Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause. Birth defects may result in disabilities that may be physical, intellectual, or developmental. The disabilities can range from mild to severe. Birth defects are divided into two main types: structural disorders in which there are problems with the shape of a body part and functional disorders in which there are problems with how a body part works. Functional disorders include metabolic and degenerative disorders. Some birth defects include both structural and functional disorders.


subclinicalno symptomssub-clinical
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic infections are also called subclinical infections. Other diseases (such as mental illnesses) might be considered subclinical if they present some but not all of the symptoms required for a clinical diagnosis. The term clinically silent is also used.


in-growingingrown eyelashes
Trichiasis in dogs is hair from the eyelid growing in the wrong direction and rubbing on the eye, causing irritation. It usually occurs at the lateral upper eyelid, especially in the English Cocker Spaniel. Trichiasis also refers to hair from a nasal fold rubbing on the eye. This type of trichiasis can be flattened by rubbing petroleum jelly onto it, but surgery is sometimes necessary for permanent correction. Inferior punctate epitheliopathy. Corneal ulceration. Pannus. Distichiasis. Madarosis. Trachoma.


allergiesallergicallergic reaction
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.


A neoplasm is a type of abnormal and excessive growth, called neoplasia, of tissue. The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and it persists growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed. This abnormal growth usually (but not always) forms a mass. When it forms a mass, it may be called a tumor.

Basal-cell carcinoma

basal cell carcinomabasal cell cancerbasal cell
A weakness with standard surgical excision is the high recurrence rate of basal-cell cancers of the face, especially around the eyelids, nose, and facial structures. There is no clear approach for treating basal-cell carcinoma around the eye. A diagram on page 38 of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network publication demonstrate the area of high risk of recurrence as being most of the face with the exception of the central cheek and upper forehead.

Tissue (biology)

tissuetissuesbiological tissue
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.


eczemaallergic dermatitischronic eczema
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin. These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin and a rash. In cases of short duration, there may be small blisters, while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened. The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.

Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical medications may also be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth.

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages. Adipose tissue is derived from preadipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα.


Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.


pelvic cellulitisbacterial skin infectioncellulitus
Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin. It specifically affects the dermis and subcutaneous fat. Signs and symptoms include an area of redness which increases in size over a few days. The borders of the area of redness are generally not sharp and the skin may be swollen. While the redness often turns white when pressure is applied, this is not always the case. The area of infection is usually painful. Lymphatic vessels may occasionally be involved, and the person may have a fever and feel tired.

Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite

2007 Encyclopædia Britannica UltimateEncyclopædia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD
Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite is an encyclopædia based on the Encyclopædia Britannica and published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc..


pink eyepinkeyeblepharoconjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes. The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial. The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold. Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people.

List of skeletal muscles of the human body

neck musclesMuscleHead
This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy.

Epicanthic fold

epicanthal foldepicanthal foldsepicanthic folds
The epicanthic fold is the skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Various factors influence whether epicanthic folds form, including ancestry, age, and certain medical conditions. The highest frequency of occurrence of epicanthic folds are found in: East Asians, Southeast Asians, Central Asians, North Asians, some South Asians, Polynesians, Micronesians, Native Americans (as well as Mestizos), the Khoisan, and the Malagasy. In some of these populations the trait is almost universal.

ICD-10 Chapter VII: Diseases of the eye, adnexa

ICD-10Eye diseasesICD-10 Chapter VIIICD-10 code
Hordeolum and other deep inflammation of eyelid. Chalazion. Other inflammation of eyelid. Blepharitis. Noninfectious dermatoses of eyelid. Other disorders of eyelid. Entropion and trichiasis of eyelid. Ectropion of eyelid. Lagophthalmos. Blepharochalasis. Ptosis of eyelid. Other disorders affecting eyelid function. Ankyloblepharon. Blepharophimosis. Lid retraction. Xanthelasma of eyelid. Other degenerative disorders of eyelid and periocular area. Disorders of eyelid in diseases classified elsewhere. Disorders of lacrimal system. Dacryoadenitis. Other disorders of lacrimal gland. Epiphora. Acute and unspecified inflammation of lacrimal passages. Acute, subacute or unspecified dacryocystitis.

Eye shadow

eyeshadoweye shadowssmoky eye
The use of eye shadow attempts to replicate the natural eye shadow that some women exhibit due to a natural contrasting pigmentation on their eyelids. Natural eye shadow can range anywhere from a glossy shine to one's eyelids, to a pinkish tone, or even a silver look. Eye shadow can be applied in a wide variety of ways depending upon the desired look and formulation. Typically application is done using fingers or brushes. The most important aspect of applying eye shadow, and makeup in general, is blending well. However, you must not forget to include a primer to limit the chances of creases in your eye shadow later.

ICD-10 Chapter XIX: Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes

ICD-10ICD-10 code
Contusion of eyelid and periocular area. Black eye. Other superficial injuries of eyelid and periocular area. Superficial injury of nose. Superficial injury of ear. Superficial injury of lip and oral cavity. Multiple superficial injuries of head. Superficial injury of other parts of head. Superficial injury of head, part unspecified. Open wound of head. Fracture of skull and facial bones. Fracture of vault of skull. Fracture of base of skull. Fracture of nasal bones. Fracture of orbital floor. Fracture of malar and maxillary bones. Fracture of tooth. Fracture of mandible. Multiple fractures involving skull and facial bones. Fractures of other skull and facial bones.

Extraocular muscles

extraocular muscleeye muscleseye muscle
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae). The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction. Since only a small part of the eye called the fovea provides sharp vision, the eye must move to follow a target. Eye movements must be precise and fast. This is seen in scenarios like reading, where the reader must shift gaze constantly. Although under voluntary control, most eye movement is accomplished without conscious effort.