Person

peoplepersonsindividual
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility. The defining features of personhood and consequently what makes a person count as a person differ widely among cultures and contexts.

Employment agency

employment agencieslabour exchangejob placement
The latest Convention, the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No.181) takes a much softer stance and calls merely for regulation. In most countries, agencies are regulated, for instance in the UK under the Employment Agencies Act 1973, or in Germany under the Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz (Employee Hiring Law of 1972). An executive-search firm specializes in recruiting executive personnel for companies in various industries. This term may apply to job-search-consulting firms who charge job candidates a fee and who specialize in mid-to-upper-level executives. In the United States, some states require job-search-consulting firms to be licensed as employment agencies.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
For example, it is clearly stated in the Federal Reserve Act that the Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee should seek "to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates." A failed monetary policy can have significant detrimental effects on an economy and the society that depends on it. These include hyperinflation, stagflation, recession, high unemployment, shortages of imported goods, inability to export goods, and even total monetary collapse and the adoption of a much less efficient barter economy. This happened in Russia, for instance, after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Nonprofit organization

non-profitnon-profit organizationnonprofit
Public- and private-sector employment have, for the most part, been able to offer more to their employees than most nonprofit agencies throughout history. Either in the form of higher wages, more comprehensive benefit packages, or less tedious work, the public and private sectors have enjoyed an advantage over NPOs in attracting employees. Traditionally, the NPO has attracted mission-driven individuals who want to assist their chosen cause. Compounding the issue is that some NPOs do not operate in a manner similar to most businesses, or only seasonally. This leads many young and driven employees to forego NPOs in favor of more stable employment.

Cooperative

co-operativeco-opcooperatives
Membership is not always compulsory for employees, but generally only employees can become members either directly (as shareholders) or indirectly through membership of a trust that owns the company. The impact of political ideology on practice constrains the development of cooperatives in different countries. In India, there is a form of workers' cooperative which insists on compulsory membership for all employees and compulsory employment for all members. That is the form of the Indian Coffee Houses. This system was advocated by the Indian communist leader A. K. Gopalan. In places like the UK, common ownership (indivisible collective ownership) was popular in the 1970s.

Kindergarten

KkindergartensLKG
Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories.

Payment

compensationpaymentspayee
A payment is the trade of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another for goods, or services, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

Teacher's Highland Cream

teachereducatorinstructor
Teacher's Highland Cream is a brand of blended Scotch whisky produced in Glasgow, Scotland, by Beam Suntory, the US-headquartered subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Osaka, Japan. The Teacher's Highland Cream brand was registered in 1884. (The label on the bottles says "est. 1830", reflecting an earlier date when the founding family entered the whisky business, before the brand name was created.) Teacher's states that it uses "fully smoked peat single malt whisky from The Ardmore distillery as its fingerprint whisky" along with about 30 other single malt whiskies. Most of the output of the Ardmore distillery is used to produce the Teacher's brand.

Salary

salariessalariedsalaried employee
In the 20th century, the rise of the service economy made salaried employment even more common in developed countries, where the relative share of industrial production jobs declined, and the share of executive, administrative, computer, marketing, and creative jobs—all of which tended to be salaried—increased. Today, the concept of a salary continues to evolve as part of a system of the total compensation that employers offer to employees.

Gratuity

tiptipstipping
On December 7, 2015 it was reported that "Ontario is banning employers from taking a cut of tips that are meant for servers and other hospitality staff." "The Protecting Employees' Tips Act makes it illegal for employers "...to withhold their employees' tips, except temporarily if they are pooling all of the gratuities to redistribute them among all employees." Canadian Federal tax law considers tips as income. Workers who receive tips are legally required to report the income to the Canada Revenue Agency and pay income tax on it. In July 2012, The Star reported that CRA is concerned with tax evasion.

English country house

country housestately homecountry houses
The country house, however, was not just an oasis of pleasure for a fortunate few; it was the centre of its own world, providing employment to hundreds of people in the vicinity of its estate. In previous eras, when state benefits were unheard of, those working on an estate were among the most fortunate, receiving secured employment and rent-free accommodation. At the summit of this category of people was the indoor staff of the country house. Unlike many of their contemporaries prior to the 20th century, they slept in proper beds, wore well-made adequate clothes and received three proper meals a day, plus a small wage.

Townhouse (Great Britain)

townhousetown housetownhouses
In British usage, the term townhouse originally refers to the town or city residence, in practice normally in London, of a member of the nobility or gentry, as opposed to their country seat, generally known as a country house or, colloquially, for the larger ones, stately home. The grandest of the London townhouses were stand-alone buildings, but many were terraced buildings.

Option (finance)

optionsoptionstock options
Another important class of options, particularly in the U.S., are employee stock options, which are awarded by a company to their employees as a form of incentive compensation. Other types of options exist in many financial contracts, for example real estate options are often used to assemble large parcels of land, and prepayment options are usually included in mortgage loans. However, many of the valuation and risk management principles apply across all financial options. There are two more types of options; covered and naked. Options are classified into a number of styles, the most common of which are: These are often described as vanilla options.

Parent

parentspaternitybiological parent
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessarily age). A biological parent is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum. Biological parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet. A female can also become a parent through surrogacy. Some parents may be adoptive parents, who nurture and raise an offspring, but are not biologically related to the child. Orphans without adoptive parents can be raised by their grandparents or other family members.

Health insurance

medical insurancehealthhealth benefits
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) regulated the operation of a health benefit plan if an employer chooses to establish one, which is not required. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) gives an ex-employee the right to continue coverage under an employer-sponsored group health benefit plan. Through the 1990s, managed care insurance schemes including health maintenance organizations (HMO), preferred provider organizations, or point of service plans grew from about 25% US employees with employer-sponsored coverage to the vast majority.

Colonial empire

colonial empiresEuropean imperialismEuropean
A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), mostly overseas, settled by the population of a certain state and governed by that state.

Settler colonialism

settler coloniescolonizationsettler colony
Further developments such as the Federal policies of termination and relocation in the 1950s and 1960s reinforced the aims of settler society to eliminate indigenous identity and occupation of space, through the disestablishment of Federal treaty/trust obligations to tribes, the transfer of civil and criminal jurisdiction over many reservations to the individual states, and the encouragement of Native Americans to leave their reservations and relocate to cities such as New York City, Minneapolis, Denver and Portland; it was hoped that this relocation would further erode tribal identity and speed up the process of assimilation.

Judge

JusticeJJjustices
Judges work with people all the time; by the nature of the job, good dispute resolution and interpersonal skills are a necessity. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges often enjoy a high salary, in the U.S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, and federal judges earn $208,000-$267,000 per annum. A variety of traditions have become associated with the rank or occupation. Gavels (a ceremonial hammer) are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge.

Company

companiesenterpriseenterprises
List of largest employers. Lists of companies – company-related list articles on Wikipedia. Types of business entity. Dignam, A and Lowry, J. Company Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0-19-928936-3. John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company: a Short History of a Revolutionary Idea. New York: Modern Library, 2003.

Financial compensation

compensationrecompensecompensat
Employee benefits. Workers' compensation, to protect employees who have incurred work-related injuries.

Languages of India

Indian languagesIndianregional languages of India
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages spoken by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and a few other minor language families and isolates. India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839).