. * List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system American Family Physician, Eyelid Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. Anatomy of the Human Eyelid.
ciliary glandsGland of Mollglands of Moll
inferior palpebral arterysuperior palpebralsuperior palpebral artery
The medial palpebral arteries (internal palpebral arteries) are arteries of the head. They are two in number, superior and inferior, arise from the ophthalmic, opposite the pulley of the Obliquus superior. They leave the orbit to encircle the eyelids near their free margins, forming a superior and an inferior arch, which lie between the orbicularis oculi and the tarsi. The superior palpebral arch anastomoses, at the lateral angle of the orbit, with the zygomaticoörbital branch of the temporal artery and with the upper of the two lateral palpebral branches from the lacrimal artery.
Eyelid. Nictitating membrane. Simple eye in invertebrates. Tapetum lucidum. Tears. Evolution of the eye. Anatomy of the eye – flash animated interactive. (Adobe Flash). Webvision. The organisation of the retina and visual system. An in-depth treatment of retinal function, open to all but geared most towards graduate students. Eye strips images of all but bare essentials before sending visual information to brain, UC Berkeley research shows.
Second, the edges of the upper and lower eyelid grow bands of fibrous tissue, often causing them to be fused together. This condition in the eyelids is called ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. Hay–Wells syndrome is also known as AEC syndrome; this is short for "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome", "ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft palate syndrome", "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal defects–cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome", "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal defect–cleft lip and/or palate syndrome", or "ankyloblepharon ectodermal dysplasia and clefting".
. * http://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/figures/chapter_47/47-2.HTM skin of the lower part of the forehead, close to the midline. conjunctiva. skin of the upper eyelid. infratrochlear nerve. frontal nerve.
Aging causes laxity, downward shift of eyelid tissues and atrophy of the orbital fat. These changes contribute to the etiology of several eyelid disorders such as ectropion, entropion, dermatochalasis, and ptosis. The vitreous gel undergoes liquefaction (posterior vitreous detachment or PVD) and its opacities — visible as floaters — gradually increase in number. Various eye care professionals, including ophthalmologists (eye doctors/surgeons), optometrists, and opticians, are involved in the treatment and management of ocular and vision disorders. A Snellen chart is one type of eye chart used to measure visual acuity.
cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is 4 mm thick and is the thickest skin on the body. The speed and quality of wound healing in skin is promoted by the reception of estrogen. Fur is dense hair. Primarily, fur augments the insulation the skin provides but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather.
Fat, except in the eyelids, clitoris, penis, much of pinna, and scrotum. Blood vessels on route to the dermis. Lymphatic vessels on route from the dermis. The glandular part of some sweat glands; mammary gland lie entirely within the subcutaneous tissue (which are modified apocrine sweat glands). Cutaneous nerves and free endings. Hair follicle roots. Ruffini and Pacinian corpuscles. Mast cells. Bursae, in the space overlying joints in order to facilitate smooth passage of overlying skin. Fine, flat sheets of muscle, in certain locations, including the scalp, face, hand, nipple, and scrotum, called the panniculus carnosus. Subcutaneous abscess. Subcutaneous tumor. Dermis. Epidermis.
Eyelid. Professional mourning. Sadness.
trigeminalVfifth cranial nerve
The ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ) carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose, except alae nasi), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels). The maxillary nerve (V 2 ) carries sensory information from the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and parts of the meninges.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams. Such a connection may be normal (such as the foramen ovale in a fetus's heart) or abnormal (such as the patent foramen ovale in an adult's heart); it may be acquired (such as an arteriovenous fistula) or innate (such as the arteriovenous shunt of a metarteriole); and it may be natural (such as the aforementioned examples) or artificial (such as a surgical anastomosis). The reestablishment of an anastomosis that had become blocked is called a reanastomosis.
S. aureusstaph infectionmethicillin-sensitive ''Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen. Although S. aureus usually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory.
acne vulgariscystic acneblemishes
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide.
warm compresseswarm moist compress
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids may also be used in conjunction. dry eyes. pinkeye (conjunctivitis). stye or chalazion. swollen eyelids (blephartis). muscle spasms or pain.
Demodex canisD. canisDemodex erminae
Blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids) can be also caused by Demodex mites. Research about human infection by Demodex mites is ongoing: The natural host of Demodex canis is the domestic dog. Although it can temporarily infect humans, D. canis mites cannot survive on the human skin and therefore will die shortly after exposure and are considered not to be zoonotic. Naturally, the D. canis mite has a commensal relationship with the dog and therefore under normal conditions does not produce any clinical signs or disease. The escalation of a commensal D. canis infestation into one requiring clinical attention usually involves complex immune factors.
demodectic mangedemodecticDemodex Mange
Demodicosis is accompanied by itching, swelling and erythema of the eyelid margins, and the appearance of scales at the base of the eyelashes. Typically, patients complain of eyestrain. Demodectic mange also occurs in other domestic and wild animals including captive pandas and in China. The mites are specific to their hosts, and each mammal species is host to one or two unique species of Demodex mites. There are two types of demodectic mange in cats. Demodex cati causes follicular mange, similar to that seen in dogs, though it is much less common. Demodex gatoi is a more superficial form of mange, causes an itchy skin condition, and is contagious amongst cats.