Philippine resistance against Japan

Filipino guerrillasPhilippine guerrillasPhilippine resistance
Also, before being proven false in 1985 by the United States Military, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong guerrilla force known as the Maharlika Unit. Marcos also used maharlika as his personal pseudonym; depicting himself as a bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla fighter during World War II. Marcos told exaggerated tales and exploits of himself fighting the Japanese in his self-published autobiography Marcos of the Philippines which was proven to be fiction.

Flag of the Philippines

Philippine flagNational Flagflag
President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the colors restored to the original light blue and red of the Cuban flag in 1985, but this was immediately rescinded after the 1986 People Power Revolution that removed him from power. For the 1998 independence centennial celebrations, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines (RA 8491) was passed, designating royal blue as the official variant. The flag's colors are specified by Republic Act 8491 in terms of their cable number in the system developed by the Color Association of the United States.

Lanao del Norte

del NorteGovernor of Lanao del NorteLanao del Norte Province, Philippines
The province then consisted of the following municipalities: • Baloi • Kauswagan • Bacolod • Maigo • Kolambugan • Tubod • Baroy • Lala • Kapatagan • Karomatan and the following municipal districts (converted into regular municipalities in the future): • Matungao • Pantao-Ragat • Munai • Tangcal • Nunungan In 1977, President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed Resolution No. 805, series of 1977 of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Parliamentary Bill No. 586) sponsored by Assemblyman Abdullah D. Dimaporo, into Presidential Decree 181 transferring the province's capital from Iligan City to the municipality of Tubod.


Basilan IslandBasilan CityBasilan Straits
The success of these large-scale cash crop plantations was emulated by a number of enterprising Filipinos and Spanish-mestizo families from Zamboanga, Negros and Luzon. Among these were Don Juan S. Alano, a Hispano-Chinese mestizo and native of Malolos, Bulacan, who opened the Philippine National Sugar Co. on Malamawi Island in 1921. This eventually became the Basilan Estates, Inc., the only 100% Filipino-owned plantation competing with American and British multi-nationals.

List of sultans of Sulu

complete listSultan of SuluSultan
In 1962, the Philippine government of President Diosdado Macapagal officially recognised the continued existence of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and, on 24 May 1974, officially recognised Sultan Mohammad Mahakuttah Kiram (reigned 1974–1986), under Memo Order 427, which was issued by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, and which stated that "The Government has always recognised the Sultanate of Sulu as the legitimate claimant to the historical territories of the Republic of Philippines" and that Mahakuttah A.

Benigno Aquino III

Benigno S. Aquino IIIBenigno AquinoAquino
However, in November 2016, Aquino attended a concert at Rizal Park and joined protests against the burial of Ferdinand Marcos. In February 2017, Aquino commemorated the 31st anniversary of the People Power Revolution by marching to the People Power Monument and joining the protests against the Ferdinand Marcos regime. In July 2017, criminal charges were filed against Aquino for usurpation of authority under the Revised Penal Code and violating anti-graft and corruption laws.

Joseph Estrada

Joseph Ejercito EstradaEstradaJoseph "Erap" Estrada
That night, anti-Estrada protesters gathered in front of the EDSA Shrine at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, not too far away from the site of the 1986 People Power Revolution that overthrew Ferdinand Marcos. On January 19, 2001, Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff Angelo Reyes, seeing the political upheaval throughout the country, "decided to withdraw his support" from the president and pay his allegiance to the vice president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The following day, the Supreme Court declared that the seat of presidency was vacant, saying that Estrada had resigned his post. At noon, the Chief Justice swore in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as president of the Philippines.

2009 Mindanao bombings

explodedbombings in Mindanaofour days of bombings
These statements followed allegations that the government intended to reinstate Martial Law, similar to that of Ferdinand Marcos in 1972. The bombings occurred within days of a visit by of CIA chief Leon Panetta, who was due to meet with President Arroyo about the country's security relation with the United States, particularly about the current situation of the U.S. military's presence in the southern Philippines.


SoehartoPresident SuhartoGeneral Suharto
Central Intelligence Agency described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century" and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno. He was appointed acting president in 1967, and elected President the following year. He then mounted a social campaign known as de-Soekarnoization to reduce the former President's influence. Support for Suharto's presidency was strong throughout the 1970s and 1980s. By the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent and, following a severe financial crisis, led to widespread unrest and his resignation in May 1998. Suharto died in 2008 and was given a state funeral.

Bangsamoro peace process

peace processFramework Agreement on the Bangsamoropresent
This prompted the Marcos regime to beef up military presence by deploying almost three-fourths of the army in most Muslim parts of Mindanao. Things took a different turn in 1976 when Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi brokered an agreement that led to the signing of the Tripoli Agreement that introduced the concept of an autonomous Muslim region in Mindanao. On August 1, 1989, under the mandate of the new 1987 Constitution, Congress enacted Republic Act 6734 authorizing the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).

Bongao, Tawi-Tawi

BongaoBongao IslandBongao)
', officially the ', is a province of, . According to the, it has a population of people.

Pata Island massacre

Pata Island, Sulu massacre
The Pata Island massacre refers to an event that took place on 12 February 1981 in Pata Island, Sulu province in the Philippines. More than 100 Philippine Army officers and men were killed by Moro natives in what was called by retired Major General Delfin Castro as "the biggest number of casualties incurred by the Armed Forces of the Philippines in a single incident since the start of the conflict in Mindanao and had the dubious distinction of achieving the biggest losses in AFP firearms and equipment in a single incident."

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal-ArroyoArroyoPresident Arroyo
A 2010 leaked diplomatic cable from the United States stated that Arroyo's administration was 'corrupt', even worse than Ferdinand Marcos's, and that Arroyo's husband, Jose Miguel Arroyo, is 'one of the most corrupt'. Following her presidency, she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president—after José P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. She was held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage but released on bail in July 2012.


Maguindanao provincein the provinceMaguindanao Province, Philippines
In 1977 following the resignation of Candao, President Ferdinand Marcos moved the province's seat of government to the municipality of Sultan Kudarat (hometown of the newly-appointed governor Sanggacala Baraguir) by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1170. During his term Baraguir held office at the then-newly-constructed provincial capitol in that municipality's Brgy. Simuay Crossing. The next governor, Sandiale Sambolawan, held office in his hometown of Maganoy following his election to the governorship in 1980.

Proclamation No. 216

Martial Lawdeclaredmartial law in Mindanao
However, Duterte insisted that it will not be any different from martial law under President Ferdinand Marcos. While the declaration does not currently affect citizens and government units in Luzon or the Visayas, Duterte suggested that he might extend the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus to Visayas and martial law to the entire country if needed to "protect the people."

History of the Philippines

Philippine historyhistoryPhilippines
In November 18, 2016, the remains of Ferdinand Marcos was secretly buried by the Philippine National Police, Armed Forces of the Philippines, and the family and friends of Ferdinand Marcos, despite the Supreme Court order being non-executory due to protocol. Later in the afternoon, the event was made public. On May 23, 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Proclamation No. 216 declaring a 60-day martial law in Mindanao following clashes between government forces and the Maute group in Marawi.

List of torture methods used by the Marcos dictatorship

method of torture
Marcos blamed this unrest on the newly-formed Communist Party of the Philippines under Jose Maria Sison, despite both Philippine and American intelligence services noting that the communist situation in the Philippines was "normal" or at the lowest level of concern; and on a supposed "Islamic Insurgency",although the armed Moro National Liberation Front would not form until after Marcos' declaration. For Marcos to continue to act as head of state, his declaration of Martial Law had to achieve seven objectives: 1. Control the military and police; 2. Control the Supreme Court; 3. Undermine the Philippine public's faith in democracy; 4. Exploit and abet lawlessness and instability; 5.

Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process

The Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP) is a government agency which handles peace talks and negotiations related to internal conflict and rebellion in the Philippines most notably the CPP-NPA-NDF and Moro conflicts. In the 1960s to 1970s the Moro National Liberation Front which called for the self-determination of the Moro people led by Nur Misuari as well as the New People's Army which aimed for the establishment of a communist government to govern the country was established. The administration of President Ferdinand Marcos started negotiations with the MNLF which led to the signing of the Tripoli Agreement in 1976.


March 20 – Ferdinand Marcos's widow, Imelda Marcos, goes on trial for bribery, embezzlement, and racketeering. March 21 – After 75 years of South African rule since World War I, Namibia becomes independent. March 24 – Australian federal election, 1990: Bob Hawke's Labor Government is re-elected with a reduced majority, narrowly defeating the Liberal/National Coalition led by Andrew Peacock. March 25. In New York City, a fire due to arson at an illegal social club called "Happy Land" kills 87. Archbishop of Canterbury Robert Runcie announces his intention to retire at the end of the year.

1976 Tripoli Agreement

Tripoli Agreement
The declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos in September 1972 contributed to the ongoing Moro conflict, with Abul Khayr Alonto and Jallaludin Santos establishing the Moro National Liberation Front with Nur Misuari as chairman a month later that same year. With the MNLF receiving support from Malaysia and Libya, Marcos offered Muammar Gaddafi, a lucrative oil deal in exchange for his withdrawal of support for the MNLF through Malaysia; this brought Misuari to the negotiation table in 1976. Marcos sent his wife, Imelda Marcos, to meet with Gaddafi in Libya in November 1976. Accompanying the First Lady was a 60-person entourage that included Industry Secretary Vicente Paterno.

Gun laws in the Philippines

PhilippinesPhilippines, Gun politics in
The Philippines has also enacted laws as a result of many incidents of armed political violence during elections During his presidency Ferdinand Marcos implemented gun confiscations against citizens. These were part of his martial law regime, what he referred to as "The New Society" or the Bagong Lipunan, as well as to quell the Moro separatist groups in Mindanao. Since then, gun control has become a moderate and strong issue in the Philippines. The ownership of firearms in the Philippines is regulated by the Firearms and Explosives Division of the Philippine National Police.

Tacub massacre

The Tacub massacre was the mass murder of a group of Muslim Moros by Philippine government troops at a military checkpoint on October 24, 1971. The Moros were returning from attempting to vote in a special election; they had been turned away by the Ilaga from polling places in Magsaysay, Lanao del Norte. The troops were later identified as troops of the Philippine Army stationed in Tacub, Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte, which then lent its name to the incident, and Christian civilians. At least 40 Moros were killed. Other sources report the number of fatalities to be as high as 66.