Santa Ana River

Santa Ana
Army Corps of Engineers made the decision to dam and concrete the river beginning in the 1940s, and declared it as the greatest flood hazard in the U.S. west of the Mississippi River. Prado Dam, built in 1941, was designed to capture floodwaters from the Inland Empire about 30 mi upstream from the river's mouth. The dam's impoundment, Prado Flood Control Basin, was designed to handle a 70-year flood. With the increased flood protection afforded by the Prado Dam, major industrial development migrating south from the Los Angeles Basin, and the Southern California housing boom in the 1950s and 1960s, the Santa Ana River watershed began its third and final transition—from agricultural to urban.

Eel River (California)

Eel RiverEelEel River Valley
The flooding was also deleterious to rail service through the Eel River canyon. After the 1964 floods, much of the topography in the Eel River drainage has been permanently damaged, and landslides occur much more often, frequently damaging local road and rail infrastructure. In 1998, after another large flood in the winter of 1996–1997 washed out sections of the line, the Northwestern Pacific became the first railroad to be shut down by the federal government for safety reasons. Although the portion south of Willits was reopened in 2006, the section between Willits and Samoa, which includes the entire Eel River portion of the tracks, are unlikely to ever be returned to service.


flood plainfloodplainsflood plains
The US government also sponsors flood hazard mitigation efforts to reduce flood impacts. California's Hazard Mitigation Program]] is one funding source for mitigation projects. A number of whole towns such as English, Indiana, have been completely relocated to remove them from the floodplain. Other smaller-scale mitigation efforts include acquiring and demolishing flood-prone buildings or flood-proofing them. In some tropical floodplain areas such as the Inner Niger Delta of Mali, annual flooding events are a natural part of the local ecology and rural economy, allowing for the raising of crops through recessional agriculture.


storm waterstormwater managementcontrols
Stormwater is a major cause of urban flooding. Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built-up environment caused by stormwater overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers. Although triggered by single events such as flash flooding or snow melt, urban flooding is a condition, characterized by its repetitive, costly and systemic impacts on communities. In areas susceptible to urban flooding, backwater valves and other infrastructure may be installed to mitigate losses. Where properties are built with basements, urban flooding is the primary cause of basement and sewer backups.

Ring of Fire

Pacific Ring of Firecircum-Pacific orogenic beltPacific Rim
The Public Safety Geo-science Program at the Natural Resources Canada undertakes research to support risk reduction from the effects of space weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. British Columbia and Yukon are home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Several mountains in populated areas of British Columbia are dormant volcanoes. Most of these were active during the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields, and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.

Colorado River

ColoradoGrand RiverLower Colorado River
In early 1905, heavy floods destroyed the headworks of the canal, and water began to flow uncontrolled down the canal towards the Salton Sink. On August 9, the entire flow of the Colorado swerved into the canal and began to flood the bottom of the Imperial Valley. In a desperate gamble to close the breach, crews of the Southern Pacific Railroad, whose tracks ran through the valley, attempted to dam the Colorado above the canal, only to see their work demolished by a flash flood.

Los Angeles flood of 1938

19381938 flood1938 floods
The flood of 1938 is considered a 50-year flood. It caused $78 million of damage ($ in dollars), making it one of the costliest natural disasters in Los Angeles' history. In response to the floods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies began to channelize local streams in concrete, and built many new flood control dams and debris basins. These works have been instrumental in protecting Southern California from subsequent flooding events, such as in 1969 and 2005, which both had a larger volume than the 1938 flood.


Ganna Walska Lotusland
Ganna Walska Lotusland, also known as Lotusland, is a non-profit botanical garden located in Montecito, near Santa Barbara, California, United States. The (15 ha / 37 acres) garden is the historic estate of Madame Ganna Walska. The County of Santa Barbara restricts visitation via a conditional use permit: Lotusland botanic garden is open to the public by advance reservation only, with walking tours 1½ to 2 hours long. Ralph Kinton Stevens purchased the land in 1882; he and his wife, Caroline Lucy Tallant, named the property "Tanglewood". They established a lemon and palm nursery and eventually added other tropical plants to the collection and were among the early plantsmen of Santa Barbara.


Drainage basin management covers water storage, in the form of reservoirs, and floods protection. Water quality includes the chemistry of water in rivers and lakes, both of pollutants and natural solutes. Calculation of rainfall. Calculating surface runoff and precipitation. Determining the water balance of a region. Determining the agricultural water balance. Designing riparian restoration projects. Mitigating and predicting flood, landslide and drought risk. Real-time flood forecasting and flood warning. Designing irrigation schemes and managing agricultural productivity. Part of the hazard module in catastrophe modeling. Providing drinking water.


These flash floods often catch travelers by surprise. An intermittent stream can also be called an arroyo in Latin America, a winterbourne in Britain, or a wadi in the Arabic-speaking world. In Italy, an intermittent stream is termed a torrent . In full flood the stream may or may not be "torrential" in the dramatic sense of the word, but there will be one or more seasons in which the flow is reduced to a trickle or less. Typically torrents have Apennine rather than Alpine sources, and in the summer they are fed by little precipitation and no melting snow. In this case the maximum discharge will be during the spring and autumn.


southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
Often houses and streets are waterlogged and slums are flooded despite drainage systems. A lack of city infrastructure coupled with changing climate patterns causes severe economic loss including damage to property and loss of lives, as evidenced in the 2005 flooding in Mumbai that brought the city to a standstill. Bangladesh and certain regions of India like Assam and West Bengal, also frequently experience heavy floods during this season. Recently, areas in India that used to receive scanty rainfall throughout the year, like the Thar Desert, have surprisingly ended up receiving floods due to the prolonged monsoon season.

Return period

recurrence interval1-in-100 year event1 in 100 year
Recurrence interval = For floods, the event may be measured in terms of m³/s or height; for storm surges, in terms of the height of the surge, and similarly for other events. The theoretical return period is the inverse of the probability that the event will be exceeded in any one year (or more accurately the inverse of the expected number of occurrences in a year). For example, a 10-year flood has a 1/10 = 0.1 or 10% chance of being exceeded in any one year and a 50-year flood has a 0.02 or 2% chance of being exceeded in any one year. This does not mean that a 100-year flood will happen regularly every 100 years, or only once in 100 years.

Bertram Goodhue

Bertram Grosvenor GoodhueBertram G. GoodhueGoodhue
The Panama-California Exposition's style was seen by many and widely published, becoming extremely influential in California and the Southern and Southwestern United States. It led to California's assimilation of Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture as its dominant historical regional style, which continues to this day. The singular style for the rebuilding of Santa Barbara after its 1925 destruction by a major earthquake was drawn from the local Mission Revival and Goodhue's Panama-California Exposition Spanish Colonial Revival style trends. Examples of influential private Californian commissions, both extant registered landmarks now, are his 1906 J.

T. C. Boyle

T.C. BoyleT. Coraghessan BoyleT.C.Boyle
They have three children and live in Montecito near Santa Barbara, California. Their home was imperiled in the 2017 Thomas Fire which consumed 440 square miles and over 1,000 structures in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, killing a firefighter in the latter. The fires denuded drought-stricken hillsides of vegetation and torrential rains in January 2018 subsequently dislodged immense boulders and precipitated mudslides which destroyed over one hundred homes and killed almost two dozen of his neighbors. Over 10,000 people were evacuated from Montecito as a result of the sequence of natural disasters.

St. Francis Dam

a dam failedhave happened in California killing 600 peopleSt. Francis Dam Disaster
St Francis Dam Flood, image gallery at USGS. Complete List of St. Francis Dam Disaster Victims, compiled by Ann C. Stansell, California State University–Northridge.


vegetativevegetatedvegetative cover
Abrupt changes are generally referred to as disturbances; these include things like wildfires, high winds, landslides, floods, avalanches and the like. Their causes are usually external (exogenous) to the community—they are natural processes occurring (mostly) independently of the natural processes of the community (such as germination, growth, death, etc.). Such events can change vegetation structure and composition very quickly and for long time periods, and they can do so over large areas. Very few ecosystems are without some type of disturbance as a regular and recurring part of the long term system dynamic.

List of California locations by income

Californiahighest income cities in Californialowest median household income
California. California locations by crime rate. California locations by race. California locations by voter registration. Economy of California. Economy of the United States. List of U.S. states by income.

Yosemite Valley

Influential figures such as Galen Clark, clergyman Thomas Starr King and leading landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted were among those who urged Senator John Conness of California to try to preserve Yosemite. President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill on June 30, 1864 granting Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias to the State of California "for public use, resort and recreation," the two tracts "shall be inalienable for all time". This was the first time in history that a federal government had set aside scenic lands simply to protect them and to allow for their enjoyment by all people. Simply designating an area a park isn't sufficient to protect it.

Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptions
These massive landslides make Peléan eruptions one of the most dangerous in the world, capable of tearing through populated areas and causing massive loss of life. The 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée caused tremendous destruction, killing more than 30,000 people and completely destroying the town of St. Pierre, the worst volcanic event in the 20th century. Peléan eruptions are characterized most prominently by the incandescent pyroclastic flows that they drive.

Flood alert

flood watchred alertwatches
Flood alerts are issued by weather agencies to alert residents that flood conditions are a possibility. In the United States, a flash flood watch is issued by the National Weather Service (NWS) when weather conditions are favorable for very heavy rain that could cause flooding or flash flooding. A watch does not mean that flooding is occurring, only that weather conditions have created or will create a significant risk for it. If flooding occurs, a flood warning or flash flood warning would be issued and immediate action should be taken. A flood warning or flash flood warning is issued when flooding is imminent or already occurring.

Natural disaster

natural disastersnaturaldisaster
A flood is an overflow of water that 'submerges' land. The EU Floods Directive defines a flood as a temporary covering the land with water which is usually not covered by water. In the sense of 'flowing water', the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tides. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows, causing some of the water to escape its usual boundaries.

Vargas tragedy

1999 Vargas mudslideVargas mudslides1999 mud slides
Since the 17th century, at least two large-magnitude debris flow, landslide, or flood events, on average, have occurred each century within the modern boundaries of Vargas. Recorded events occurred in February 1798, August 1912, January 1914, November 1938, May 1944, November 1944, August 1948, and February 1951. In the February 1798 event, flash floods and debris flows severely damaged 219 homes. Spanish soldiers barricaded an upstream-facing entrance to a fort with cannons in order to prevent debris from filling it. Prior to the 1999 disaster, the most recent major flood had occurred in 1951, but that event did not cause as much damage.

Devil's Slide (California)

Devil's SlideDevil's Slide Rock
California landslides. Biological Assessment, Species of Concern, Proposed Route 1 Devil's Slide Tunnel Bypass Project, San Mateo County, California Prepared by; Caltrans, Office of Environmental Planning, South. July, 1998. Michael Hogan and Ballard George, Air Quality and Noise Analyses for the Bypass Alternative, Devil's Slide Improvement Project, Caltrans District 4, prepared by Earth Metrics Inc., Burlingame, CA (1984). Devil's Slide Improvement Project, San Mateo County, California, Draft Second Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Caltrans District 4 (1999).

Geotechnical engineering

geotechnicalgeotechnical engineergeotechnical engineers
Humans have historically used soil as a material for flood control, irrigation purposes, burial sites, building foundations, and as construction material for buildings. First activities were linked to irrigation and flood control, as demonstrated by traces of dykes, dams, and canals dating back to at least 2000 BCE that were found in ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent, as well as around the early settlements of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in the Indus valley. As the cities expanded, structures were erected supported by formalized foundations; Ancient Greeks notably constructed pad footings and strip-and-raft foundations.

Val Pola landslide

Valtellina flood disaster
The debris from the Val Pola rock avalanche and landslide impounded on the Adda River creating a lake with 6 million cubic meters of water. The landslide itself obliterated 5 villages and six hamlets with 43 people died of various disaster-related causes. The total cost of the disaster and several months of its mitigation was about 400 million euros. The resulting lake created the floodability threat, because the accumulated huge amount of water threatened to breach the debris dam and flood the Adda valley.