Zero-day (computing)

zero-dayzero-day exploitzero-day attack
For zero-day exploits, the probability that a user has patched their bugs is zero, so the exploit should always succeed. Zero-day attacks are a severe threat. Malware writers can exploit zero-day vulnerabilities through several different attack vectors. Sometimes, when users visit rogue websites, malicious code on the site can exploit vulnerabilities in Web browsers. Web browsers are a particular target for criminals because of their widespread distribution and usage. Cybercriminals can also send malicious e-mail attachments via SMTP, which exploit vulnerabilities in the application opening the attachment.

Computer security

cybersecuritysecuritycyber security
An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or "exploit" exists. Vulnerabilities are often hunted or exploited with the aid of automated tools or manually using customized scripts. To secure a computer system, it is important to understand the attacks that can be made against it, and these threats can typically be classified into one of these categories below: A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm, is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for a number of reasons, including by original design or from poor configuration.

Dark web

deep webdarknetdark
Other topics include the e-commerce versions of conventional black markets, cyberweaponry from TheRealDeal, and role of operations security. Deepnet. List of Tor onion services. Excuse Me, I Think Your Dark Web is Showing – A presentation at the March 2017 BSides Vancouver Security Conference on security practices on Tor's hidden services. Attacks Landscape in the Dark Side of the Web.

Cyber-arms industry

cyber-armscyberarmsrented out
TheRealDeal. Cybercrime. Cyberwarfare. Cyberweapon. Market for zero-day exploits. Mass surveillance industry. Vulnerabilities Equities Process.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsblack market passwords
In April, TheRealDeal, the first open cyber-arms market for software exploits as well as drugs, launched to the interest of computer security experts. In May varied DDOS attacks were performed against different markets including TheRealDeal. The market owners set up a phishing website to get the attacker's password, and subsequently revealed collaboration between the attacker and the administrator of Mr Nice Guy's market who was also planning to scam his users. This information was revealed to news site DeepDotWeb. On July 31, the Italian police in conjunction with Europol shut down the Italian language Babylon darknet market seizing 11,254 Bitcoin wallet addresses and 1 million euros.


Exclusive coverage has included darknet market drug busts, pedophile crowdfunding, the details of hacking of darknet markets. as well as the diversification of markets such as TheRealDeal selling software exploits. Site features include blacklisted markets, comparisons and reviews. In May 2015 McAfee covered a free ransomware-as-a-service called 'Tox' hosted somewhere on the dark web whose developers gave an interview to DeepDotWeb.

Security hacker

A security exploit is a prepared application that takes advantage of a known weakness. Common examples of security exploits are SQL injection, cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery which abuse security holes that may result from substandard programming practice. Other exploits would be able to be used through File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), PHP, SSH, Telnet and some Web pages. These are very common in Web site and Web domain hacking. In some cases, a help-desk employee with limited security experience will answer the phone and be relatively easy to trick.

Vulnerability (computing)

vulnerabilitiesvulnerabilitysecurity vulnerabilities
exploited to cause harm to the ADP system or activity. 3) In computer security, any weakness or flaw existing in a system.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
A specific example of a nuke attack that gained some prominence is the WinNuke, which exploited the vulnerability in the NetBIOS handler in Windows 95. A string of out-of-band data was sent to TCP port 139 of the victim's machine, causing it to lock up and display a Blue Screen of Death (BSOD). Attackers have found a way to exploit a number of bugs in peer-to-peer servers to initiate DDoS attacks. The most aggressive of these peer-to-peer-DDoS attacks exploits DC++. With peer-to-peer there is no botnet and the attacker does not have to communicate with the clients it subverts.

Exploit kit

exploit kits
An exploit kit is simply a collection of exploits, which is a simple one-in-all tool for managing a variety of exploits altogether. Exploit kits act as a kind of repository, and make it easy for users without much technical knowledge to use exploits. Users can add their own exploits to it and use them simultaneously apart from the pre-installed ones. One of the earlier kits was MPack, in 2006. Exploit kits are often designed to be modular and easy to use, enabling the addition of new vulnerabilities and the removal of existing ones.

Privilege escalation

jailbreakingjailbreakprivileged control
Then, an attacker may be able to exploit this assumption, in order to run unauthorized code with the application's privileges: A jailbreak is the act or tool used to perform the act of breaking out of a chroot or jail in UNIX-like operating systems or bypassing digital rights management (DRM). In the former case, it allows the user to see files outside of the filesystem that the administrator intends to make available to the application or user in question. In the context of DRM, this allows the user to run arbitrarily defined code on devices with DRM as well as break out of chroot-like restrictions.

Hacking: The Art of Exploitation

If a program is exploited there are ways to tell how it happened. Finding out how a program was exploited can be a very tedious process since it usually starts with taking parts of the program and looking at them individually. Putting an exploited program back together again to see how it was exploited is shown in the book. Advanced Camouflage When a hacker is exploiting a program his IP address can be written to a log file. Camouflaging the log files so that his IP address can not be detected is shown in the book. When an IP address is hidden, it is called spoofing the IP address.

Metasploit Project

MetasploitMetasploit FrameworkMetasploit Express
Powerful payloads: The evolution of exploit frameworks,, 2005-10-20. Chapter 12: Writing Exploits III from Sockets, Shellcode, Porting & Coding: Reverse Engineering Exploits and Tool Coding for Security Professionals by James C. Foster (ISBN: 1-59749-005-9). Written by Vincent Liu, chapter 12 explains how to use Metasploit to develop a buffer overflow exploit from scratch. Metasploit Community – The Official Metasploit online community. Metasploit Unleashed – Mastering The Framework. Metasploit Resource Portal.


code executionremote exploit injection code
Exploit (computer security). Heap overflow. Metasploit Project. Shell (computing). Shell shoveling. Stack buffer overflow. Vulnerability (computing). Shell-Storm Database of shellcodes Multi-Platform. An introduction to buffer overflows and shellcode. The Basics of Shellcoding (PDF) An overview of x86 shellcoding by Angelo Rosiello. An introduction to shellcode development. Contains x86 and non-x86 shellcode samples and an online interface for automatic shellcode generation and encoding, from the Metasploit Project. a shellcode archive, sorted by Operating system. Microsoft Windows and Linux shellcode design tutorial going from basic to advanced.

IT risk

Information technology riskriskStandards Organizations and Standards
Exploit (computer security). Factor analysis of information risk. Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Information security. Information Security Forum. Information technology. Integrity. International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles. ISACA. ISO. ISO/IEC 27000-series. ISO/IEC 27001:2013. ISO/IEC 27002. IT risk management. Long-term support. National Information Assurance Training and Education Center. National Institute of Standards and Technology. National security. OWASP. Patriot Act, Title III. Privacy. Risk. Risk factor (computing). Risk IT. Sarbanes–Oxley Act. Standard of Good Practice.

Computer virus

virusvirusescomputer viruses
As software is often designed with security features to prevent unauthorized use of system resources, many viruses must exploit and manipulate security bugs, which are security defects in a system or application software, to spread themselves and infect other computers. Software development strategies that produce large numbers of "bugs" will generally also produce potential exploitable "holes" or "entrances" for the virus. In order to replicate itself, a virus must be permitted to execute code and write to memory. For this reason, many viruses attach themselves to executable files that may be part of legitimate programs (see code injection).


The Bankash.G Trojan, for example, exploited an Internet Explorer vulnerability to steal passwords and monitor user input on webmail and online commerce sites. Targeted attacks sent via SMTP. These social-engineered threats often arrive disguised as a valid e-mail message and include specific company information and sender addresses. The malicious e-mails use social engineering to manipulate users to open the attachment and execute the payload. Remote exploits that exploit vulnerabilities on servers and clients. Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. California Senate Bill 1386.

Operation Shrouded Horizon

Among those arrested were administrators for darknet market TheRealDeal, who were also active at Darkode. Upon announcing the charges, United States Attorney David J. Hickton called the site "a cyber hornet's nest of criminal hackers" which "represented one of the gravest threats to the integrity of data on computers in the United States". Though led by the FBI and assisted by Europol, reports credit agencies in 20 countries: Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Latvia, Macedonia, Nigeria, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States.


computer softwaresoftware technologyprogram
Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.

Software bug

bugsbugsoftware bugs
Although in general the problem of finding all programming errors given a specification is not solvable (see halting problem), these tools exploit the fact that human programmers tend to make certain kinds of simple mistakes often when writing software. Tools to monitor the performance of the software as it is running, either specifically to find problems such as bottlenecks or to give assurance as to correct working, may be embedded in the code explicitly (perhaps as simple as a statement saying ), or provided as tools. It is often a surprise to find where most of the time is taken by a piece of code, and this removal of assumptions might cause the code to be rewritten.

Spoofing attack

In the context of information security, and especially network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.

Tor (anonymity network)

TorTor anonymity networkTor network
The "bad apple attack" exploits Tor's design and takes advantage of insecure application use to associate the simultaneous use of a secure application with the IP address of the Tor user in question. One method of attack depends on control of an exit node or hijacking tracker responses, while a secondary attack method is based in part on the statistical exploitation of distributed hash table tracking. According to the study: The results presented in the bad apple attack research paper are based on an attack in the wild launched against the Tor network by the authors of the study.

Penetration test

penetration testingCHECK Schemenetwork vulnerability testing
The process of penetration testing may be simplified into five phases: Once an attacker has exploited one vulnerability they may gain access to other machines so the process repeats i.e. look for new vulnerabilities and attempt to exploit them. This process is referred to as pivoting. Legal operations that let the tester execute an illegal operation include unescaped SQL commands, unchanged salts in source-visible projects, human relationships, and old hash or crypto functions. A single flaw may not be enough to enable a critically serious exploit. Leveraging multiple known flaws and shaping the payload in a way that appears as a valid operation is almost always required.

Firewall (computing)

firewallfirewallspacket filter
Also, these per-process rule sets cannot defend against modification of the process via exploitation, such as memory corruption exploits. Because of these limitations, application firewalls are beginning to be supplanted by a new generation of application firewalls that rely on mandatory access control (MAC), also referred to as sandboxing, to protect vulnerable services. A proxy server (running either on dedicated hardware or as software on a general-purpose machine) may act as a firewall by responding to input packets (connection requests, for example) in the manner of an application, while blocking other packets.