Goguryeo–Sui War

Goguryeo-Sui WarsGoguryeo–Sui Warsattempts to conquer
Wendi ordered his fifth and youngest son, Yang Liang (assisted by the co-prime minister Gao Jiong), and Admiral Zhou Luohou, to invade and conquer Goguryeo with an army and navy totaling 300,000, mostly composed of horse archers. Yang Liang's army faced the early rainy season when it reached Goguryeo. The unseasonably heavy rain made the army's progress almost impossible and hampered the transport of provisions. Constant attacks by Goguryeo forces and illness inflicted heavy casualties. Coming to the conclusion that the army could not achieve the objective on its own, Yang decided to combine with Zhou's naval fleet and proceed.

Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou

Emperor MingYuwen YuMing Di
In 548, Emperor Wen of Western Wei, to further honor Yuwen Tai, created Yuwen Yu the Duke of Ningdu. In 550, he was made a provincial governor, and for the next several years, he was rotated between several provinces. During his term as a provincial governor, he married the daughter of the key general Dugu Xin as his wife. In spring 556, Yuwen Tai was pondering the issue of succession. His wife Princess Fengyi, the sister of Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei, had one son, Yuwen Jue, but he considered the fact of whether making Yuwen Jue heir apparent over Yuwen Yu would trouble Dugu Xin.

Wei Xiaokuan

It is unclear when or how, but Wei eventually joined the Western Wei regime in Chang'an, but it is not clear whether that happened before or after Emperor Xiaowu's death (probably by Yuwen's orders) in 535 and replacement by his cousin Emperor Wen of Western Wei. In 538, during a major campaign between Western Wei and Eastern Wei, Wei Xiaokuan accompanied Emperor Wen, and he was made the governor of Hongnong Commandery (弘農, roughly modern Sanmenxia, Henan). He subsequently entered Luoyang (which Western Wei temporarily captured) with Dugu Xin, and for some time tried to defend the city, but eventually they were forced to withdrew from the vicinity of Luoyang.


Yangtze RiverYangzi RiverChangjiang
The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau and flows in a generally easterly direction to the East China Sea. It is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world. Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China, and is home to nearly one-third of the country's population.


JianyeJiankang PrefectureJiangning
Jiankang, or Jianye, as it was originally called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552 and 557–589 CE). Its walls are extant ruins in the modern municipal region of Nanjing.


Baoji, ShaanxiBaoji, SNPingyang
is a prefecture-level city in western Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China. Since the early 1990s, Baoji has been the second largest city in Shaanxi.

Change of Xianbei names to Han names

adopt Chinese surnamesadopt Chinese-style surnamesadopt Han surnames
Later, after the division of Northern Wei into two in 534, the paramount general of Western Wei, Yuwen Tai, tried to reverse these name changes and restore Xianbei names. A number of generals and officials changed their names back to Xianbei names, but after the destruction of Western Wei's successor state, Northern Zhou (which was ruled by Yuwen Tai's descendants), the Han names were restored for Han and Xianbei alike. There were some exceptions, for example, the clan of Emperor Wen of Sui's wife Empress Dugu kept their Xianbei name of Dugu and did not once again change the name into Liu.

History of the Northern Dynasties

History of Northern DynastiesBei ShiBeishi
The History of the Northern Dynasties is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon. The text contains 100 volumes and covers the period from 386 to 618, the histories of Northern Wei, Western Wei, Eastern Wei, Northern Zhou, Northern Qi, and Sui dynasty. Like the History of the Southern Dynasties, the book was started by Li Dashi and compiled from texts of the Book of Wei and Book of Zhou. Following his death, Li Yanshou, son of Li Dashi, completed the work on the book between 643 and 659. Unlike most of the rest of the Twenty-Four Histories, this work was not commissioned by the state.

Zizhi Tongjian

Zhizhi TongjianComprehensive Mirror for Aid in GovernmentGeneral History of China
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed, and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhi Tongjian records Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across almost 1,400 years, and contains 294 volumes (undefined) and about 3 million Chinese characters.

Murong Fuyun

慕容伏允 Mùróng Fúyǔn
As for his relations with China, then divided between Sui Dynasty (under the reign of Emperor Wen) and Chen Dynasty (under the reign of Chen Shubao), he was constantly attacking the provinces of Sui that were on the border of Tuyuhun, although after Sui destroyed Chen in 589, Murong Kualü was fearful and vacated the border region. He died in 591 and was succeeded by Murong Fuyun's older brother Murong Shifu, who offered to submit to Emperor Wen and further to offer a daughter to serve as Emperor Wen's concubine—which Emperor Wen (who had very few, if any, concubines, due to his love for his wife Empress Dugu) declined. However, after that, there was a time of peace between Tuyuhun and Sui.


Liaoning ProvinceFengtianFengtian Province
It was also inhabited by non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Donghu, Xianbei. In addition, the Balhae, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning. The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries) from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people).

Yang Yichen (Sui dynasty)

Yang YichenYuchi Yichen
Sometime during Emperor Wen's late reign -- the Renshou era (601-604), Yang Yichen was promoted to be the commandant at Shuo Province (朔州, roughly modern Shuozhou, Shanxi). In 604, Emperor Wen died—a death that traditional historians, while admitting a lack of direct evidence, generally believe to be a murder ordered by his son, Yang Guang the Crown Prince. Yang Guang took the throne as Emperor Yang. Soon afterwards, Emperor Yang's younger brother Yang Liang the Prince of Han rose in rebellion at Bing Province (并州, roughly modern Taiyuan, Shanxi).

Heroes in Sui and Tang Dynasties

Fu Dalong as Yang Guang (Emperor Yang of Sui). Wang Like as Yang Yu'er (Princess Yu). Bai Bing as Empress Xiao. Tang Yixin as Shan Yingying. Wang Baoqiang as Li Yuanba. Chen Hao as Yuwen Chengdu. Hu Dong as Shan Xiongxin. Yin Xiaotian as Yuchi Gong. Norman Chu as Yuwen Huaji. Liu Xiaoxiao as Pei Cuiyun. Liu Zi Jiao as Hua Da Jiao (Cheng Yao Jin's wife). Bobo Gan as Dongfang Yumei. Siqin Gaowa as Madam Mo (Cheng Yaojin's mother). Juanzi as Madam Ning (Qin Qiong's mother). Wang Jianxin as Luo Yi. Zhou Jie as Qin Shengzhu. Kou Zhenhai as Li Yuan (Emperor Gaozu of Tang). Kent Tong as Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui). Song Jia as Dugu Qieluo. Du Yiheng as Xu Maogong. Wu Qingzhe as Li Mi.

List of consorts of rulers of China

Empress consortEmpress dowagerEmpress Dowager of China
. * 581: Empress Lü Gutao, mother of Emperor Wen of Sui * 1336: Mailaiti, mother of Emperor Huizong AD 9–21: Empress Wang. AD 23: Empress Shi.

Xiao Cong

Emperor Jing of Western LiangEmperor JingXiao Jing Di
In 604, Emperor Wen died, and his son Yang Guang succeeded him (as Emperor Yang). As Emperor Yang's wife Empress Xiao was Xiao Cong's younger sister, Emperor Yang afforded Xiao Cong greater respect and changed his title from Duke of Ju to Duke of Liang. He also commissioned a number of Xiao Cong's relatives as officials. Xiao Cong himself was made a high-level official, but rarely carried out the duties of his office. When Emperor Yang sent the official Yang Yue, brother of the chancellor Yang Su, to try to encourage Xiao Cong to change his ways, Xiao Cong explained to Yang Yue, in veiled terms, that he did not want to draw attention to himself.

Chancellor of the Tang dynasty

chancellorchancellorsTang dynasty chancellor
Ouyang Xiu, the author of the New Book of Tang, asserts that the Tang dynasty inherited its bureaucracy from its dynastic predecessor, the Sui Dynasty, under which the founder Emperor Wen of Sui divided his government into five main bureaus: Under Emperor Wen, the executive bureau was regarded as the most important, and he had his most honored officials such as Gao Jiong, Yang Su, and Su Wei lead it at various points. Its heads were generally regarded as chancellors (as it always had two heads, known as the Shàngshūpúshè . Ouyang asserts, however, that the heads of the examination and legislative bureaus were also considered chancellors.

Heir apparent

heir-apparentheirs apparentheir
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Yao Silian

Yao, SilianYáo Sīlián
After Chen's destruction, Yao Silian served as a military advisor to Emperor Wen's son Yang Liang the Prince of Han. At some point, due to Yao Cha's death, he resigned to observe a mourning period. He thereafter served as a secretary at the government of Hejian Commandery (河間, roughly modern Baoding, Hebei). He requested permission from Emperor Wen's son and successor Emperor Yang to continue writing the histories of Liang and Chen that Yao Cha had started, and Emperor Yang agreed. Emperor Yang further ordered him and another official, Cui Zujun, to lead a team of scholars in drafting regional maps and histories.

Timeline of Chinese history

Dynastic ChinatimelineChinese legend/story
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of Chinese monarchs, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties in Chinese history and years in China.

Imperial Chinese harem system

Ranks of imperial consorts in ChinaConsortHonoured Lady
After the death of Empress Dugu, Emperor Wen expanded the ranks of the consorts to the following: During the reign of Emperor Yang, the ranking system was expanded yet again, based on systems in the past, to the following: During the reign of Gaozong: During the reign of Xuanzong: The principal wife of the Crown Prince is called Crown Princess (太子妃; tài zǐ fēi), which is held by only one person at any given time. There are 5 other ranks of consorts: During these times, governments were replaced frequently, and as a result, it is difficult for modern scholars to derive any solid information on ranking systems during these times.

Yuwen Hu

About a month after Emperor Xiaomin took the throne, two of the most senior officials, Zhao Gui the Duke of Chu and Dugu Xin the Duke of Wei, showed signs of displeasure about Yuwen Hu's hold on power. Zhao wanted to kill Yuwen Hu, an action that Dugu tried to persuade him against. Soon thereafter, however, Zhao's plans were revealed by another official, Yuwen Sheng, and Yuwen Hu had Zhao executed and removed Dugu from his office. Soon, he also forced Dugu to commit suicide. When another official, Qi Gui, criticized Yuwen Hu's regency, he was also executed. Meanwhile, Emperor Xiaomin himself, wanting to take power, was engaging in a plot to kill Yuwen Hu.

Yang Hao (Sui dynasty)

Yang HaoYang Hao (prince)
Yang Jun never completely recovered from his illness. He died in 600. Emperor Wen, reasoning that Princess Cui's crime tainted Yang Hao and that his brother Yang Zhan was born of a concubine and therefore unfit to inherit the title, did not allow either to inherit the title of Prince of Qin, and in fact ordered that Yang Jun's staff members serve as his mourners, suggesting that both Yang Hao and Yang Zhan were excluded from the funeral proceedings. Emperor Wen died in 604, and Yang Hao's uncle Yang Guang took the throne as Emperor Yang. In 606, he created Yang Hao the Prince of Qin and Yang Zhan the Marquess of Jibei.

Qutu Tong

Qutu Tong is a descendant of Xianbei people. Originally, he was a general serving for the Sui Dynasty. In his early years, he was sent to Liangzhou by Emperor Wen of Sui to inspect the horse trading run by local governors and generals. He discovered serious corruption in the horse market that involved hundreds of people in local government and the local army. The emperor was extremely angry and planned to execute all people involved in this corruption. Many other officials in the central court agreed with the emperor's decision. However, Qutu Tong thought that although those people were guilty, it was too brutal to kill them all.