kinship systemsciondescendants
Ancestry. Kin selection. Kinism. Kinship analysis. Kinship terminology. Australian Aboriginal kinship. Bride price. Bride service. Chinese kinship. Cinderella effect. Clan. Consanguinity. Darwinian anthropology. Dynasty. Ethnicity. Family. Family history. Fictive kinship. Genealogy. Genetic genealogy. Godparent. Heredity. Inheritance. Interpersonal relationships. Irish Kinship. Lineage (anthropology). Nurture kinship. Serbo-Croatian kinship. Tribe. House society. Introduction into the study of kinship AusAnthrop: research, resources and documentation. The Nature of Kinship: An Introduction to Descent Systems and Family Organization Dennis O'Neil, Palomar College, San Marcos, CA.

Genetic genealogy

genetic ancestryGeneticgenetic genealogist
The DNA Clans Genetic Ancestry Analysis measures a person's precise genetic connections to indigenous ethnic groups from around the world. Law enforcement may use genetic genealogy to track down perpetrators of violent crimes such as murder or sexual assault and they may also use it to identify deceased individuals. Initially genetic genealogy sites GEDmatch and Family Tree DNA allowed their databases to be used by law enforcement and DNA technology companies such as Parabon NanoLabs and Full Genomes Corporation (see DNA Doe Project) to do DNA testing for violent criminal cases and genetic genealogy research at the request of law enforcement.


progenitorsancestral principlesdeified ancestors
In genealogy, the progenitor (rarer: primogenitor; Stammvater or Ahnherr) is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group. Genealogy (commonly known as family history) understands a progenitor to be the earliest recorded ancestor of a consanguineous family group of descendants. Progenitors are sometimes used to describe the status of a genealogical research project, or in order to compare the availability of genealogical data in different times and places. Often, progenitors are implied to be patrilineal. If a patrilineal dynasty is considered, each such dynasty has exactly one progenitor.

Arab identity

Genealogy: Someone who can trace his or her ancestry to the Arab tribes, from the Arabian Desert, Syrian Desert and neighboring areas. Ancestry: belonging to Arab people, inherited from grandparents, or denoting an ancestor or ancestors. Self-concept: a person who defines himself as "Arab". Attribution of identity: Someone, who is seen by others as an Arab, based on their notions of ethnicity (for example, people of northern Sudan, who can be seen both as African and/or Arab). Linguistic: Someone whose first language, and, by extension, cultural expression, is Arabic. Culture: someone who was brought up with Arab culture.

Basimba people

People of the same totem are the descendants of one common ancestor (the founder of that totem) and thus are not allowed to marry or have an intimate relationship. The totems cross regional groupings and therefore provide a wall for development of ethnic group among the Basimba. Basimba chiefs are required to be able to recite the history of their totem group right from the initial founder before they can be sworn in as chiefs. The totem system is a severe problem for many orphan, especially for Basimba or BaShimba women married to other Clans. The Basimba people are afraid of being punished by ghosts, if they violate rules connected with the unknown totem of a foundling.


human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
The term blood is used in genealogical circles to refer to one's ancestry, origins, and ethnic background as in the word bloodline. Other terms where blood is used in a family history sense are blue-blood, royal blood, mixed-blood and blood relative. * Blood Photomicrographs Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin, which is carried in red cells). Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g., blood lipids)). Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid. Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies.


There is another measure for the degree of relationship, which is determined by counting up generations to the first common ancestor and back down to the target individual, which is used for various genealogical and legal purposes. In his book Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Although much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that kinship terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions.

Veneration of the dead

ancestor worshipancestor venerationancestral worship
There can be multiple locations in the spirit world, varying in different ethnic groups. Which place souls end up in depends on how they died, the age at death, or conduct of the person when they were alive. There was no concept of heaven or hell prior to the introduction of Christianity and Islam; rather, the spirit world is usually depicted as an underworld that is a mirror image of the material ("upper") world. Souls reunite with deceased relatives in the underworld and lead normal lives in the underworld as they did in the material world. In some cases, the souls of evil people undergo penance and cleansing before they are granted entrance into a particular spirit realm.


In some cases, parents' rights have been terminated when their ethnic or socio-economic group has been deemed unfit by society. Some of these practices were generally accepted but have later been considered abusive; others were uncontroversially reprehensible. Forced adoption based on ethnicity occurred during World War II. In German occupied Poland, it is estimated that 200,000 Polish children with purportedly Aryan traits were removed from their families and given to German or Austrian couples, and only 25,000 returned to their families after the war.

United Kingdom

Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans. Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. A 2006 genetic study shows that more than 50 per cent of England's gene pool contains Germanic Y chromosomes. Another 2005 genetic analysis indicates that "about 75 per cent of the traceable ancestors of the modern British population had arrived in the British isles by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the British Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the British broadly share a common ancestry with the Basque people.


Fatherlandmotherlandmother country
". the Japanese as sokoku (祖国, "land of ancestors"). the Koreans as joguk (조국, Hanja: 祖國, "land of ancestors").

One-name study

one-name studiesOne Name Study
A one-name study is a project researching a specific surname, as opposed to a particular pedigree (ancestors of one person) or descendancy (descendants of one person or couple). Some people who research a specific surname may restrict their research geographically and chronologically, perhaps to one country and time period, while others may collect all occurrences world-wide for all time. A one-name study is not limited to persons who are related biologically. Studies may have a number of family trees which have no link with each other. Findings from a one-name study are useful to genealogists.

Daughters of the American Revolution

DARNational Society of the Daughters of the American RevolutionDaughters of the Revolution
The organization describes itself as "one of the most inclusive genealogical societies" in the United States, noting on its website that, "any woman 18 years or older — regardless of race, religion, or ethnic background — who can prove lineal descent from a patriot of the American Revolution, is eligible for membership". The current President General of the DAR is Denise Doring VanBuren, a former public relations executive from New York. Membership in the DAR today is open to all women, regardless of race or religion, who can prove lineal bloodline descent from an ancestor who aided in achieving United States independence.


racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
They conflated nationalities with ethnic groups, called "races", in a radical distinction from previous racial discourses that posited the existence of a "race struggle" inside the nation and the state itself. Furthermore, they believed that political boundaries should mirror these alleged racial and ethnic groups, thus justifying ethnic cleansing, in order to achieve "racial purity" and also to achieve ethnic homogeneity in the nation-state. Such racist discourses, combined with nationalism, were not, however, limited to pan-Germanism.

Ethnoreligious group

Modern proselytizing Mennonite groups, like e.g. the Evangelical Mennonite Conference whose members have lost their shared ancestry, their common ethnic language Plautdietsch, their traditional dress and other typical ethnic traditions, are not seen as ethnoreligious groups anymore. In Australian law, the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales defines "race" to include "ethnic, ethno-religious or national origin". The reference to "ethno-religious" was added by the Anti-Discrimination (Amendment) Act 1994 (NSW).

Genealogical DNA test

DNA testautosomal DNADNA testing
According to the Ancestry and Ancestry Testing Task Force of the American Society of Human Genetics, autosomal tests cannot detect "large portions" of DNA from distant ancestors because it has not been inherited. With the increasing popularity of the use of DNA tests for ethnicity tests, uncertainties and errors in ethnicity estimates are a drawback for Genetic genealogy. While ethnicity estimates at the continental level should be accurate (with the possible exception of East Asia and the Americas), sub-continental estimates, especially in Europe, are often inaccurate. Customers may be misinformed about the uncertainties and errors of the estimates.

Family History Library

Family History librarieslargest genealogical libraryLDS family history library
Genealogy. Genealogical Society of Utah. Immigrant Ancestors Project. List of Mormon family organizations. Find a family history center near you. FamilySearch Indexing. Family History Library in the FamilySearch Research Wiki.

Family history society

genealogical societiesgenealogical societyhereditary society
National Genealogical Society (NGS) (US). New Zealand Society of Genealogists Inc ( external link). Society of Genealogists (UK). Genealogical Society of South Africa. Australian Jewish Genealogical Society. Family History Association of North Queensland Inc ( external link). Genealogy Society of the Northern Territory ( external link). Genealogical Society of Victoria (GSV) ( external link). NSW & ACT Association of Family History Societies Inc ( external link). Queensland Family History Society. Royal Historical Society of Queensland. Society of Australian Genealogists ( external link). South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Soc. Inc (GenealogySA) ( external link).

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
Genealogical DNA test - used to determine ancestry or ethnic heritage for genetic genealogy. Research testing - includes finding unknown genes, learning how genes work and advancing understanding of genetic conditions. The results of testing done as part of a research study are usually not available to patients or their healthcare providers. DNA profiling. Genographic Project. Personalized medicine. Elective genetic and genomic testing. Eugenics. Full Genome Sequencing. Whole Genome Sequencing. Whole Exome Sequencing. Genetic counseling. List of genetic disorders. List of genetic genealogy topics. Non-paternity event.

Identity (social science)

identitysocial identityidentities
Consequently, Weinreich gives the definition: "A person's identity is defined as the totality of one's self-construal, in which how one construes oneself in the present expresses the continuity between how one construes oneself as one was in the past and how one construes oneself as one aspires to be in the future"; this allows for definitions of aspects of identity, such as: "One's ethnic identity is defined as that part of the totality of one's self-construal made up of those dimensions that express the continuity between one's construal of past ancestry and one's future aspirations in relation to ethnicity".

List of contemporary ethnic groups

List of ethnic groupsLists of ethnic groupsworld's largest ethnic group
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect and cultural heritage; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors. By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Family History Research Wiki

Christine Hitchmough in her 2016 lesson "FamilySearch: Using the Wiki" explained "Because no one can be an expert in all localities, records, languages, or ethnic groups, the purpose of the FamilySearch Wiki is to collaborate and share knowledge that is designed to encourage and eventually enable all people, anywhere in the world, to know where to find, how to use, and how to analyze genealogy records." The Federation of Genealogical Societies in 2014 used their blogtalkradio hour "mysociety" to explain how to leverage a society's Internet site by adding a Family History Research Wiki article linking to their society home page.

Race and ethnicity in censuses

collect data on ethnicityethnic or racial backgroundlands and regions
People were counted by language only in 1931, while they were counted for ethnicity at various points since 1969. The 1969 census asked about language but not ethnic group, and the 1974 census asked about ethnic group, but not language. The 1980 census asked about ethnic group, mother tongue, and language of most frequent use, while the 1990 census asked about ethnic group and mother tongue. The 2000 census asked about ethnic group, language of most frequent use, and second language. People in Zimbabwe were enumerated by race between 1901 and 2002, but many censuses were done separately for Whites/Europeans and Blacks/Africans before the 1970s.

Collective identity

group identitycollective identitiesgroup identification
Collective identity is the shared sense of belonging to a group.

United States

The United States has a very diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members. German Americans are the largest ethnic group (more than 50 million) – followed by Irish Americans (circa 37 million), Mexican Americans (circa 31 million) and English Americans (circa 28 million). White Americans (mostly European ancestry group with 73.1% of total population) are the largest racial group; black Americans are the nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group.