Krause's glands

Krause's glands are small, mucous accessory lacrimal glands that are found underneath the eyelid where the upper and lower conjunctivae meet. Their ducts unite into a rather long sinus which open into the fornix conjunctiva. There are approximately forty Krause glands in the region of the upper eyelid, and around 6 to 8 in the region of the lower lid. The function of these glands are to produce tears which are secreted onto the surface of the conjuctiva. There are rare instances of tumors associated with Krause's glands. They usually occur as retention cysts in cicatricial conditions of the conjunctiva.


oculoplasticoculoplastic surgeryOculoplastic surgeon
A canthorrhaphy is suturing of the outer canthus to shorten the palpebral fissure. A canthotomy is the surgical division of the canthus, usually the outer canthus. A lateral canthotomy is the surgical division of the outer canthus. Epicanthoplasty. Tarsorrhaphy is a procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the opening (i.e. palpebral fissure). Removal of eyelid tumors (such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma). A Hughes procedure. External or Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Canalicular trauma (canalicular laceration) repair.

Miller syndrome

Genée-Wiedemann syndromeGenee–WiedemannMiller
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples. Additional features of the syndrome include downward-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, malformed ears, and a broad nasal ridge.

Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma

marginal zone lymphomaextranodal marginal zone lymphomasDiffuse large B-cell lymphoma without marginal zone
Conjunctiva lesions usually present as a salmon red patch that covers the outer layer of the eyeball; intra-orbital lesions commonly present as exophthalmos (i.e. a bulging of the eye) (27% of cases), a palpable eye mass (19%), ptosis (i.e. eyelid drooping) (6%) and/or, less commonly, diplopia (i.e. double vision), impaired orbital mobility, excessive tearing, and/or orbital nodules. Patients with conjunctiva disease may be asymptomatic. A variable percentage of patients with primary ocular adnexa MZL may concurrently be afflicted with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Sjögren syndrome, or IgG4-related disease.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveProgressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Some of the other signs are poor eyelid function, contracture of the facial muscles, a backward tilt of the head with stiffening of the neck muscles, sleep disruption, urinary incontinence, and constipation. The visual symptoms are of particular importance in the diagnosis of this disorder. Patients typically complain of difficulty reading due to the inability to look down well. Notably, the ophthalmoparesis experienced by these patients mainly concerns voluntary eye movement and the inability to make vertical saccades, which is often worse with downward saccades. Patients tend to have difficulty looking down (a downgaze palsy) followed by the addition of an upgaze palsy.

Lacrimal gland

lacrimal glandslacrimaltear glands
Anatomists divide the gland into two sections, a palpebral lobe, or portion, and an orbital lobe or portion. The smaller palpebral lobe lies close to the eye, along the inner surface of the eyelid; if the upper eyelid is everted, the palpebral portion can be seen. The orbital lobe of the gland, contains fine interlobular ducts that connect the orbital lobe and the palpebral lobe. They unite to form three to five main secretory ducts, joining five to seven ducts in the palpebral portion before the secreted fluid may enter on the surface of the eye.

Human physical appearance

appearancephysical appearancefigure
Height, body weight, skin tone, body hair, sexual organs, moles, birthmarks, freckles, hair color, hair texture, eye color, eye shape (see epicanthic fold and eyelid variations), nose shape (see nasal bridge), ears shape (see earlobes), body shape. Body deformations, mutilations and other variations such as amputations, scars, burns and wounds. Aging. Hair loss. clothing, including headgear and footwear; some clothes alter or mold the shape of the body (e.g. corset, support pantyhose, bra).

Orbital cellulitis

Common presenting signs include: a protruding eye (proptosis), eyelid edema (swelling), eye pain, vision loss, inability to move the eye completely (ophthalmoplegia), and fever. It is important to correlate physical findings with patient history and reported symptoms. CT scan and MRI of the orbits are two imaging modalities that are commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of orbital cellulitis, as they can provide detailed images that can show the extent of inflammation along with possible abscess location, size, and involvement of surrounding structures.


opticiansdispensing opticianoptical engineer
Opticians, like ophthalmologists and optometrists, also use a slit-lamp/bio-microscope to examine the anterior segment, or frontal structures and posterior segment, of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination provides stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions. While a patient is seated in the examination chair, he rests his chin and forehead on a support to steady the head. Using the biomicroscope, the optician then proceeds to examine the patient's eye.

Sulcus subtarsalis

Sulcus subtarsalis is a groove in the inner surface of eyelid near the eyelid margin and which is also parallel to it. This separates marginal conjunctiva from tarsal conjunctiva. It provides space for lodging of foreign bodies. Arlt's line is a linear line present in the sulcus subtarsalis in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.