intracranial germinomasseminomatous
A germinoma is a type of germ-cell tumor, which is not differentiated upon examination. It may be benign or malignant.

Multiple sclerosis

MSdisseminated sclerosisMultiple sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems. Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination. MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms).

Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite

2007 Encyclopædia Britannica UltimateEncyclopædia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD
Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite is an encyclopædia based on the Encyclopædia Britannica and published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc..


strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is basically bleeding that occurs outside of the brain tissue but still within the skull, and precisely between the arachnoid mater and pia mater (the delicate innermost layer of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain). hemiplegia and muscle weakness of the face. numbness. reduction in sensory or vibratory sensation. initial flaccidity (reduced muscle tone), replaced by spasticity (increased muscle tone), excessive reflexes, and obligatory synergies. altered smell, taste, hearing, or vision (total or partial). drooping of eyelid (ptosis) and weakness of ocular muscles. decreased reflexes: gag, swallow, pupil reactivity to light. decreased sensation


brain imagingbrain scanbrain scanning
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialize in the performance and interpretation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists.

Inferior rectus muscle

inferior rectusinferiorinferior recti
The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.


pink eyepinkeyeblepharoconjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes. The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial. The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold. Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people.

List of skeletal muscles of the human body

neck musclesMuscleHead
This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy.

Epicanthic fold

epicanthal foldepicanthal foldsepicanthic folds
The epicanthic fold is the skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Various factors influence whether epicanthic folds form, including ancestry, age, and certain medical conditions. The highest frequency of occurrence of epicanthic folds are found in: East Asians, Southeast Asians, Central Asians, North Asians, some South Asians, Polynesians, Micronesians, Native Americans (as well as Mestizos), the Khoisan, and the Malagasy. In some of these populations the trait is almost universal.


xanthelasma palpebrarumxanthalasmaxanthoma palpebrarum
The typical clinical impression of XP is soft, yellowish papules, plaques, or nodules, symmetrically distributed on the medial side of the upper eyelids; sometimes the lower eyelids are affected as well. Xanthelasmata can be removed with a trichloroacetic acid peel, surgery, lasers or cryotherapy. Removal may cause scarring and pigment changes, but it is an uncommon side-effect of treatment. Recurrence is common: 40% of patients with XP had recurrence after primary surgical excision, 60% after secondary excision, and 80% when all four eyelids were involved. A possible cause might be insufficiently deep excisions.

ICD-10 Chapter VII: Diseases of the eye, adnexa

ICD-10Eye diseasesICD-10 Chapter VIIICD-10 code
Hordeolum and other deep inflammation of eyelid. Chalazion. Other inflammation of eyelid. Blepharitis. Noninfectious dermatoses of eyelid. Other disorders of eyelid. Entropion and trichiasis of eyelid. Ectropion of eyelid. Lagophthalmos. Blepharochalasis. Ptosis of eyelid. Other disorders affecting eyelid function. Ankyloblepharon. Blepharophimosis. Lid retraction. Xanthelasma of eyelid. Other degenerative disorders of eyelid and periocular area. Disorders of eyelid in diseases classified elsewhere. Disorders of lacrimal system. Dacryoadenitis. Other disorders of lacrimal gland. Epiphora. Acute and unspecified inflammation of lacrimal passages. Acute, subacute or unspecified dacryocystitis.

Eye shadow

eyeshadoweye shadowssmoky eye
The use of eye shadow attempts to replicate the natural eye shadow that some women exhibit due to a natural contrasting pigmentation on their eyelids. Natural eye shadow can range anywhere from a glossy shine to one's eyelids, to a pinkish tone, or even a silver look. Eye shadow can be applied in a wide variety of ways depending upon the desired look and formulation. Typically application is done using fingers or brushes. The most important aspect of applying eye shadow, and makeup in general, is blending well. However, you must not forget to include a primer to limit the chances of creases in your eye shadow later.

ICD-10 Chapter XIX: Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes

ICD-10ICD-10 code
Contusion of eyelid and periocular area. Black eye. Other superficial injuries of eyelid and periocular area. Superficial injury of nose. Superficial injury of ear. Superficial injury of lip and oral cavity. Multiple superficial injuries of head. Superficial injury of other parts of head. Superficial injury of head, part unspecified. Open wound of head. Fracture of skull and facial bones. Fracture of vault of skull. Fracture of base of skull. Fracture of nasal bones. Fracture of orbital floor. Fracture of malar and maxillary bones. Fracture of tooth. Fracture of mandible. Multiple fractures involving skull and facial bones. Fractures of other skull and facial bones.

Extraocular muscles

extraocular muscleeye muscleseye muscle
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae). The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction. Since only a small part of the eye called the fovea provides sharp vision, the eye must move to follow a target. Eye movements must be precise and fast. This is seen in scenarios like reading, where the reader must shift gaze constantly. Although under voluntary control, most eye movement is accomplished without conscious effort.

ICD-9-CM Volume 3

ICD 9 CMVolume 3
Operations on eyelids. Operations on lacrimal system. Operations on conjunctiva. Operations on cornea. Corneal transplant. Other reconstructive and refractive surgery on cornea. Keratomileusis. Radial keratotomy. Operations on iris, ciliary body, sclera, and anterior chamber. Operations on lens. Cataract surgery. Phacoemulsification and aspiration of cataract. Operations on retina, choroid, vitreous, and posterior chamber. Removal of foreign body from posterior segment of eye. Diagnostic procedures on retina, choroid, vitreous, and posterior chamber. Destruction of lesion of retina and choroid. Repair of retinal tear. Repair of retinal detachment with scleral buckling and implant.

Benign fasciculation syndrome

The twitching can occur in any voluntary muscle group but is most common in the eyelids, arms, hands/fingers legs, and feet. Even the tongue may be affected. The twitching may be occasional or may go on continuously. The main symptom of benign fasciculation syndrome is focal or widespread involuntary muscle activity (twitching), which can occur at random or specific times (or places). Presenting symptoms of benign fasciculation syndrome may include: Other symptoms include: BFS symptoms are typically present when the muscle is at rest and are not accompanied by severe muscle weakness.

Dalrymple's sign

Dalrymple disease
Dalrymple's sign is a widened palpebral (eyelid) opening, or eyelid spasm, seen in thyrotoxicosis (as seen in Graves' disease, exophthalmic Goitre and other hyperthyroid conditions), causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure. As a result of the retraction of the upper eyelid, the white of the sclera is visible at the upper margin of the cornea in direct outward stare. It is named after British ophthalmologist, John Dalrymple (1803–1852). Other eye signs described within the symptomology of Graves' disease are Stellwag's sign (rare blinking), Rosenbach's sign (tremor of the eyelids), and Jelink's sign (hyperpigmentation of the eyelid). * Dalrymple's sign Graves ophthalmopathy.

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

ICD-10 Chapter QICD-10 Chapter XICD-10 codeICD-10 Chapter XVIreproductive organs
Congenital malformations of eyelid, lacrimal apparatus and orbit. Congenital ptosis. Congenital ectropion. Congenital entropion. Other congenital malformations of eyelid. Ablepharon. Blepharophimosis, congenital. Coloboma of eyelid. Absence and agenesis of lacrimal apparatus. Congenital stenosis and stricture of lacrimal duct. Other congenital malformations of lacrimal apparatus. Congenital malformation of orbit. Anophthalmos, microphthalmos and macrophthalmos. Cystic eyeball. Other anophthalmos. Microphthalmos. Macrophthalmos. Congenital lens malformations. Congenital cataract. Congenital displaced lens. Coloboma of lens. Congenital aphakia. Spherophakia.

Jeavons syndrome

It is one of the most distinctive reflex syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by the triad of eyelid myoclonia with and without absences, eye-closure-induced seizures, EEG paroxysms, or both, and photosensitivity. Eyelid myoclonia with or without absences is a form of epileptic seizure manifesting with myoclonic jerks of the eyelids with or without a brief absence. These are mainly precipitated by closing of the eyes and lights. Eyelid myoclonia is the defining seizure type of Jeavons syndrome. Eyelid myoclonia, not the absences, is the hallmark of Jeavons syndrome.


distichiasisa genetic mutationdistichiae
A distichia is an eyelash that arises from an abnormal spot on the eyelid. This abnormality, attributed to a genetic mutation, is known to affect dogs and humans. Distichiae (the abnormal eyelash) usually exit from the duct of the meibomian gland at the eyelid margin. They are usually multiple and sometimes more than one arises from a duct. They can affect either the upper or lower eyelid and are usually bilateral. The lower eyelids of dogs usually have no eyelashes. Distichiae usually cause no symptoms because the lashes are soft, but they can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, corneal ulcers and scarring.

Dennie–Morgan fold

Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold
A Dennie–Morgan fold should not be confused with an "allergic shiner", a purple-gray discolouration beneath the lower eyelid. This is related to the accumulation of blood and other fluid in the infraorbital groove resulting from nasal congestion. * Charles Clayton Dennie

Von Graefe's sign

Gräfe's sign
Von Graefe's sign is the lagging of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter (Graves' Disease). It is a dynamic sign, whereas lid lag is a static sign which may also be present in cicatricial eyelid retraction or congenital ptosis. A pseudo Graefe's sign (pseudo lid lag) shows a similar lag, but is due to aberrant regeneration of fibres of the oculomotor nerve (III) into the elevator of the upper lid. It occurs in paramyotonia congenita. A pseudo Graefe's sign is most commonly manifested in just one eye but can occasionally be observed in both. The reason only one eye is affected is not yet clear. Albrecht von Gräfe. Boston's sign. Griffith's sign.

Slit lamp

slit-lampslit-lamp examinationslit lamp microscope
The lamp facilitates an examination of the anterior segment and posterior segment of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination provides a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions. A second, hand-held lens is used to examine the retina. Two conflicting trends emerged in the development of the slit lamp. One trend originated from clinical research and aimed to apply the increasingly complex and advanced technology of the time.


The absence of the eye will cause a small bony orbit, a constricted mucosal socket, short eyelids, reduced palpebral fissure and malar prominence. Genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and prenatal environment can all cause anophthalmia. Anophthalmia is an extremely rare disease and is mostly rooted in genetic abnormalities. It can also be associated with other syndromes. The most genetic based cause for anophthalmia is caused by the SOX2 gene. Sox2 anophthalmia syndrome is caused by a mutation in the Sox2 gene that does not allow it to produce the Sox2 protein that regulates the activity of other genes by binding to certain regions of DNA.

Lupus vulgaris

lupuslupus vulgaris,
Lupus vulgaris (also known as tuberculosis luposa ) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. It is the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis skin infection. The lesions may ultimately develop into disfiguring skin ulcers if left untreated. It begins as painless reddish-brown nodules which slowly enlarge to form irregularly shaped red plaque. Lupus vulgaris often develops due to inadequately treated pre-existing tuberculosis. It may also develop at site of BCG vaccination.