Filippo Brunelleschi made great contributions to architectural design with his dome for the Cathedral of Florence, a feat of engineering that had not been accomplished since antiquity. A popular achievement of Italian Renaissance architecture was St. Peter's Basilica, originally designed by Donato Bramante in the early 16th century.

Giovanni Villani

VillaniGiovanniVillani, Giovanni
At the same time, he served as the consul for his guild of the Arte di Calimala and watched over the raising of the campanile of the Badìa. He was also sent with others as a hostage to Ferrara, to ensure that Florence made good on a debt; he resided there for some months in 1341. Villani often expressed an optimistic viewpoint in his writing; this changed with the short-lived regime of Walter VI of Brienne, a despot invited to Florence and granted signoria.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
In 1438, the Council of Florence convened, which featured a strong dialogue focussed on understanding the theological differences between the East and West, with the hope of reuniting the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Several eastern churches reunited, forming the majority of the Eastern Catholic Churches. The Age of Discovery beginning in the 15th century saw the expansion of Western Europe's political and cultural influence worldwide.


Pisa, ItalyPisanPisans
Always Ghibelline, Pisa tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century, and even managed to defeat Florence in the Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of Uguccione della Faggiuola. Eventually, however, after a long siege, Pisa was occupied by Florentines in 1406; in fact, Florentines corrupted the capitano del popolo ("people's chieftain"), Giovanni Gambacorta, who opened by night the city gate of San Marco. Pisa was never conquered by an army. In 1409, Pisa was the seat of a council trying to set the question of the Great Schism.

Filippino Lippi

FilippinoSchool of '''Lippi''' Filippino
Bernard, which is now in the Badia Fiorentina, Florence. This is Lippi's most popular picture: a composition of unreal items, with its very particular elongated figures, backed by a phantasmagorical scenario of rocks and almost anthropomorphic trunks. The work is dated to 1485–1487. Later, he worked for Tanai de' Nerli in Florence's Santo Spirito church. On April 21, 1487, Filippo Strozzi asked him to decorate the Strozzi family chapel in Santa Maria Novella with Stories of St. John Evangelist and St. Philip. He worked on this commission intermittently, over a long time. He only completed it in 1503, after Strozzi's death.

Santa Croce, Florence

Santa CroceBasilica of Santa CroceBasilica di Santa Croce
A monument to Florence Nightingale stands in the cloister, in the city in which she was born and after which she was named. Brunelleschi also built the inner cloister, completed in 1453. In 1940, during the safe hiding of various works during World War II, Ugo Procacci noticed the Badia Polyptych being carried out of the church. He reasoned that this had been removed from the Badia Fiorentina during the Napoleonic occupation and accidentally re-installed in Santa Croce. Between 1958 and 1961, Leonetto Tintori removed layers of whitewash and overpaint from Giotto's Peruzzi Chapel scenes to reveal his original work. In 1966, the Arno River flooded much of Florence, including Santa Croce.

Dante Alighieri

Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph–Ghibelline conflict. He fought in the Battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289), with the Florentine Guelphs against Arezzo Ghibellines; then in 1294 he was among the escorts of Charles Martel of Anjou (grandson of Charles I of Anjou) while he was in Florence. To further his political career, he became a pharmacist. He did not intend to practice as one, but a law issued in 1295 required nobles aspiring to public office to be enrolled in one of the Corporazioni delle Arti e dei Mestieri, so Dante obtained admission to the Apothecaries' Guild.

Giovanni Boccaccio

BoccaccioBoccacioGiovanni Bocaccio
He was born in Florence or in a village near Certaldo where his family was from. He was the son of Florentine merchant Boccaccino di Chellino and an unknown woman; he was likely born out of wedlock. Boccaccio's stepmother was called Margherita de' Mardoli. Boccaccio grew up in Florence. His father worked for the Compagnia dei Bardi and, in the 1320s, married Margherita dei Mardoli, who was of a well-to-do family. Boccaccio may have been tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante. In 1326, his father was appointed head of a bank and moved with his family to Naples. Boccaccio was an apprentice at the bank but disliked the banking profession.

Bernardo Rossellino

BernardoBernardo RosselinoBernardo di Matteo Gamberelli
Final projects included designs for the Piccolomini-Todeschini Palace in Siena, a bell tower for the church of San Pietro in Perugia (modeled after that in Pienza), and possibly for the Piccolomini Palace built alongside the thermal pool at Bagno di Vignoni. Bernardo died in Florence on 23 September 1464. His pupils/assistants included his younger brother Antonio, Desiderio da Settignano, Matteo Civitale, Buggiano, Mino da Fiesole. The workshop continued under the leadership of Antonio but accepted only commissions for sculpture. * Works by Bernardo Rossellino Charles R. Mack, Pienza: The Creation of a Renaissance City, Ithica: Cornell University Press, 1987. Leo Planiscig.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People (1442), with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries". Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient, medieval, and modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Later starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural OrganizationUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris, France. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Divine Comedy

The Divine ComedyInfernoDivina Commedia
Florence's Guelphs split into factions around 1300 – the White Guelphs and the Black Guelphs. Dante was among the White Guelphs who were exiled in 1302 by the Lord-Mayor Cante de' Gabrielli di Gubbio, after troops under Charles of Valois entered the city, at the request of Pope Boniface VIII, who supported the Black Guelphs. This exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics, to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents. The last word in each of the three cantiche is stelle ("stars").

Fra Angelico

Beato AngelicoAngelicoBlessed Fra Angelico
Cortona *Annunciation (c. 1430) – Diocesan Museum, Cortona Fiesole Florence, Santa Trinita Florence, Santa Maria degli Angeli *Last Judgement, Accademia, Florence Florence, Santa Maria Novella *Altarpiece - Coronation of the Virgin, Uffizi. * Altarpiece for chancel – Virgin with Saints Cosmas and Damian, attended by Saints Dominic, Peter, Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen. Cosmas and Damian were patrons of the Medici. The altarpiece was commissioned in 1438 by Cosimo de' Medici. It was removed and disassembled during the renovation of the convent church in the seventeenth century.

Hugh, Margrave of Tuscany

HughHugh of TuscanyHugh the Great
He was buried in the Badia Fiorentina, which his mother had founded in 978, where a monument was later added by Mino da Fiesole. Hugh is still commemorated annually by the monks on 21 December, the feast of Saint Thomas. Hugh's life became surrounded by legends and he was remembered by Placido Puccinelli in the 17th century as a moral and pious prince. His tomb was said to be the site of celestial visions. The Tuscan poet Dante Alighieri, in Paradiso XVI, 127–30, calls Hugh a "great baron": ;Notes ;Citations * * Sources. Further reading.


Uffizi GalleryGalleria degli UffiziUffizi Palace
In early August 2007, Florence experienced a heavy rainstorm. The Gallery was partially flooded, with water leaking through the ceiling, and the visitors had to be evacuated. There was a much more significant flood in 1966 which damaged most of the art collections in Florence severely, including some of the works in the Uffizi. • Cimabue: Santa Trinita Maestà • Duccio: Rucellai Madonna • Giotto: Ognissanti Madonna, Badia Polyptych • Simone Martini: Annunciation with St. Margaret and St.

San Miniato al Monte

Basilica di San Miniato al MonteSan MiniatoBasilica of San Miniato al Monte
The Museums of Florence - San Miniato al Monte.


TorinoTurin, ItalyTorino, Italy
Main church of the district is the Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita, which with its 83 m height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana, the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper, the Torre Littoria and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium. The church is hosting the Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Faà di Bruno. The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free.

Santa Maria Novella

Basilica of Santa Maria NovellaSanta Maria Novella, FlorenceBasilica di Santa Maria Novella
Santa Maria Novella, Florence virtual reality movie and pictures. The Museums of Florence Santa Maria Novella.

Florence Cathedral

Santa Maria del FioreDuomoCathedral of Florence
This neo-gothic façade in white, green and red marble forms a harmonious entity with the cathedral, Giotto's bell tower and the Baptistery, but some think it is excessively decorated. The whole façade is dedicated to the Mother of Christ. The three huge bronze doors date from 1899 to 1903. They are adorned with scenes from the life of the Madonna. The mosaics in the lunettes above the doors were designed by Niccolò Barabino. They represent (from left to right): Charity among the founders of Florentine philanthropic institutions; Christ enthroned with Mary and John the Baptist; and Florentine artisans, merchants and humanists.

San Lorenzo, Florence

San LorenzoBasilica of San LorenzoBasilica of San Lorenzo, Florence
The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III. It is one of several churches that claim to be the oldest in Florence; when it was consecrated in 393 it stood outside the city walls. For three hundred years it was the city's cathedral before the official seat of the bishop was transferred to Santa Reparata. San Lorenzo was also the parish church of the Medici family.

Ognissanti, Florence

OgnissantiChurch of OgnissantiSan Salvatore di Ognissanti
The Museums of Florence - Ognissanti - Church and Last Supper of Ghirlandaio.

Giotto's Campanile

Giotto's Bell Towercampanilebell tower
Giotto's Campanile (, also, ) is a free-standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy. Standing adjacent to the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Baptistry of St. John, the tower is one of the showpieces of Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and its polychrome marble encrustations. The slender structure is square in plan with 14.45 metre (47.41 ft) sides. It is 84.7 metres (277.9 ft) tall and has polygonal buttresses at each corner. The tower is divided into five stages.

Leaning Tower of Pisa

Tower of PisaLeaning TowerCampanile
A new bell was installed in the bell tower at the end of the 18th century to replace the broken Pasquareccia. The circular shape and great height of the campanile were unusual for their time, and the crowning belfry is stylistically distinct from the rest of the construction. This belfry incorporates a 14 cm correction for the inclined axis below. The siting of the campanile within the Piazza del Duomo diverges from the axial alignment of the cathedral and baptistery of the Piazza del Duomo. * Elevation of Piazza del Duomo: about 2 metres (6 feet, DMS). Height from the ground floor: 55.863 metres, 8 stories. Height from the foundation floor: 58.36 m. Outer diameter of base: 15.484 m.

Apparition of the Virgin to St Bernard (Filippino Lippi)

Apparition of the Virgin to St. Bernard
It is housed in the Badia Fiorentina, a church in Florence. The picture was commissioned for the chapel of Francesco del Pugliese by the latter's son Piero, who is portrayed in the lower right corner in the traditional praying posture of the donor portrait. It is one of the most admired Lippi's works, due to its powerful, Flemish-inspired chromatism and attention to details, which contribute in turning the mystical apparition of the Virgin to St. Bernard into an everyday life scene. The composition is set in a rocky landscape in which the saint, while writing on his lectern, is suddenly visited by the Virgin.

Giovanni Domenico Ferretti

Gian Domenico FerrettiGiandomenico Ferretti
Ferretti soon joined the Florentine Accademia del Disegno, where he later taught painting but also designed tapestries for the Medici. He found abundant patronage in fresco painting for the Florentine Abbey (Badia Fiorentina), the Chapel of San Giuseppe in the Duomo, and the altar and cupola of the Church of San Salvatore al Vescovo. One of his most important works was the decoration of the ceiling of the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, since lost in a fire. Ferretti's fresco style was influenced by Sebastiano Ricci's lively, colourful, and pastel-hued frescoes in the Palazzo Marucelli-Fenzi.