Chumash people

ChumashChumash-VenturañoChumash Indians
Satwiwa – ancient Chumash village and now museum in Newbury Park, CA. Southwest Museum in Highland Park. Shalawa Meadow - a former Chumash burial ground. Ventura County Museum of History and Art in Ventura – exhibits on Chumash history with guided tours available. Burro Flats Painted Cave. Chumash Painted Cave State Historic Park, California. Chumash traditional narratives. Polynesian navigation. Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. Shalawa Meadow, California. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970.

River

riversriverineriparian
Building on flood plains removes flood storage, which again exacerbates downstream flooding. The building of levees only protects the area behind the levees and not those further downstream. Levees and flood-banks can also increase flooding upstream because of the back-water pressure as the river flow is impeded by the narrow channel banks. Studying the flows of rivers is one aspect of hydrology. Rivers flow downhill with their power derived from gravity. The direction can involve all directions of the compass and can be a complex meandering path. Rivers flowing downhill, from river source to river mouth, do not necessarily take the shortest path.

Southern California

southernSoCalCalifornia
. – Southern California Counties categories. Category: Public transportation in Southern California. California earthquake forecast. California megapolitan areas. Geography of southern California. Largest cities in southern California. Megaregions of the United States. San Angeles. South Coast. Southern California Association of Governments. Castillo-Munoz, Veronica. The Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands (University of California Press, 2016), 171 pp. $70.00.). Deverell, William, and David Igler, eds. A companion to California history (John Wiley & Sons, 2013). Fogelson, Robert M.

Oregon

ORState of OregonOregon, U.S.
About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier. Oregon's geographical center is further west than any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington).

Erosion

erodederodingerode
Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows. The rates at which such processes act control how fast a surface is eroded.

Debris

wreckagecoarsedebris flow
In geology, debris usually applies to the remains of geological activity including landslides, volcanic explosions, avalanches, mudflows or Glacial lake outburst floods (Jökulhlaups) and moraine, lahars, and lava eruptions. Geological debris sometimes moves in a stream called a debris flow. When it accumulates at the base of hillsides, it can be called "talus" or "scree". In mining, debris called attle usually consists of rock fragments which contain little or no ore.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
In areas of extreme rainfall and high temperatures, the clay and humus may be washed out, further reducing the buffering capacity of the soil. In low rainfall areas, unleached calcium pushes pH to 8.5 and with the addition of exchangeable sodium, soils may reach pH 10. Beyond a pH of 9, plant growth is reduced. High pH results in low micro-nutrient mobility, but water-soluble chelates of those nutrients can correct the deficit. Sodium can be reduced by the addition of gypsum (calcium sulphate) as calcium adheres to clay more tightly than does sodium causing sodium to be pushed into the soil water solution where it can be washed out by an abundance of water.

Ice jam

ice damice jamsice
Ice jam floods are less predictable and potentially more destructive than open-water flooding and can produce much deeper and faster flooding. Ice jam floods also may occur during freezing weather, and may leave large pieces of ice behind, but they are much more localized than open-water floods. Ice jams also damage an economy by causing river-side industrial facilities such as hydro-electric generating stations to shut down and to interfere with ship transport. The United States averages 125 million dollars in losses to ice jams per year. Ice jams on rivers usually occur in the springtime as the river ice begins to break up, but may also occur in early winter during freeze-up.

Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
Storm/Flood and Hurricane/Typhoon Response–NIOSH of the CDC. U.S. Billion-dollar Weather and Climate Events.

Desert

desertsaridhigh desert
Although rain seldom occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind. This picks up particles of sand and dust and wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms. Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, and the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits. The grains end up as level sheets of sand or are piled high in billowing sand dunes.

United States Census Bureau

U.S. Census BureauUS Census BureauCensus Bureau
Division 9: Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Decide the location of new housing and public facilities. Examine the demographic characteristics of communities, states, and the US. Plan transportation systems and roadways. Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, and. Create localized areas for elections, schools, utilities, etc. Gathers population information every 10 years. American Community Survey. American Housing Survey. Consumer Expenditure Survey. Census of Governments. Current Population Survey. Economic Census. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). National Health Interview Survey.

2010 United States Census

2010 census20102010 U.S. Census
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census.

U.S. state

Statestatesstatehood
They earned from $0 annually (New Mexico) to $90,526 (California). There were various per diem and mileage compensation. States can also organize their judicial systems differently from the federal judiciary, as long as they protect the federal constitutional right of their citizens to procedural due process. Most have a trial level court, generally called a District Court, Superior Court or Circuit Court, a first-level appellate court, generally called a Court of Appeal (or Appeals), and a Supreme Court. However, Oklahoma and Texas have separate highest courts for criminal appeals.

National Weather Service

Weather BureauNWSUnited States Weather Bureau
The Weather Prediction Center in College Park, Maryland provides guidance for future precipitation amounts and areas where excessive rainfall is likely, while local NWS offices are responsible for issuing Flood Watches, Flash Flood Watches, Flood Warnings, Flash Flood Warnings, and Flood Advisories for their local County Warning Area, as well as the official rainfall forecast for areas within their warning area of responsibility.

Flash flood guidance system

Flash flood. Hydrology. Hydrologic Research Center. Meteorology. Flash flood watch. Flash flood warning. Haiti Dominican Republic Flash Flood Guidance System. Central America Flash Flood Guidance System.

Huayco

wayqu
A huaico (from the Quechua wayqu, meaning "depth, valley") is an Andean term that refers to the mudslide and flash flood caused by torrential rains occurring high in the mountains, especially during the weather phenomenon known as El Niño. National forests such as the San Matías–San Carlos Protection Forest were created in Peru to protect vegetation, which reduces runoff, and prevent huaicos. The indigenous Mapuche residents of Lo Barnechea, in present-day Santiago Province, Chile, were called Huaicoches in their Mapudungun language: Huaico (flash flood) and che (people).

Pacific Time Zone

Pacific (PST)PSTPacific
Baja California. Colima – Clarion Island. California. Washington. Idaho – Idaho Panhandle. Nevada – all, except for West Wendover and Jackpot, Mountain City, Owyhee, and Jarbidge. Oregon – all, except for the majority of Malheur County. The Official NIST US Time. Official times across Canada. World time zone map. U.S. time zone map. History of U.S. time zones and UTC conversion. Canada time zone map. Time zones for major world cities.

Santa Barbara, California

Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara, CACity of Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara Views, ca. 1875, The Bancroft Library.

Arizona

AZArizona, U.S.State of Arizona
These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona. Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F to the state's northern parts.

Santa Barbara County, California

Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara CountySanta Barbara Counties
Santa Barbara County, California, officially the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 423,895. The county seat is Santa Barbara, and the largest city is Santa Maria. Santa Barbara County comprises the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Most of the county is part of the California Central Coast. Mainstays of the county's economy include engineering, resource extraction (particularly petroleum extraction and diatomaceous earth mining), winemaking, agriculture, and education.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue. Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows. Forests return most of the water that falls as precipitation to the atmosphere by transpiration. In contrast, when an area is deforested, almost all precipitation is lost as run-off. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover.

Death Valley National Park

Death ValleyDeath Valley, CaliforniaDeath Valley National Monument
When rain does arrive it often does so in intense storms that cause flash floods which remodel the landscape and sometimes create very shallow ephemeral lakes. The hot, dry climate makes it difficult for soil to form. Mass wasting, the down-slope movement of loose rock, is therefore the dominant erosive force in mountainous area, resulting in "skeletonized" ranges (mountains with very little soil on them). Sand dunes in the park, while famous, are not nearly as widespread as their fame or the dryness of the area may suggest.

Music Academy of the West

The Music Academy of the West is a summer music conservatory located in Montecito, California, United States, near Santa Barbara. Participation is merit-based and tuition free. The academy hosts an annual eight-week summer music festival for the community, highlighted by concerts and workshops directed by famous composers, conductors, and artists. The festival hosts 140 pre-professional musicians who receive merit-based full scholarships. Programs of study include Vocal Piano, Voice, Collaborative Piano, Solo Piano, and Instrumental.

Montecito Inn

Montecito Inn is a boutique hotel in the southwestern part of Montecito, California. It is considered a Santa Barbara landmark. Located on Coast Village Road in Montecito, adjacent to U.S. Route 101, the inn is 2.5 blocks from Butterfly Beach. Pleistocene gravel deposits are evident nearby. The hotel was built by Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin and friends in 1928 as an escape from show business. The inn has a complete library of Chaplin's films; his image is seen in etched glass doors and in the hallways which are lined with movie posters. The 1936 Rodgers and Hart song, There's a Small Hotel, drew inspiration from the Montecito Inn.