Malisbong massacre

Malisbong (Palimbang) massacre
The Malisbong Masjid Massacre, also called the Palimbang Massacre, was the mass murder of Muslim Moros on September 24, 1974, in the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao where units of the Philippine Army killed more than 1,000. Accounts compiled by the Moro Women's Center in General Santos City state that 1,500 male Moros aged 11-70 were killed inside a mosque, 3,000 women and children aged 9-60 were detained - with the women being raped and that 300 houses were razed by the government forces. The massacre occurred two years after Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in September 1972.

Manili massacre

1971 Manili Massacre
No one was found culpable for the incident; Feliciano Lucas, also known as "Commander Toothpick", the Ilaga leader who was the prime suspect in the crime, was released after he "surrendered" to Ferdinand Marcos at the Malacañang Palace. The incident resulted in increased hostilities between Moro Muslims and Christians. In response to the incident, former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi provided military aid to the secessionist group Moro National Liberation Front.


Zainichi Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent, Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent and Americans are among the small minority groups in Japan. In 2003, there were about 134,700 non-Latin American Western (not including more than 33,000 American military personnel and their dependents stationed throughout the country) and 345,500 Latin American expatriates, 274,700 of whom were Brazilians (said to be primarily Japanese descendants, or nikkeijin, along with their spouses), the largest community of Westerners.

List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

death tollList of accidents by death toll, category "otherbloodiest massacres in human history
Mass murder. Most lethal battles in world history. United States casualties of war. Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II. Top 100 aviation disasters on

Corazon Aquino

Corazon C. AquinoAquinoCorazon "Cory" Aquino
On 25 February 1986 supporters of Aquino and Marcos celebrated the inauguration of their supported President. This was the same day that Ferdinand E. Marcos fled the country. On 22 February 1986, disgruntled and reformist military officers led by then-Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and General Fidel V. Ramos, surprised the entire nation and the international community when they announced their defection from the Marcos government, citing strong belief that Aquino was the real winner in the contested presidential elections.


Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy, which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration, while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo. In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972.

Jabidah massacre

alleged massacre of Moro soldiersJabidah'' massacrekillings of more than 60 Filipino Muslims
The opposition senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. exposed that Jabidah was a plan by President Ferdinand Marcos to ensure his continuity of power. The incident was used by members of the opposition to criticise Marcos' administration and this was largely covered by the press which caught the government off-guard. The massacre can be seen as a political tool by the opposition to discredit President Ferdinand Marcos for his poor administration and neglect of the Muslims during his term. In July 1971, then Prime Minister of Libya, Muammar Gaddhafi, wrote to President Marcos to express his concern.

Moro National Liberation Front

MNLFMoro National Liberation Front (MNLF)Bangsamoro Republik
The plans failed due to president Ferdinand Marcos' decision to hold a referendum on each area that was to be included in the autonomous region. Most of the regions did not have a Muslim majority. The referendums however did influence Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao by creating its predecessors. MNLF decided to continued armed struggle. The MNLF shifted from demands of full independence to autonomy in the 1980s. In 1986 a ceasefire and attempts to have a peace agreement were made, but they failed. Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was established in 1989, despite opposition from the MNLF. OIC, Libya and Indonesia mediated peace talks which were restarted in 1992.


British BorneoSabah, MalaysiaNorth Borneo
Further attempts by several Filipino politicians such as Ferdinand Marcos to "destabilise" Sabah proved to be futile and led to the Jabidah massacre in Corregidor Island, Philippines. As a consequence, this led the Malaysian government to once supporting the insurgency in southern Philippines. Although the Philippine claim to Sabah has not been actively pursued for some years, some Filipino politicians are promising to bring it up again, while the Malaysian government asks the Philippines not to threaten ties over such issue.


The Philippine government under Ferdinand Marcos encouraged Ilonggo settlers who had emigrated to Mindanao to form a militia, which was eventually called the Ilaga. There is anecdotal evidence that the Ilaga often committed human rights abuses by targeting the Moro and Lumad peoples, as well as attempting to seize additional territory. The end result of Ilaga extremism is the lingering animosity between Moro and Christian communities. Mistrust and a cycle of violence are still felt today due to the creation of the Ilaga. From March 1970 to January 1972, the Ilaga committed 22 massacres resulting in the deaths of hundreds of Muslim civilians.

Communist rebellion in the Philippines

Communist insurgency in the PhilippinesCommunist insurgencyCommunist Insurgencies
On 21 September 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law, which forced the NPA to fight for its freedom. In 1974, the NPA launched its first tactical operation in Calbiga, Samar, when it ambushed an Army scout patrol and seized a number of their weapons. China provided support to the NPA from 1969–1976. After that period, the Chinese ceased all aid, resulting in a five-year period of reduced activity. Despite the setback, the rebellion rekindled with funds from revolutionary taxes, extortion and large scale foreign support campaigns.

President of the Philippines

PresidentPhilippine PresidentPresidents
Quezon (1941) and Ferdinand E. Marcos (1969) were re-elected. Presidents Sergio Osmeña (1946), Elpidio Quirino (1953), Carlos P. Garcia (1961) and Diosdado Macapagal (1965) all failed in seeking a new term. However, in 1973, a new Constitution was promulgated and allowed then-incumbent President Marcos to seek a new term. In 1981, Marcos was again elected as President against Alejo Santos – making him the only President to be elected to a third term. The 1987 Constitution restored the 1935 Constitution's original ban on presidential reelection.

Moro people

MoroMorosMoro Muslims
Some Moros have emigrated to Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei in the late 20th century due to the Moro conflict in Mindanao. Newer communities can be found today in Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan, Semporna in neighbouring Sabah, Malaysia, North Kalimantan in Indonesia, as well in Bandar Seri Begawan of Brunei. The recently coined term Bangsamoro, derived from the old Malay word "bangsa", meaning "race" or "nation" with the "Moro" as "people", is now used to describe both the Filipino Muslims and their homeland. The term Bangsamoro carries the aspiration of the Filipino Muslims to have an Islamic (Moro) country or state (bangsa).

Fidel Ramos

Fidel V. RamosRamosPresident Fidel V. Ramos
According to Fidel Ramos's biography in his presidential inauguration in 1992, Narciso Ramos also served as one of the leaders of the anti-Japanese guerrilla group the Maharlika founded by Ferdinand Marcos. His mother, Angela Valdez (1905–1978), was an educator, woman suffragette, and member of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte, making him a second degree cousin to former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos. He received elementary education in Lingayen Public Schools. Ramos began secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School in the City of Manila, and continued in the High School Department of Mapúa Institute of Technology.


Luzon Islandnorthern LuzonNorth Luzon
However, the lingering poverty and inequality caused by the long dictatorship of US-supported dictator, Ferdinand Marcos, gave rise to the Philippine diaspora and many people from Luzon have migrated elsewhere and had established large overseas communities; mainly in the United States, Hong Kong, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. Eventually, the People Power Revolution led by Corazon Aquino and Cardinal Jaime Sin, removed Marcos and his cronies from power and they fled to Hawaii where the US granted them asylum.

Constitution of the Philippines

1987 ConstitutionConstitution1935 Constitution
Possibly the most controversial issue was removing the presidential term limit so that Ferdinand E. Marcos could seek election for a third term, which many felt was the true reason for which the convention was called. In any case, the 1935 Constitution was suspended in 1972 with Marcos' proclamation of martial law, the rampant corruption of the constitutional process providing him with one of his major premises for doing so. The 1943 Constitution was drafted by a committee appointed by the Philippine Executive Commission, the body established by the Japanese to administer the Philippines in lieu of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had established a government-in-exile.

Martial law

martial law administratormilitary governmentmilitary rule
Billion pesos worth of property and ill-gotten wealth was said to be acquired by Marcos' consort, First Lady Imelda Marcos. This alleged money laundering issue was brought back recently, particularly in the PiliPinas Debates 2016 for the recently held Philippine Presidential Elections on May 9, 2016. Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., Marcos' son, ran for the Vice Presidency and lost. There were rumours that President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was planning to impose martial law to end military coup d'etat plots, general civilian dissatisfaction, and criticism of her legitimacy arising from the dubious results of the 2004 presidential elections.

Philippine Army

ArmyPhilippine Commonwealth ArmyPA
The island's fall led to the surrender of all defending Filipino and American forces on May 6, 1942. About 4,000 of the 11,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war from the island were marched through the streets of Manila to incarceration at Fort Santiago in Intramuros and Bilibid Prison in Muntinlupa, Rizal, which had become Japanese camps. With the fall of Corregidor, Filipino and U.S. forces under U.S. command surrendered. After the surrender, thousands of Filipinos formerly under U.S. command (especially the former Visayan-Mindanao Force, which had seen little combat) evaded Japanese confinement and hid in the jungle.

Metro Manila

National Capital RegionManilaNCR
President Ferdinand Marcos appointed his wife, First Lady Imelda Marcos as the first governor of Metro Manila. She launched the City of Man campaign. The Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex, Metropolitan Folk Arts Theater, Philippine International Convention Center, Coconut Palace and healthcare facilities such as the Lung Center of the Philippines, Philippine Heart Center, and the Kidney Center of the Philippines are all constructed precisely for this purpose. President Marcos was overthrown in a non-violent revolution along EDSA, which lasted three days in late February 1986.

Rodrigo Duterte

DuterteRodrigo Roa DutertePresident Rodrigo Duterte
On August 7, Duterte approved the burial of former President Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig scheduled for October 18, saying that Marcos was qualified for the burial at the cemetery due to him being a "former president and a soldier". The decision was vehemently opposed, due to "the brutal, oppressive and corrupt nature of Marcos's two-decade regime". An online petition which received over 30,000 signatures stated:"Burying Ferdinand E Marcos alongside our nation's heroes who fought for our freedom is an affront to the thousands of lives tortured and murdered during his reign.

Jolo, Sulu

JoloKota Sug/JoloBauang
There are several gun shootings and the Filipino Army is often called in to settle disputes. In April 2008, the Jolo Zone of Peace, which was supported by the Geneva-based Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (CHD), was established where firearms were restricted in mediating conflicts between clans. The Sulu government is attempting to spread this zone of peace into the countryside. The island was considered dangerous for foreigners, especially Americans, as militants threatened to shoot or abduct them on the spot.

Habeas corpus

writ of habeas corpuswrit of ''habeas corpushabeas
In 1971, after the Plaza Miranda bombing, the Marcos administration, under Ferdinand Marcos, suspended habeas corpus in an effort to stifle the oncoming insurgency, having blamed the Filipino Communist Party for the events of August 21. Many considered this to be a prelude to martial law. After widespread protests, however, the Arroyo administration decided to reintroduce the writ. In December 2009, habeas corpus was suspended in Maguindanao as the province was placed under martial law. This occurred in response to the Maguindanao massacre. In 2016, President Rodrigo Duterte said he was planning on suspending the habeas corpus.


The name Lumad grew out of the political awakening among tribes during the martial law regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. It was advocated and propagated by the members and affiliates of Lumad-Mindanao, a coalition of all-Lumad local and regional organizations which formalized themselves as such in June 1986 but started in 1983 as a multi-sectoral organization. Lumad-Mindanao’s main objective was to achieve self-determination for their member-tribes or, put more concretely, self-governance within their ancestral domain in accordance with their culture and customary laws. No other Lumad organization had the express goal in the past.

Refugees of the Philippines

Filipino refugeesa large Filipino refugee settlementarrived in the early
Filipino refugees are persons originating from the country of the Philippines. Following the Moro conflict and subsequent major military operation in the islands of Mindanao during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos in 1970s, thousands of Filipinos mainly from the Moro ancestry have sought refuge in neighbouring countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, with majority of them mostly heading to the state of Sabah in Malaysia.