiongnu were decisively "crushed and subjugated" by the Xianbei. Coincidentally, the Southern Xiongnu were plagued by natural disasters and misfortunes – in addition to the threat posed by Punu. Consequently, in 50 AD, the Southern Xiongnu submitted to tributary relations with Han China.

Later Yan

The Later Yan (384-407 or 409) was a Murong–Xianbei state, located in modern-day northeast China, during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. All rulers of the Later Yan declared themselves "emperors". Battle of Canhebei. Wu Hu. List of past Chinese ethnic groups. Xianbei.

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Jin dynastyJinJin Dynasty (265-420)
The Xianbei Northern Wei accepted the Jin refugees Sima Fei (undefined) and Sima Chuzhi . They both married Xianbei princesses. Sima Fei's wife was named Huayang (undefined), who was the daughter of Emperor Xiaowen; Sima Chuzhi's son was Sima Jinlong, who married a Northern Liang princess who was a daughter of Xiongnu King Juqu Mujian. More than fifty percent of Tuoba Xianbei princesses of the Northern Wei were married to southern Han Chinese men from the imperial families and aristocrats from southern China of the Southern dynasties who defected and moved north to join the Northern Wei.


Henan ProvinceHenan, ChinaHonan
It collapsed due to Sui Emperor Yang's costly attempt to relocate the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang and the construction of many extravagant palaces there. The succeeding Tang dynasty (618–907) kept its capital in Chang'an, marking the beginning of China's second golden age, with Henan being one of the wealthiest places in the empire. The Tang dynasty lasted for three centuries before it eventually succumbed to internal strife. In the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) that followed, Kaifeng in eastern Henan became the capital of four dynasties. The Song dynasty that reunified China in 982 also had its capital at Kaifeng.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
During this time, areas of northern China were overrun by various non-Han nomadic peoples, which came to establish kingdoms of their own, the most successful of which was Northern Wei (established by the Xianbei). Starting from this period, the native population of China proper began to be referred to as Hanren, or the "People of Han", to distinguish them from the nomads from the steppe. Warfare and invasion led to one of the first great migrations of Han populations in history, as they fled south to the Yangzi and beyond, shifting the Chinese demographic center and speeding up sinicization of the far south.

Sixteen Kingdoms

Sixteen Kingdoms Periodmultiple statesSixteen States
The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.

Emperor Xuan of Chen

Chen XuEmperor XuanXuan Di
In spring 566, Emperor Wen was seriously ill, and Chen Xu, along with the other key officials Dao Zhongju, Kong Huan, Yuan Shu, and Liu Shizhi, attended to him. As Emperor Wen believed his crown prince Chen Bozong to be weak in personality, he offered to pass the throne to Chen Xu, but Chen Xu, weeping bitterly, declined, and the move was also opposed by Dao and Kong, and Emperor Wen did not alter his succession order. Emperor Wen died soon thereafter, and Chen Bozong took the throne as Emperor Fei.

Tulan Qaghan

Dulan KhanDulanTulan
Tulan Qaghan (Chinese: 都蘭可汗/都兰可汗, Modern Chinese: (Pinyin): dōulán kěhàn, (Wade-Giles): tu-lan k'o-han, Middle Chinese: (Guangyun), personal name: 阿史那雍虞閭/阿史那雍虞闾, āshǐnà yōngyúlǘ, a-shih-na yung-yü-lü) was the son of Ishbara Qaghan and the seventh qaghan (Khaqan) of the Turkic Khaganate.

Yang Xuangan

Soon thereafter, Emperor Wen demoted Yang Xuangan down to third rank, and Yang Xuangan thanked Emperor Wen appropriately, "I did not know that Your Imperial Majesty would give me this much favor -- so that I can show respect to my father in public as much as I do in private." During Emperor Wen's reign, Yang Xuangan served as the governor of Ying Province (郢州, roughly modern Wuhan, Hubei), and was said to be an effective monitor of his subordinate officials, finding out both their good deeds and evil deeds and rewarding or punishing them appropriately.

Empress Zhangsun

Empress Cheung-suenZhangsunZhangsun Long'er
She was well educated, and her ancestors were of Xianbei nationality. Their original surname was Tuoba, later changed to Zhangsun. The future Empress Zhangsun was born on 15 March 601. Her father was the Sui Dynasty general Zhangsun Sheng, and her mother was Zhangsun Sheng's wife Lady Gao, the daughter of the official Gao Jingde . She had at least four older brothers—Zhangsun Sheng's oldest son Zhangsun Xingbu (長孫行布, who was killed in 604 while resisting the rebellion of Emperor Yang of Sui's brother Yang Liang the Prince of Han), Zhangsun Heng'an, Zhangsun Anye, and Zhangsun Wuji.

Yu Shiji

In 589, Chen was conquered by Sui Dynasty, and Yu subsequently served in Sui's legislative bureau (內史省, Neishi Sheng) as a low-level official during the reign of Emperor Wen. Despite his position, however, he had little money, and he was forced to take retainers in writing calligraphy in order to support his parent(s). He once wrote a poem about his poverty, and the poem became famous and praised for its beauty. Eventually, he was promoted within the legislative bureau. In 604, Emperor Wen died and was succeeded by his son Emperor Yang.

Kaihuang Code

The Kaihuang Code was a series of laws formulated in China at the time of Sui dynasty Emperor Wen of Sui (r. 581-604 CE). Containing twelve chapters with 500 provisions, the code reconfirmed the legal institutions of the Five Punishments, Eight Deliberations and Ten Abominations. The legal codes of later Chinese dynasties were based on the Kaihuang Code which is of strategic significance in the history of Traditional Chinese law. In 581 CE, the first year of the Kaihuang Era, Emperor Wen of Sui embarked on the reform of the old legal system.

Li Mi (Sui dynasty)

Li MiLee MatLee Mil
Due to his father's position, Li Mi became a guard of Emperor Yang of Sui, and he was said to view money lightly, using it to instead gather friends around him. One day, however, when Emperor Yang saw him, Emperor Yang was apprehensive of his appearance, and told his associate Yuwen Shu the Duke of Xu to have Li Mi removed. Thereafter, Yuwen persuaded Li Mi to resign from the imperial guard corps, and Li instead often traveled around the capital, riding a bull and reading while doing so—particularly the Book of Han.

Luo Yi

Li YiLo Ngai
He claimed for himself the office of commandant at Youzhou (幽州, i.e., Zhuo Commandery), using an office title that was often used during the reign of Emperor Yang's father Emperor Wen but had been abolished by Emperor Yang. In spring 618, Emperor Yang, while at Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), was killed in a coup led by the general Yuwen Huaji, who declared Emperor Yang's nephew Yang Hao emperor. Yuwen sent messengers to Luo Yi, trying to persuade him to submit. Luo responded, "I am still a Sui subject."

Xiao Xian

Xiao XiLater Western LiangXiao Xian of Liang
His throne passed for two more generations, to Emperor Jing (Xiao Cong), until it was abolished by Emperor Wen of Sui in 587. That year, Xiao Xian's grandfather and Emperor Jing's uncle Xiao Yan the Prince of Anping and Emperor Jing's brother Xiao Huan the Prince of Yixing, believing that the Sui general Cui Hongdu was about to launch a surprise attack on Jiangling with Emperor Jing away at the Sui capital Chang'an to pay homage to Emperor Wen, surrendered to Chen Dynasty with the people of Jiangling, an act that directly led to Emperor Wen's decision to abolish Western Liang notwithstanding Emperor Jing's submissiveness.

Dai Commandery

DaiCommandery of Dai
This Xianbei Kingdom of Dai lasted until 376, and its dynasts were responsible for the later state of Northern Wei. It held some lands in northern Shanxi and Hebei but was mostly to their north in what is now Inner Mongolia, with their capital at Shengle (northwest of present-day Horinger). Dai Commandery continued until its abolishment under the Wen Emperor of Sui, who replaced it in 585 with Dai Prefecture, whose seat was at Guangwu or Yanmen (present-day Daixian, Shanxi). *. 《代郡》 at Baidu Baike. 《代郡》 at

Zhangsun Wuji

Cheung-suen Mo-geiZhang Sun Wu-ji
When Li Yuan, at Li Shimin's instigation, rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui in 617 and attacked the capital Chang'an, Zhangsun Wuji went to meet Li Shimin, then serving as a major general of his father's, and he began to serve on Li Shimin's staff, often following Li Shimin on various campaigns. Li Yuan captured Chang'an in winter 617 and declared Emperor Yang's grandson Yang You emperor (as Emperor Gong), taking power himself as regent. After he received news in spring 618 that Emperor Yang had been killed at Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu) in a coup led by the general Yuwen Huaji, he had Yang You yield the throne to him, establishing Tang Dynasty as its Emperor Gaozu.

Transition from Sui to Tang

civil warCollapse of the Suitransitional period from Sui to Tang
Emperor Yang personally led part of the army to put the important city Liaodong (遼東, in modern Liaoyang, Liaoning) under siege, while he sent the Xianbei generals Yuwen Shu and Yu Zhongwen to lead the rest of the army deep into Goguryeo territory, heading toward the Goguryeo capital Pyongyang, joined by the fleet commanded by the southern Chinese general Lai Hu'er. Emperor Yang, however, was never able to capture Liaodong, while Yuwen and Yu, advancing nearly to Pyongyang, were defeated by the Goguryeo general Eulji Mundeok and forced to withdraw with heavy losses. By fall 612, Emperor Yang was forced to terminate the campaign and withdraw as well, with only minor territorial gains.

Yang (surname)

Yang Jian, first emperor of the Sui Dynasty (581-618). Yang Jisheng, court official executed during the Ming dynasty. Yang Guang, second Emperor of the Sui Dynasty. Yang Guifei, famous emperor's consort in Tang dynasty. Yang Guozhong, politician and Yang Guifei's brother. Yang Wan, Tang Dynasty historian. Yang Manchun, a Goguryeo commander of Ansi fortress located on the Goguryeo-Tang border. Yang Qilang (楊七郎; literally "Yang's 7th son") is the 7th eldest and youngest son of Song Dynasty general Yang Ye. Yang Jian (Erlang Shen), nephew of Jade Emperor. Yang Xingmi, Prince Wuzhong of Wu, King Xiaowu of Wu, and Emperor Wu of Wu. Yang Cheng, Fuxing of Sanxing.

Emperor of China

emperoremperors of ChinaChinese emperor
The most successful of these were the Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitans (Liao dynasty), Jurchens (Jin dynasty), Mongols (Yuan dynasty), and Manchus (Qing dynasty). The orthodox historical view sees these as dynasties that became sinicized by adopting Chinese culture, claiming the Mandate of Heaven, and performing the traditional imperial obligations such as annual sacrifices to Heaven (as Tian or Shangdi) for rain and prosperity.


Kingdom of ChampaChamChampa Kingdom
Champa or Tsiompa (Cham: Campa; Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832. The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa (Sanskrit: नगरः चम्पः; ចាម្ប៉ា) in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese (Chiêm Thành in Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary) and 占城 (Zhànchéng) in Chinese records.