Web blocking in the United Kingdom

blocking orderfamily-friendly filtersweb blocking
YouTube, Facebook and Twitter are often filtered by schools. Some universities also block access to sites containing a variety of material. Many students often use proxy servers to bypass this. Schools often censor pupils' Internet access in order to offer some protection against various perceived threats such as cyber-bullying and the perceived risk of grooming by paedophiles; as well as to maintain pupil attention during IT lessons. Examples of overblocking exist in the school context. For instance, in February 2014 the website of the Yes Scotland pro-independence campaign was blocked in a Glasgow school while the rival Better Together pro-union website was not blocked.

Promotion (marketing)

Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest, Google Plus, Tumblr, as well as alternate audio and media sites like SoundCloud and Mixcloud allow users to interact and promote music online with little to no cost. You can purchase and buy ad space as well as potential customer interactions stores as Likes, Followers, and clicks to your page with the use of third parties.

Internet troll

Neo-Nazi website The Daily Stormer orchestrates what it calls a "Troll Army", and has encouraged trolling of Jewish MP Luciana Berger and Muslim activist Mariam Veiszadeh. • Anti-social behaviour • Astroturfing • Call-out culture • Catfishing • Cyber-bullying • Flame war • Fake news website • Gaslighting • Griefer • Heckler • Hit-and-run posting • Narcissistic supply • Patent troll • Patriotic Nigras • Poe's law • Sea lioning • Shitposting • Social gadfly • Sockpuppet (Internet) * Walter, T.; Hourizi, R.; Moncur, W.; Pitsillides (2012). Does the Internet Change How We Die And Mourn?

Narendra Modi

ModiPM Narendra ModiNarendra Damodardas Modi
In 2015 he was named one of Times "30 Most Influential People on the Internet" as the second-most-followed politician on Twitter and Facebook. In 2018 he was the third most followed head of the state on Twitter, and the most followed world leader on Facebook and Instagram. In October 2018, Modi received UN's highest environmental award, the 'Champions of the Earth', for policy leadership by "pioneering work in championing" the International Solar Alliance and "new areas of levels of cooperation on environmental action".

Messaging apps

messaging appsocial messagingmessaging
Some examples of popular messaging apps include WhatsApp, China's WeChat and QQ Messenger, Viber, Line, Snapchat, Korea's KakaoTalk, Google Hangouts, Blackberry Messenger, Signal, Telegram, and Vietnam's Zalo. Slack focuses on messaging and file sharing for work teams. Some social networking services offer messaging services as a component of their overall platform, such as Facebook's Facebook Messenger, along with Instagram and Twitter's direct messaging functions.

Vine (service)

It was founded in June 2012; American microblogging website Twitter acquired it in October 2012, before its launch on January 24, 2013. Videos were published through Vine's social network, and could be shared on other platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. The Vine app could be used to browse videos, along with groups of videos by theme, and "trending" videos. Vine competed with other social-media services such as Instagram and Mobli. By December 2015, Vine had 200 million active users. On October 27, 2016, Twitter announced it would disable uploads, but viewing and download would continue to work.

Image sharing

photo sharingphoto-sharingphoto
Facebook stated in 2015 that there were approximately two billion images uploaded to its service daily. In terms of image sharing, Facebook is the largest social networking service. On Facebook, people can upload and share their photo albums individually, and collaboratively with shared albums. This feature allows multiple users to upload pictures to the same album, and the album's creator has the ability to add or delete contributors. Twitter collaborated with Photobucket in developing a new photo sharing service so users can attach a picture to a tweet without depending on another application such as TwitPic or Yfrog.

Stanford University

StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityUniversity of Stanford
Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S). LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S). Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students. Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (B.S). Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A). Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S). The unofficial motto of Stanford University, selected by President Jordan, is "Die Luft der Freiheit weht."

Online video platform

video sharingvideo hosting servicevideo-sharing
The videos will then be stored online and can be shared to various social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and YouTube. Videos will be stored on the servers and can be watched from both the mobile devices and the website. Practical online video hosting and video streaming was made possible by advances in video compression, due to the impractically high bandwidth requirements of uncompressed video. Raw uncompressed digital video has a bit rate of 168Mbps for SD video, and over 1Gbps for FHD video.


YouTube channelYouTube.comYouTube Gaming
Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world." In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."

Native advertising

sponsored contentnative adsnative advertisements
, New York Magazine, 7 April 2013 Facebook. Instagram. Reddit. Snapchat. Twitch. TikTok. Twitter. Youtube. LinkedIn. Pinterest. 1) In-Feed Ad Units: As the name denotes, In-Feed ads are units located within the website's normal content feed, meaning they appear as if the content may have been written by or in partnership with the publisher's team to match the surrounding stories.

Aspect ratio (image)

4:3aspect ratio16:9
It was popularized by Snapchat and is also now being adopted by Twitter and Facebook. Instagram stories are based on this aspect ratio as well. Often, screen specifications are given by their diagonal length. The following formulae can be used to find the height (h), width (w) and area (A), where r stands for ratio, written as a fraction, and d for diagonal length. This article primarily addresses the aspect ratio of images as displayed, which is more formally referred to as the display aspect ratio (DAR). In digital images, there is a distinction with the (SAR), which is the ratio of pixel dimensions.

Personal message

private messagingprivate messagePrivate messages
Here's the trick: The pictures and videos can be viewed for 1–10 seconds, after which they will disappear and be deleted from Snapchat's servers. https://m.facebook.com Some common forms of personal messaging include Facebook messaging (sometimes referred to as "inboxing"), Twitter direct messaging, Instagram direct messaging, and snapchatting. All of these forms of personal or private messaging create a way for the user to make a private space on a usually public site. For example, most activity on Facebook is public, even if only to one's friends. Messaging or "inboxing" on Facebook allows for a private space.

Online community

online communitiescommunityweb community
These limitations are known as "privacy settings". Privacy settings bring up the question of how privacy settings and terms of service affect the expectation of privacy in social media. After all, the purpose of an online community is to share a common space with one another. Furthermore, it is hard to take legal action when a user feels that his or her privacy has been invaded because he or she technically knew what the online community entailed. Creator of the social networking site Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, noticed a change in users' behavior from when he first initiated Facebook.

Suicide of Rehtaeh Parsons

Rehtaeh ParsonsSuicide and funeral of Rehtaeh Parsons
List of suicides that have been attributed to bullying. Angel Rehtaeh Facebook page. Rehtaeh Parsons (December 9, 1995 – April 7, 2013).

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
A 2002 editorial in the British Medical Journal warned of inappropriate medicalization leading to disease mongering, where the boundaries of the definition of illnesses are expanded to include personal problems as medical problems or risks of diseases are emphasized to broaden the market for medications. The 2004 WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders" stated that "Prevention of these disorders is obviously one of the most effective ways to reduce the [disease] burden."


WhatsApp MessengerWhatsApp Inc.social media
Also in November 2016, Facebook ceased collecting WhatsApp data for advertising in Europe. On February 24, 2017, (WhatsApp's 8th birthday), WhatsApp launched a new Status feature similar to Snapchat and Facebook stories. On May 18, 2017, it was reported that the European Commission would fine Facebook €110 million for "misleading" it during the 2014 takeover of WhatsApp. The Commission alleged that in 2014, when Facebook acquired the messaging app, it "falsely claimed it was technically impossible to automatically combine user information from Facebook and WhatsApp."

Super Bowl commercials

Super Bowl commercialcommercialSuper Bowl ad
However, Budweiser's social media outlets promoted "ClydesdaleCam", a Facebook live stream of the Clydesdales watching the game in a stable and waiting to see their cameo. In 2018, Budweiser broadcast "Stand by You", an ad which chronicled Anheuser-Busch's disaster relief program of distributing cans of drinking water from its brewery in Cartersville, Georgia. The Clydesdales were, once again, downplayed from its television spots, with the brewery only airing a 5-second bumper in the second quarter to promote its streaming ClydesdaleCam event.

Snap Inc.

SnapSnap IncSnap, Inc.
Following a settlement in 2014, Snapchat was not fined, but the app service agreed to have its claims and policies monitored by an independent party for a period of 20 years. The redesign of the Snapchat app in early 2018 made changes for which many users were not happy. Around 1.2 million people petitioned Snap, Inc. to roll back the redesign. Snap, Inc's reply makes no concessions, other than noting "We completely understand the new Snapchat has felt uncomfortable for many." Due to the redesign and other market factors in 2018, such as the growth of Instagram Stories and WhatsApp Status, Daily Active Users (DAU) of the app only rose 2% from Q4 2017.


MySpace.comMy SpaceMySpace Music
Around that time, specialized social media companies such as Twitter formed and began targeting Myspace users, while Facebook rolled out communication tools which were seen as safe in comparison to Myspace. Boyd compared the shift of white, middle-class kids from the "seedy" Myspace to the "supposedly safer haven" of Facebook, to the "white flight" from American cities; the perception of Myspace eventually drove advertisers away as well. In addition, Myspace had particular problems with vandalism, phishing, malware, and spam which it failed to curtail, making the site seem inhospitable.


electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoring
One common form of surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data from social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call records such as those in the NSA call database, and others. These social network "maps" are then data mined to extract useful information such as personal interests, friendships & affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities. Many U.S. government agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the National Security Agency (NSA), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are investing heavily in research involving social network analysis.


privatepersonal privacyprivacy rights
Psychologists particularly pointed out that the privacy paradox occurs because users must trade-off between their privacy concerns and impression management. Selfies are popular today. A search for photos with the hashtag #selfie retrieves over 23 million results on Instagram and "a whopping 51 million with the hashtag #me" However, due to modern corporate and governmental surveillance, this may pose a risk to privacy. In a research which takes a sample size of 3763, researchers found that for selfies, females generally have greater concerns than male social media users.

Viral phenomenon

viralwent viralvirally
Internet memes blew up because of Instagram, it gave meme creators a new platform to share there memes. Because of this there are a lot of Instagram meme accounts. It is sometimes difficult to predict which images and videos will "go viral" with widespread sharing; sometimes the creation of an Internet celebrity is a sudden surprise. One of the first documented viral videos is "Numa Numa", the webcam video of then-19-year-old Gary Brolsma singing and dancing to Romanian pop song "Dragostea Din Tei". The sharing of text, images, videos, or links to this content have been greatly facilitated by social media such as Facebook and Twitter.

Text messaging

text messagetextingtext messages
Services such as Facebook Messenger, Snapchat, WhatsApp and Viber have led to a decline in the use of SMS in parts of the world. Research has shown that women are more likely than men to use emoticons in text messages. Of many texting trends, a system known as microblogging has surfaced, which consists of a miniaturized blog, inspired mainly by people's tendency to jot down informal thoughts and post them online. They consist of websites like Twitter and its Chinese equivalent Weibo . As of 2016, both of these websites were popular. In some countries, text messages can be used to contact emergency services.

Revenge porn

nonconsensual pornographyrevenge pornographycirculating pornographic pictures
While not solely focused on revenge porn, the older non-profit organization Without My Consent provides legal resources related to it and lobbies to protect the privacy and free speech rights of online harassment victims. Since 2012, there has also been a website Women Against Revenge Porn, calling itself "not an organization or a business", which has been cited as an advocacy group for people exposed in revenge porn. In late 2014, Elisa D'Amico and David Bateman, partners at the law firm K&L Gates, launched the Cyber Civil Rights Legal Project (CCRLP), a project offering free legal help to victims of revenge porn.