World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Germany attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, instigating uprisings in India, and sending a mission that urged Afghanistan to join the war on the side of Central Powers. However, contrary to British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain. Indian political leaders from the Indian National Congress and other groups were eager to support the British war effort, since they believed that strong support for the war effort would further the cause of Indian Home Rule.

Boarding school

boardingboardersresidential school
In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option (such as Eton and Harrow, which have produced several prime ministers), whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society. Canada and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function essentially as orphanages, e.g. the G.I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China.

The Doon School

Doon SchoolThe Doon School, DehradunDoon
Doon has been ranked the best residential school in India, including by BBC, The Times of India and The New York Times. Although the school has often been cited as 'Eton of India' by media outlets such as the BBC, The Guardian, The Spectator, Financial Times, The Economist, The Daily Telegraph and Forbes, it strongly eschews the label. Doon remains a boys-only school despite continued pressure from political leaders, including former President Pratibha Patil, to become coeducational. Old boys of the school are commonly known as Doscos.

Independent school (United Kingdom)

independentindependent schoolindependent schools
In the United Kingdom, independent schools (also private schools) are fee-levying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older, expensive and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were then open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion (while in many other countries a public school is run by the state or municipality).

Radley College

RadleyRadley SchoolRadley Hall
In 2012, the Independent review of A level results, based on government issued statistics, ranked Radley 31st in the UK, ahead of Malvern (32nd), Harrow (34th), Winchester (73rd), Eton (80th) and Wellington (89th) Rugby is the major sport of the Michaelmas (Autumn) Term. The school fields 21 rugby teams on most Saturdays of the Michaelmas term and some Thursdays. Radley is recognised for its rowing, having won events at Henley Royal Regatta on 6 occasions. Only Eton, Shrewsbury and St Edward's have won more events at the Regatta. Some Old Radleians have progressed to play cricket for England or captain county level cricket teams.

Jawaharlal Nehru

NehruPandit Jawaharlal NehruJawahar Lal Nehru
Nehru's sister, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit told Pupul Jayakar, Indira Gandhi's friend and biographer, that Padmaja Naidu and Nehru lived together for many years. During most of Nehru's tenure as the prime minister, Indira served her father unofficially as a personal assistant. Towards the end of the 1950s, Indira Gandhi served as the President of the Congress. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959.

Cheltenham College

CheltenhamCheltenham SchoolCheltenham College Junior School
Fourteen Victoria Crosses (VCs) have been won by Old Cheltonians, with only Eton College (37), Harrow School (20), Haileybury College (17), and Wellington College (15), having higher totals.(Although it should be taken into account that the Duke of York's Royal Military School does not publish lists of recipients of bravery awards in order not to diminish the service of those several thousand former pupils who have fought in battle and not received the VC, but only lesser awards for gallantry). The list of names, with age and rank at the time of the deed that merited the award of the VC, is as follows: * Kempster, Major André Gilbert (né Coccioletti).

List of Victoria Crosses by school

Three ONs have been awarded
The Victoria Cross has been awarded 1,358 times to persons of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. This list only shows a minor proportion. More than 900 VC winners have no school recorded, and some never attended school (primary school was not compulsory in the UK until the 1870s and secondary education only sometime later), so many private soldiers who were awarded the Victoria Cross in the past may never have gone to school or never gone to secondary school. (see British Army during the Victorian Era).

Public school (United Kingdom)

public schoolpublic schoolsPublic
In 2009 typical fees were up to £30,000 per annum for boarders. 19 Prime Ministers have attended Eton, seven Harrow, and six Westminster. Between 2010 and 2016, Prime Minister David Cameron (Eton) and Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne (St Paul's) had both been educated at Clarendon schools.

Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference

HMCHeadmasters' ConferenceThe Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference
H M Butler, Head Master, Harrow School, 1878. J J Hornby, Head Master, Eton College, 1879–80. E C Wickham, Head Master, Wellington College, 1881. H W Eve, Head Master, University College School, 1882–83. E M Young, Head Master, Sherborne School, 1884–85. W Haig Brown, Head Master, Charterhouse, 1886–87. W A Fearon, Head Master, Winchester College, 1888–89. E Warre, Head Master, Eton College, 1890–91. L W Baker, Headmaster, Merchant Taylors' School, 1892–93. E Warre, Head Master, Eton College, 1894–95. H A James, Headmaster, Rugby School, 1896. E Lyttelton, Headmaster, Haileybury, 1897. H W Moss, Headmaster, Shrewsbury School, 1898–99. Dr H B Gray, Head Master, Bradfield College, 1900.

Victoria Cross

VCV.C.Victoria Crosses
This began soon after the Partition of India in 1947, when the new countries of India and Pakistan introduced their own systems of awards. The VC was replaced by the Param Vir Chakra (PVC) and Nishan-e-Haider (NH) respectively. Most if not all new honours systems continued to permit recipients of British honours to wear their awards according to the rules of each nation's order of wear. Sri Lanka, whose defence personnel were eligible to receive the Victoria Cross until 1972, introduced its own equivalent, the Parama Weera Vibhushanaya medal.

Church of England

AnglicanChurchC of E
The Church of England (C of E) is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

Bedford School

Bedford Grammar SchoolBedfordBedford GS
On the rugby field, Bedford School competes regularly against Dulwich College, Haileybury, Harrow School, Oakham School, Oundle School, Radley College, Rugby School, St Edward's School, Oxford, Stowe School, Uppingham School, Warwick School and Wellington College. Bedford School has also fielded rugby teams against Marlborough College, Merchant Taylors' School, Mill Hill School, RGS High Wycombe and St Paul's School, amongst other schools. The school has produced many internationally famous sportsmen, including cricketer Alastair Cook, who went on to captain the England cricket team, and whose coach at Bedford School was sports master and former England batsman Derek Randall.

Independent school fee fixing scandal

illegal price-fixing cartel50 private schools in Britainfee fixing
Eton College. Gresham's School. Haileybury School. Harrow School. King's School, Canterbury. Lancing College. Malvern College. Marlborough College. Millfield School. Mill Hill School. Oakham School. Oundle School. Radley College. Repton School. Royal Hospital School. Rugby School. St Edward's School, Oxford. St Leonards-Mayfield School. Sedbergh School. Sevenoaks School. Sherborne School. Shrewsbury School. Stowe School. Strathallan School. Tonbridge School. Truro School. Uppingham School. Wellington College. Wells Cathedral School. Westminster School. Winchester College. Woldingham School. Worth School. Wycombe Abbey School.

Bedford Modern School

Bedford Modern School CCFBedford ModernBedford Modern School Boat Club
BMS competes against Bedford School, Berkhamsted School, Bishop's Stortford College, Eton College, Hampton School, Harrow School, Kimbolton School, Haileybury, Merchant Taylors, Oakham School, Oundle School, St Albans School, Stowe School and Stamford School in rugby union or rowing. Other sports include cricket, hockey, athletics, fencing, rugby fives, football, swimming, table tennis, tennis and water polo.

Dragon School

The Dragon SchoolDragon School, OxfordOxford Preparatory School
The Dragon School is a feeder school to many independent schools, including Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Cheltenham Ladies' College, Harrow School, Radley College, Rugby School, Marlborough College, Canford School, St Edward's School, Oxford and Abingdon School. The Dragon educates children from aged 4 to 13 in two sites in North Oxford: Bardwell Road and Richards Lane. Boarding starts at 8 and there are 10 boarding houses, including one weekly-boarding house. The School was founded by a committee of Oxford dons, among whom the most active was a Mr George. In honour of St George the group decided to call themselves Dragons.

Clifton College

CliftonClifton College Close GroundClifton College, Bristol
These matches were Clifton v Tonbridge, Rugby v Marlborough, Cheltenham v Haileybury, and Eton v Harrow. The Clifton v Tonbridge fixture at Lord's was first played in 1914, but ceased to be played in the 1960s, along with most other Lord's Schools matches. Today, only Eton v Harrow continues to take place at Lord's. A centenary match took place in June 2014 to commemorate the anniversary of the first playing of this match. On one of the college's cricket pitches, now known as Collins' Piece, what was for 116 years the highest-ever cricket score was reached in June 1899, in the inter-house match between Clark's House and North Town. In this match A. E. J.


DarjilingDarjeeling, IndiaDarjeeling Hills
Under the British Raj, the Darjeeling area was initially a "Non-Regulation District", a scheme of administration applicable to economically less advanced districts in the British India; acts and regulations of the British Raj did not automatically apply to the district in line with rest of the country. In 1919, the area was declared a "backward tract". During the Indian independence movement, the Non-cooperation movement spread through the tea estates of Darjeeling. There was also a failed assassination attempt by revolutionaries on John Anderson, the Governor of Bengal in 1934.

Rossall School

RossallRossall Junior SchoolRossall Preparatory School
Rossall has a memorial plaque at St Georges Chapel by the Menin Gate in honour of its fallen, alongside schools such as Rugby, Eton and Harrow. 1,617 ORs fought in World War I, 300 of whom received war honours. Before the outbreak of the Second World War Rossall had made plans to accommodate Westminster School however these plans were scrapped when the government requisitioned the campus for several departments of the Office of Works, the Board of Education and the Ministry of Pensions. As a result, the school moved to Naworth Castle. The government departments put up prefabricated buildings and found other premises close by as soon as possible, and left in 1940.

Gresham's School

GreshamGresham's School, HoltHolt Grammar School
The school's annual fees for the academic year 2018–19 are: In September 2005, Gresham's was one of fifty British schools (including Ampleforth, Eton, Charterhouse, Harrow, Bedford, Haileybury, Marlborough, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Stowe, Wellington and Winchester) which were considered by the Office of Fair Trading to be operating a fee-fixing cartel in breach of the Competition Act 1998. All of the schools were ordered to abandon the practice of exchanging information on their planned fees. More than half of the school's Governing Body represent the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, who have been the school's trustees since 1555.

List of independent schools in England

St Edward's School, Cheltenham. St Edward's School, Oxford. St Faith's School. Saint Felix School. St Francis' College, Letchworth. St Gabriel's School. St George's College, Weybridge. St George's School, Ascot. St George's School, Birmingham. St George's School, Windsor. St. Helen's School. St Hilary's School. St. Hilda's School, Bushey. St Hugh's School, Faringdon, Oxfordshire. St Hugh's School, Woodhall Spa. St James Independent Schools. St James' School, Grimsby. St John's Beaumont Preparatory School. St John's College, Portsmouth. St John's College School. St John's School, Billericay. St John's School, Leatherhead. St Joseph's College, Ipswich. St Joseph's College, Reading.

S. D. Burman

Sachin Dev BurmanS.D. BurmanS D Burman
In 1934, he attended the All India Music Conference, at the invitation of Allahabad University, where he presented his Bengali Thumri, all to an illustrious audience, with the likes of Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit and the inimitable Abdul Karim Khan of Kirana Gharana. Later in the year, he was invited to Bengal Music Conference, Kolkata, which was inaugurated by Rabindranath Tagore, here again he sang his Thumri, and was awarded a Gold Medal. He built a house in Southend Park, Ballygunge, Kolkata.

Winchester College

WinchesterWinchester SchoolOld Wykehamists
At one time Winchester was one of the Lord's schools, competing in a trilateral cricket tournament with Eton and Harrow; and for this reason the first cricket eleven is still known as "Lords" (with or without the apostrophe). Since 1855 Winchester has not taken part in this, instead playing Eton alternately at the two schools. Eton Match, when played at Winchester, was until recently the major event attended by Old Wykehamists and the main showcase for the school and its activities, but now most of the non-cricket-related functions have been moved to "Wykeham Day" in the autumn.

Charterhouse School

CharterhouseCarthusianCharter House
Other schools (in particular Eton College, Shrewsbury School and Harrow) favoured a dribbling game with a tight off-side rule. It is claimed that Stoke Ramblers was formed in 1863 when former pupils of Charterhouse School formed a football club while apprentices at the North Staffordshire Railway works in Stoke-on-Trent. By 1867 the Football Association had chosen in favour of the Charterhouse and Westminster game and adopted a "loose" off-side rule that permitted forward passing. The modern forward-passing game was a direct consequence of Charterhouse and Westminster football. In the early years of the FA Cup, teams formed of ex-pupils from these schools dominated the competition.

Westminster School

WestminsterWestminster CollegeWestminster schoolboy
Other schools (in particular Eton College, Harrow, and Shrewsbury School) favoured a dribbling game with a tight off-side rule. By 1867 the Football Association had chosen in favour of the Westminster and Charterhouse game and adopted an off-side rule that permitted forward passing.