Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue, leading to the formation of redundant folds over the lid margins. It typically affects only the upper eyelids, and may be unilateral as well as bilateral. Complications of blepharochalasis may include conjunctival hyperemia (excessive blood flow through the moist tissues of the orbit), chemosis, entropion, ectropion, and ptosis. Blepharochalasis is idiopathic in most cases, i.e., the cause is unknown.


benign essential blepharospasmblepharospasmodic contractionseyelid
Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. The condition should be distinguished from the more common, and milder, involuntary quivering of an eyelid, known as myokymia. In most cases, blepharospasm symptoms last for a few days and then disappear without treatment, but in some cases the twitching is chronic and persistent, causing life-long challenges. In these cases, the symptoms are often severe enough to result in functional blindness. The person's eyelids feel like they are clamping shut and will not open without great effort. People have normal eyes, but for periods of time are effectively blind due to their inability to open their eyelids.

Ptosis (eyelid)

ptosisblepharoptosisdrooping eyelid
Ptosis due to trauma can ensue after an eyelid laceration with transection of the upper eyelid elevators or disruption of the neural input. Other causes of ptosis include eyelid neoplasms, neurofibromas or the cicatrization after inflammation or surgery. Mild ptosis may occur with aging. A drooping eyelid can be one of the first signals of a third nerve palsy due to a cerebral aneurysm, that otherwise is asymptomatic and referred to as an oculomotor nerve palsy. Use of high doses of opioid drugs such as morphine, oxycodone, heroin, or hydrocodone can cause ptosis. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant drug, has also been known to cause mild ptosis.


hydrocephalyhydrocephaliccongenital hydrocephalus
Focal neurological deficits may also occur, such as abducens nerve palsy and vertical gaze palsy (Parinaud syndrome due to compression of the quadrigeminal plate, where the neural centers coordinating the conjugated vertical eye movement are located). The symptoms depend on the cause of the blockage, the person's age, and how much brain tissue has been damaged by the swelling. In infants with hydrocephalus, CSF builds up in the central nervous system, causing the fontanelle (soft spot) to bulge and the head to be larger than expected.


eyelid surgeryblepharoplastieseye lift
Sequentially, lower eyelid blepharoplasty can successfully address the anatomic matters of excess eyelid skin, slackness of the eye-muscles and of the orbital septum (palpebral ligament), excess orbital fat, malposition of the lower eyelid, and prominence of the nasojugal groove, where the orbit (eye socket) meets the slope of the nose.

Nictitating membrane

third eyelidnictating membranehaw
The nictitating membrane is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision. The term comes from the Latin word nictare, meaning "to blink". It is often called a third eyelid or haw, and may be referred to in scientific terminology as the plica semilunaris, membrana nictitans, or palpebra tertia. Unlike the upper and lower eyelids, the nictitating membrane moves horizontally across the eyeball. In many species, any stimulus to the eyeball (such as a puff of air) will result in reflex nictitating membrane response.


While the improvement of vision is an indication for blepharoplasty on the superior eyelid, if the visual fields are not obstructed, it may be performed for cosmetic reasons. In general, blepharoplasty of the inferior eyelid is considered cosmetic, as dermatochalasis in the lower eyelid does not interfere with vision. Dermatochalasis commonly affects the elderly, although sometimes it is congenitally acquired. The elderly version may begin to develop as early as 40 years of age, and it continues to progress with age. The congenital version may begin around 20 years of age. There is no racial predisposition towards developing dermatochalasis, and men and women are equally affected.

Last offices

bathing the deadbody is washedwashing of the body of one who had died
Eyelids are closed. The jaw is often supported with a pillow or cervical collar. Dentures should be left in place, unless inappropriate. The bladder is drained by applying pressure on the lower abdomen. Orifices are blocked only if leakage of body fluid is evident. The body is then washed and dried, the mouth cleaned and the face shaved. An identification bracelet is put on the ankle detailing: the name of the patient; date of birth; date and time of death; name of ward (if patient died in hospital); patient identification number. The body is dressed in a simple garment or wrapped in a shroud. An identification label duplicating the above information is pinned to the wrap or shroud.

Moll's gland

ciliary glandsGland of Mollglands of Moll
. * List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system American Family Physician, Eyelid Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. Anatomy of the Human Eyelid.


Pineal astrocytoma
Frequently, paralysis of upward gaze along with several ocular findings such as convergence retraction nystagmus and eyelid retraction also known as Collier's sign and Light Near Dissociation (pupil accommodates but doesn't react to light) are known collectively as Parinaud's syndrome or Dorsal Mid-brain syndrome, are the only physical symptoms seen. This is caused by the compression of the vertical gaze center in the midbrain tectum at the level of the superior colliculus and cranial nerve III. Work-up usually includes Neuro-imaging as seen on the right.

Medial palpebral arteries

inferior palpebral arterysuperior palpebralsuperior palpebral artery
The medial palpebral arteries (internal palpebral arteries) are arteries of the head. They are two in number, superior and inferior, arise from the ophthalmic, opposite the pulley of the Obliquus superior. They leave the orbit to encircle the eyelids near their free margins, forming a superior and an inferior arch, which lie between the orbicularis oculi and the tarsi. The superior palpebral arch anastomoses, at the lateral angle of the orbit, with the zygomaticoörbital branch of the temporal artery and with the upper of the two lateral palpebral branches from the lacrimal artery.


Eyelid. Nictitating membrane. Simple eye in invertebrates. Tapetum lucidum. Tears. Evolution of the eye. Anatomy of the eye – flash animated interactive. (Adobe Flash). Webvision. The organisation of the retina and visual system. An in-depth treatment of retinal function, open to all but geared most towards graduate students. Eye strips images of all but bare essentials before sending visual information to brain, UC Berkeley research shows.

Infratrochlear nerve

It then passes to the medial commissure of the eye, and supplies the skin of the upper eyelids and bridge of the nose, the conjunctiva, lacrimal sac and caruncle. Infratrochlear means "below the trochlea". The term trochlea means "pulley" in Latin. Specifically, the trochlea referred to is a bony loop at the inner and upper corner of the eye socket (trochlea of superior oblique), through which the tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes.

Pineal gland

pinealpineal foramenpineal body
A pineal tumor can compress the superior colliculi and pretectal area of the dorsal midbrain, producing Parinaud's syndrome. Pineal tumors also can cause compression of the cerebral aqueduct, resulting in a noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Other manifestations are the consequence of their pressure effects and consist of visual disturbances, headache, mental deterioration, and sometimes dementia-like behaviour. These neoplasms are divided into three categories, pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and mixed tumors, based on their level of differentiation, which, in turn, correlates with their neoplastic aggressiveness.

Hay–Wells syndrome

Second, the edges of the upper and lower eyelid grow bands of fibrous tissue, often causing them to be fused together. This condition in the eyelids is called ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. Hay–Wells syndrome is also known as AEC syndrome; this is short for "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome", "ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft palate syndrome", "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal defects–cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome", "ankyloblepharon–ectodermal defect–cleft lip and/or palate syndrome", or "ankyloblepharon ectodermal dysplasia and clefting".

Supratrochlear nerve

supratrochlearsupra-trochlear nerves
. * skin of the lower part of the forehead, close to the midline. conjunctiva. skin of the upper eyelid. infratrochlear nerve. frontal nerve.

Human eye

Aging causes laxity, downward shift of eyelid tissues and atrophy of the orbital fat. These changes contribute to the etiology of several eyelid disorders such as ectropion, entropion, dermatochalasis, and ptosis. The vitreous gel undergoes liquefaction (posterior vitreous detachment or PVD) and its opacities — visible as floaters — gradually increase in number. Various eye care professionals, including ophthalmologists (eye doctors/surgeons), optometrists, and opticians, are involved in the treatment and management of ocular and vision disorders. A Snellen chart is one type of eye chart used to measure visual acuity.

Rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus

rostral interstitial nucleusvertical gaze center
The rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) is a portion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus which controls vertical gaze.

Eye movement

eye movementsversionmovements of the eye
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. A special type of eye movement, rapid eye movement, occurs during REM sleep.


cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is 4 mm thick and is the thickest skin on the body. The speed and quality of wound healing in skin is promoted by the reception of estrogen. Fur is dense hair. Primarily, fur augments the insulation the skin provides but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather.


pupilspupillaryanatomical pupil
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil.

Subcutaneous tissue

subcutaneoussubcutaneous fathypodermis
Fat, except in the eyelids, clitoris, penis, much of pinna, and scrotum. Blood vessels on route to the dermis. Lymphatic vessels on route from the dermis. The glandular part of some sweat glands; mammary gland lie entirely within the subcutaneous tissue (which are modified apocrine sweat glands). Cutaneous nerves and free endings. Hair follicle roots. Ruffini and Pacinian corpuscles. Mast cells. Bursae, in the space overlying joints in order to facilitate smooth passage of overlying skin. Fine, flat sheets of muscle, in certain locations, including the scalp, face, hand, nipple, and scrotum, called the panniculus carnosus. Subcutaneous abscess. Subcutaneous tumor. Dermis. Epidermis.


lesionsbrain lesionslesion studies
A lesion is any damage or abnormal change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. Lesion is derived from the Latin laesio "injury". Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals.


brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, and the pons and medulla oblongata of the hindbrain. Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included.