Benign fasciculation syndrome

The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most common in the eyelids, arms, hands/fingers legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected. The twitching may be occasional or may go on continuously. The main symptom of benign fasciculation syndrome is focal or widespread involuntary muscle activity (twitching), which can occur at random or specific times (or places). Presenting symptoms of benign fasciculation syndrome may include: Other symptoms include: BFS symptoms are typically present when the muscle is at rest and are not accompanied by severe muscle weakness.

Dalrymple's sign

Dalrymple disease
Dalrymple's sign is a widened palpebral (eyelid) opening, or eyelid spasm, seen in thyrotoxicosis (as seen in Graves' disease, exophthalmic Goitre and other hyperthyroid conditions), causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure. As a result of the retraction of the upper eyelid, the white of the sclera is visible at the upper margin of the cornea in direct outward stare. It is named after British ophthalmologist, John Dalrymple (1803–1852). Other eye signs described within the symptomology of Graves' disease are Stellwag's sign (rare blinking), Rosenbach's sign (tremor of the eyelids), and Jelink's sign (hyperpigmentation of the eyelid). * Dalrymple's sign Graves ophthalmopathy.

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

ICD-10 Chapter QICD-10 Chapter XICD-10 codeICD-10 Chapter XVIreproductive organs
Congenital malformations of eyelid, lacrimal apparatus and orbit. Congenital ptosis. Congenital ectropion. Congenital entropion. Other congenital malformations of eyelid. Ablepharon. Blepharophimosis, congenital. Coloboma of eyelid. Absence and agenesis of lacrimal apparatus. Congenital stenosis and stricture of lacrimal duct. Other congenital malformations of lacrimal apparatus. Congenital malformation of orbit. Anophthalmos, microphthalmos and macrophthalmos. Cystic eyeball. Other anophthalmos. Microphthalmos. Macrophthalmos. Congenital lens malformations. Congenital cataract. Congenital displaced lens. Coloboma of lens. Congenital aphakia. Spherophakia.

Jeavons syndrome

It is one of the most distinctive reflex syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by the triad of eyelid myoclonia with and without absences, eye-closure-induced seizures, EEG paroxysms, or both, and photosensitivity. Eyelid myoclonia with or without absences is a form of epileptic seizure manifesting with myoclonic jerks of the eyelids with or without a brief absence. These are mainly precipitated by closing of the eyes and lights. Eyelid myoclonia is the defining seizure type of Jeavons syndrome. Eyelid myoclonia, not the absences, is the hallmark of Jeavons syndrome.

Dennie–Morgan fold

Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
A Dennie–Morgan fold should not be confused with an "allergic shiner", a purple-gray discolouration beneath the lower eyelid. This is related to the accumulation of blood and other fluid in the infraorbital groove resulting from nasal congestion. * Charles Clayton Dennie

Slit lamp

slit-lampslit-lamp examinationslit lamp microscope
The lamp facilitates an examination of the anterior segment and posterior segment of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination provides a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions. A second, hand-held lens is used to examine the retina. Two conflicting trends emerged in the development of the slit lamp. One trend originated from clinical research and aimed to apply the increasingly complex and advanced technology of the time.


The absence of the eye will cause a small bony orbit, a constricted mucosal socket, short eyelids, reduced palpebral fissure and malar prominence. Genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and prenatal environment can all cause anophthalmia. Anophthalmia is an extremely rare disease and is mostly rooted in genetic abnormalities. It can also be associated with other syndromes. The most genetic based cause for anophthalmia is caused by the SOX2 gene. Sox2 anophthalmia syndrome is caused by a mutation in the Sox2 gene that does not allow it to produce the Sox2 protein that regulates the activity of other genes by binding to certain regions of DNA.

Lupus vulgaris

lupuslupus vulgaris,
Lupus vulgaris (also known as tuberculosis luposa ) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. It is the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis skin infection. The lesions may ultimately develop into disfiguring skin ulcers if left untreated. It begins as painless reddish-brown nodules which slowly enlarge to form irregularly shaped red plaque. Lupus vulgaris often develops due to inadequately treated pre-existing tuberculosis. It may also develop at site of BCG vaccination.

Boston's sign

Boston's sign is the spasmodic lowering of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter. Similar to von Graefe's sign, it is observed in people with Graves-Basedow disease, a type of hyperthyroidism. In this disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and the soft tissues surrounding the eyes. As a result, the eyes are often pushed forward in the eye sockets, a condition known as exophthalmos. *Graves orbitopathy

Corneal reflex

blink reflexcorneal
The corneal reflex, also known as the blink reflex, is an involuntary blinking of the eyelids elicited by stimulation of the cornea (such as by touching or by a foreign body), though could result from any peripheral stimulus. Stimulation should elicit both a direct and consensual response (response of the opposite eye). The reflex occurs at a rapid rate of 0.1 seconds. The purpose of this reflex is to protect the eyes from foreign bodies and bright lights (the latter known as the optical reflex). The blink reflex also occurs when sounds greater than 40–60 dB are made. The reflex is mediated by: Use of contact lenses may diminish or abolish the testing of this reflex.

List of ICD-9 codes 740–759: congenital anomalies

Congenital anomalies of eyelids, lacrimal system, and orbit. Congenital anomalies of ear, face, and neck. Anomalies of ear causing impairment of hearing. Accessory auricle. Other specified congenital anomalies of ear. Macrotia. Microtia. Unspecified congenital anomaly of ear. Branchial cleft cyst or fistula; preauricular sinus. Webbing of neck. Other specified congenital anomalies of face and neck. Macrocheilia. Microcheilia. Macrostomia. Microstomia. Bulbus cordis anomalies and anomalies of cardiac septal closure. Common truncus. Transposition of great vessels. Tetralogy of fallot. Common ventricle. Ventricular septal defect. Atrial septal defect. Endocardial cushion defects.

Ocular prosthesis

glass eyeartificial eyeocular prosthetic
The newest model is the multipurpose conical orbital implant, which was designed to address the issues of the postoperative anophthalmic orbit being at risk for the development of socket abnormalities including enophthalmos, retraction of the upper eyelid, deepening of the superior sulcus, backward tilt of the prothesis, and stretching of the lower eyelid.1 after evisceration or enucleation, These problems are generally thought to be secondary to orbital volume deficiencies which is also addressed by MCOIs. The conical shape of the multipurpose conical porous polyethylene orbital implant (MCOI) (Porex Medical) more closely matches the anatomic shape of the orbit than a spherical implant.


surgical closuretarsorraphy
Tarsorrhaphy is a surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the eyelid opening. It may be done to protect the cornea in cases of corneal exposure, as a treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy, Möbius syndrome or after corneal graft surgery. The procedure is performed on the corner of the eyelid opening. * Surgery Encyclopedia: Tarsorrhaphy Eye surgery. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

Adipose eyelid

One special detail about adipose eyelids is their ability to filter out specific wavelengths of light. For example, different fish have a different concentration of epithelial tissue in their eyelids. However, there is a range that most of the eyelids will filter. Most adipose eyelids can filter out light that has a wavelength shorter than 305 nanometers. Another fact is that these eyelids can also reflect light and this level of reflection corresponds to polarization of the light and the angle at which it is shone. To test for these ranges, different fish eyelids were exposed to light generated from photometers and polarizing microscopes.


African Clawed Frog (Toad)clawed frogfrog
They have no moveable eyelids, tongues (rather it is completely attached to the floor of the mouth ) or eardrums (similarly to Pipa pipa, the common Suriname toad ). Unlike most amphibians, they have no haptoglobin in their blood. Xenopus species are entirely aquatic, though they have been observed migrating on land to nearby bodies of water during times of drought or in heavy rain. They are usually found in lakes, rivers, swamps, potholes in streams, and man-made reservoirs. Adult frogs are usually both predators and scavengers, and since their tongues are unusable, the frogs use their small fore limbs to aid in the feeding process.

Conjunctival concretion

Concretion in the palpebral conjunctiva, is called conjunctival concretion, that is a (or a cluster of) small, hard, yellowish-white calcified matter, superficially buried beneath the palpebral conjunctiva. Most of concretions in the eye form in the palpebral conjunctiva, which is a clear membrane to surround the inside of the eyelid; fewer can be located in the cornea and retina. Conjunctival concretions are generally asymptomatic. Common symptoms include eye discomfort, eye irritation, and foreign body sensation.


Ophisaurus sokolovi
Although most species have no legs, their head shapes, movable eyelids, and external ear openings identify them as lizards. A few species have very small, stub-like legs near their rear vents. These are vestigial organs, meaning they have evolved and are no longer in use. They reach lengths of up to 1.2 m, but about two-thirds of this is the tail. Glass lizards feed on insects, spiders, other small reptiles, and young rodents. Their diets are limited by their inability to unhinge their jaws. Some glass lizards give birth to live young but most lay eggs.


Paul PenkalskiStereocephalus
The palpebral bones over the eyes may have provided additional protection for the eyes. Such bones have with Euoplocephalus been discovered in the upper part of the eye socket, instead of in front of the upper socket rim which is the more common position. Coombs explained this by assuming that these bones were located in the eyelid musculature and were probably mobile enough to be moved over the eyes. The tail club of ankylosaurids has often been interpreted as a defensive weapon. In Euoplocephalus, the presence of ossified tendons only with the distal half of the tail may support such a function.