Y chromosome

Genealogical DNA test. Genetic genealogy. Haplodiploid sex-determination system. Human Y chromosome DNA haplogroups. List of Y-STR markers. Muller's ratchet. Single nucleotide polymorphism. Y chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR). Y linkage. Y-chromosomal Aaron. Y-chromosomal Adam. Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world. Genetic Genealogy: About the use of mtDNA and Y chromosome analysis in ancestry testing. Ensembl genome browser. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mapview/maps.cgi?taxid=9606&chr=Y. Human Genome Project Information—Human Chromosome Y Launchpad. On Topic: Y Chromosome—From the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Nature—focus on the Y chromosome.

International Society of Genetic Genealogy

ISOGGThe International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)
The ISOGG tree has been described by academics as using the accepted nomenclature for human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and subclades in that it follows the Y Chromosome Consortium nomenclature as described in Karafet et al. 2008, The ISOGG tree is widely cited in peer reviewed academic literature. * Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree at ISOGG Genealogical DNA test. Genetic diversity. Human genetics. Human genetic variation. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. Mitochondrial Eve. Y-chromosomal Adam. Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world. Personal genomics. ISOGG Mission Statement. History of genetic genealogy on the ISOGG wiki.

Genographic Project

The Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Next GenerationGenographic
Genealogical DNA test. Genetic diversity. Human genetics. Human genetic variation. Human migration. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. Mitochondrial Eve. Y-chromosomal Adam. Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world. Personal Genomics. Genographic Project official site at National Geographic. Helix. Arizona Research Laboratories (ARL). Waitt Family Foundation. "Indigenous Peoples Oppose National Geographic", Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, 13 April 2005. "Tracking the Truth", DB2 Magazine (IBM), information about IBM's role in the project. December 2006. Genographic Success Stories.


Surname DNA project

surname projectsurname study groups
Family Tree DNA's Surname & Geographical Projects.

Single-nucleotide polymorphism

single nucleotide polymorphismSNPSNPs
GWAS Central – a central database of summary-level genetic association findings. 1000 Genomes Project – A Deep Catalog of Human Genetic Variation. WatCut – an online tool for the design of SNP-RFLP assays. SNPStats – SNPStats, a web tool for analysis of genetic association studies. Restriction HomePage – a set of tools for DNA restriction and SNP detection, including design of mutagenic primers. American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Concepts Factsheet on SNPs. PharmGKB – The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base, a resource for SNPs associated with drug response and disease outcomes. GEN-SNiP – Online tool that identifies polymorphisms in test DNA sequences.

Bennett Greenspan

Though he has mainly worked in the fields of photography and genetic testing, he is best known for his pioneering work in genetic genealogy. Greenspan founded Family Tree DNA which was the first American company to offer genealogical DNA testing directly to the general public. He is currently the president and chief executive officer (CEO) and also the managing partner of Family Tree DNA's parent company Gene by Gene. Greenspan is also the project administrator of several surname DNA projects, and regularly lectures on the use of genetics in genealogy and on genomics. A Jewish American, Greenspan was born in Omaha, Nebraska to Maurice and Rosalie Greenspan.


23 and MeDNA tests
Antonio Regalado, MIT Technology Review. 23andMe, Ancestry DNA, Family Tree DNA raw data analysis tools in 2019. XCode, Medium Article.


Human evolutionary genetics. Race (biology) / Race (human categorization). Genetic genealogy. Genealogical DNA test. List of genetic genealogy topics. List of haplogroups of notable people. Indian maternal gene pool, Journal of Human Genetics''. Dienekes' Anthropology Blog frequent highlights of new results. Y Chromosome Consortium. ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree. PhyloTree's Y-tree A minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y-chromosome. Haplogroup Predictor. The Y Chromosome Consortium (2002), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups, Genome Research, Vol. 12(2), 339–48, February 2002.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
Coalescent theory, a retrospective model of population genetics. Genealogy, the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genetic distance, the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Genetic genealogy, the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genealogical DNA tests, examination of nucleotides at specific locations on a person's DNA for genetic genealogy purposes. Nature timeline. Last universal common ancestor, the most recent common ancestor of all life on Earth. Lowest common ancestor, an analogous concept in graph theory and computer science. Pedigree collapse.

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
Genealogical DNA test - used to determine ancestry or ethnic heritage for genetic genealogy. Research testing - includes finding unknown genes, learning how genes work and advancing understanding of genetic conditions. The results of testing done as part of a research study are usually not available to patients or their healthcare providers. DNA profiling. Genographic Project. Personalized medicine. Elective genetic and genomic testing. Eugenics. Full Genome Sequencing. Whole Genome Sequencing. Whole Exome Sequencing. Genetic counseling. List of genetic disorders. List of genetic genealogy topics. Non-paternity event.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
This is usually accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2), and sometimes the complete molecule of the mitochondrial DNA, as a genealogical DNA test. HVR1, for example, consists of about 440 base pairs. These 440 base pairs are compared to the same regions of other individuals (either specific people or subjects in a database) to determine maternal lineage. Most often, the comparison is made with the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Vilà et al. have published studies tracing the matrilineal descent of domestic dogs from wolves.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroupshuman mitochondrial DNAhuman mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup
Human mitochondrial genetics. Genetic genealogy. Matrilineality. Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. Mitochondrial phylogenetic trees. Mannis van Oven's PhyloTree.org. PhyloD3 – D3.js-based phylogenetic tree based on PhyloTree. Mitochondrial haplogroup skeleton. Vincent Macaulay's Mitochondrial haplogroup motifs. List of mtDNA haplogroup projects. MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. HaploGrep: mtDNA haplogroup determination based on PhyloTree.org. HaploFind – fast automatic haplogroup assignment pipeline for human mitochondrial DNA.

Y-chromosomal Adam

Homo Y-MRCAPatrilinealScientific Adam
Genealogical DNA test. Genetic genealogy. Genographic project. Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup – Detailed article on the subject. Identical ancestors point. Life timeline. Paternal mtDNA transmission. Y-chromosomal Aaron. Documentary Redraws Humans' Family Tree (from National Geographic). DNA Mysteries – The Search for Adam (from National Geographic Channel). Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam Diagrams. Y-Chromosome Biallelic Haplogroups. Most European males 'descended from farmers'. Why study the Y: Chromosome reveals path of ancestral humans.


YsearchList of Y-chromosome databasesSTRs
Forensic databases (without individual information, for frequency purposes): In genetic genealogy, Ysearch used to be the last sponsored database containing publicly submitted surnames and Y-STR haplotypes until its decommission on May 24, 2018, preceding by a day the implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation in the European Union, following a prolonged period of lacking support from its creator, Family Tree DNA. The database was founded in 2003 and reached 219 thousand records (among which 152 thousand unique haplotypes) before its shutdown. Other similar databases had disappeared earlier.

Haplogroup H (mtDNA)

Hhaplogroup HH1
Genealogical DNA test. Genetic genealogy. Human mitochondrial genetics. Population genetics. SNPedia. General. Ian Logan's Mitochondrial DNA Site. Mannis van Oven's Phylotree. Haplogroup H. mtDNA Haplogroup H Project at Family Tree DNA. National Geographic's Spread of Haplogroup H, from National Geographic. mtDNA Haplogroup H article at SNPedia. Amelia's Helena. Genebase's Tutorials on mtDNA Haplogroup H. Genebase's Phylogenetic tree of mtDNA Haplogroup H. Genebase's Geographical distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup H. Haplogroup and Subcluster Frequencies for European Populations:. Danish Demes Regional DNA Project: mtDNA Haplogroup H.

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation

Molecular Genealogy Research Project
New ancestry sites offer DNA testing, msnbc.com, 2007-10-23.


Family Tree Builder
As of 2019, about 2.5 million MyHeritage DNA kits have been sold, making it the third most popular genealogical DNA testing company In April 2019, MyHeritage began releasing data from a new DNA chip. In May 2019, MyHeritage launched the MyHeritage DNA Health+Ancestry test, a test that provides comprehensive health reports to consumers. The Tribal Quest Expedition project is MyHeritage's pro bono project to record the family histories of tribal peoples. It also has a program to match descendants of Holocaust survivors with property taken from their family. In 2013, MyHeritage was selected by Globes as the most promising Israeli startup for 2013–2014.

Hypervariable region

HVR1hypervariable regionshypervariable control region
Genealogical DNA test. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. mtDNA control region. DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications, Explanation of Hypervariable Regions.


short tandem repeatmicrosatellitesSTR
Paternally inherited Y-STRs (microsatellites on the Y chromosome) are often used in genealogical DNA testing. During the 1990s and the first several years of this millenium, microsatellites were the workhorse genetic markers for genome-wide scans to locate any gene responsible for a given phenotype or disease, using segregation observations across generations of a sampled pedigree. Although the rise of higher throughput and cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platforms led to the era of the SNP for genome scans, microsatellites remain highly informative measures of genomic variation for linkage and association studies.

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)

JHaplogroup JJ1
. • Archaeogenetics of the Near East • Genetic history of Europe • Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia • Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups • Genetic Genealogy • Haplogroup • Haplotype • Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup • Molecular Phylogeny • Paragroup • Subclade • Y-chromosomal Aaron • Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of South Asia • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of East and Southeast Asia • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of North Africa • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Caucasus • Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic

List of Y-STR markers

Y-DNA Testing Company STR Marker Comparison Chart. SMGF Y Marker Details.


patrilinealagnaticPatrilineal descent
The fact that human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) is paternally inherited enables patrilines and agnatic kinships of men to be traced through genetic analysis. Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-MRCA) is the patrilineal most recent common ancestor from whom all Y-DNA in living men is descended. An identification of a very rare and previously unknown Y-chromosome variant in 2012 led researchers to estimate that Y-chromosomal Adam lived 338,000 years ago (237,000 to 581,000 years ago with 95% confidence), judging from molecular clock and genetic marker studies. Before this discovery, estimates of the date when Y-chromosomal Adam lived were much more recent, estimated to be tens of thousands of years.

Phylogenetic tree

phylogenyphylogeneticevolutionary tree
This is most true of genetic material that is subject to lateral gene transfer and recombination, where different haplotype blocks can have different histories. In these types of analysis, the output tree of a phylogenetic analysis of a single gene is an estimate of the gene's phylogeny (i.e. a gene tree) and not the phylogeny of the taxa (i.e. species tree) from which these characters were sampled, though ideally, both should be very close.