Index of gardening articles

List of gardening topics
plant - Flowerpot - Flower preservation - Fogponics - Foliar feeding - Foliar nutrient - Folkewall - Folly - Foodscaping - Forest gardening - Formal garden - Fountain - Fountaineer - French formal garden - French intensive gardening - French landscape garden - Front garden - Fruit - Fruit tree - Fruit tree forms - Fruit tree propagation - Fruit tree pruning - Fusarium patch Garden - Garden at Buckingham Palace - Garden-based learning - Garden buildings - Garden centre - Garden city movement - Garden club - Garden Culture - Garden design - Garden designer - Garden festival - Garden fork - Garden furniture - Garden guns - Garden hermit - Garden History Society - Garden hose - Garden leave - Garden

Urban horticulture

urban gardeningurban gardensurban and peri-urban horticulture
Flowerpot farming. Foodscaping. Folkewall. Garden sharing. Germination. Green wall. Intercultural Garden. Organic horticulture. Rooftop farming. Roof garden. Sprouting. Urban agriculture. Vertical farming. Victory garden. Tixier, Philippe and de Bon, Hubert; 2006. Ch. 11. "Urban Horticulture" in Cities Farming for the Future - Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities by René van Veenhuizen (Ed.), International Development Research Centre (Canada). Garden Culture, A magazine that focuses on growing food in an urban environment. Flowerpot Farming: Creating your own Urban Kitchen Garden, Jayne Neville, Good Life Press; Ill edition (June 1, 2008), ISBN: 978-1904871316.

Garden ornament

. * Guide to garden ornaments bird baths. bird feeders. birdhouses. columns – cast stone. flower box. window box. folly. fountains. jardiniere. kugel fountain. garden furniture. gazing spheres. hanging baskets. holiday – seasonal ornaments and decorations. landscape lighting – decorative fixtures. lawn ornaments. bathtub madonnas. concrete geese. garden gnomes. lawn jockeys. plastic pink flamingos. moon bridge – small ornament versions. outdoor fireplace. outdoor sculpture. found objects such as recycled bowling balls, toilet planters, antique farm equipment. kinetic sculpture. masks. obelisks. renewable energy sculpture. pagoda – small versions. pedestals – e.g. terracotta, cast stone. pond

List of garden types

Garden types
Window box. Winter garden. Xeriscaping. Zen.

Pot farming

Cannabis grower
Flower box. Grow bag. Grow box. Houseplant care. Orchard. Seedling. Sub-irrigated planter. Urban compost. Urban gardening. Urban horticulture.


Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops. Hügelkultur is concerned with growing plants on piles of rotting wood, as a form of raised bed gardening and composting in situ. An English loanword from German, it means "mound garden." Toby Hemenway, noted permaculture author and teacher, considers wood buried in trenches to also be a form of hugelkultur referred to as a dead wood swale.

Garden design

formal gardensgardenrock garden
Garden furniture may range from a patio set consisting of a table, four or six chairs and a parasol, through benches, swings, various lighting, to stunning artifacts in brutal concrete or weathered oak. Patio heaters, that run on bottled butane or propane, are often used to enable people to sit outside at night or in cold weather. A picnic table, is used for the purpose of eating a meal outdoors such as in a garden. The materials used to manufacture modern patio furniture include stones, metals, vinyl, plastics, resins, glass, and treated woods. While sunlight is not always easily controlled by the gardener, it is an important element of garden design.


furniture designhome furnishingsoffice furniture
In general, Greek tables were low and often appear in depictions alongside klinai. The most common type of Greek table had a rectangular top supported on three legs, although numerous configurations exist, including trapezoid and circular. Tables in ancient Greece were used mostly for dining purposes – in depictions of banquets, it appears as though each participant would have utilized a single table, rather than a collective use of a larger piece. Tables also figured prominently in religious contexts, as indicated in vase paintings, for example, the wine vessel associated with Dionysus, dating to around 450 BCE and now housed at the Art Institute of Chicago.

Sub-irrigated planter

Sub-irrigated planter (SIP) is a generic name for a special type of planting box used in container gardening and commercial landscaping. A SIP is any method of watering plants where the water is introduced from the bottom, allowing the water to soak upwards to the plant through capillary action. It is possible to automate the watering and thus SIPs are popular with professional landscapers in buildings or urban settings. SIPs are available as commercial products or as do-it-yourself projects made from plastic buckets, boxes or storage totes. One of the disadvantages of such closed systems is that soluble salts cannot be flushed into the lower soil profile and build up over time.

Bracket (architecture)

Brackets can support many architectural items, including a wall, balcony, parapets, eaves, the spring of an arch, beams, pergola roof, window box, or a shelf. The term is also used to describe a shelf designed to hold a statue. In adjustable shelving systems, the bracket may be in two parts, with the load-bearing horizontal support fitting into a wall-mounted slotted vertical metal strip. Brackets also are an element in the systems used to mount modern facade cladding systems onto the outside of contemporary buildings, as well as interior panels. ;Architectural sculptures Brackets are often in the form of architectural sculptures with reliefs of objects and scrolls.

Picnic table

picnic benchpicnic tablespicnic area
A picnic table (or picnic bench) is a table with benches (often attached), designed for eating a meal outdoors (picnicking). Picnic tables are used for dining, resting, doing crafts, and other activities. Picnic tables can be found outdoors in many public parks, residential back yards, rest areas, campgrounds, amusement parks, and many other places. Picnic tables are also used indoors when it is desired to have attached seating to tables. This is most common in school cafeterias, community centers, and employee break rooms. Each table usually seats from six to eight people, though smaller and larger capacity tables are available.

Urban agriculture

urban farmingurban farmcity farm
Another option urban gardeners have used is Farm-in-A-Box LLC, a company that provides hand-made, ready-to-use garden boxes to residents and schools. In response to the recession of 2008, a coalition of community-based organizations, farmers, and academic institutions in California's Pomona Valley formed the Pomona Valley Urban Agriculture Initiative. After the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement, cheap grain from the United States flooded Mexico, driving peasant farmers off of their land. Many immigrated to the Pomona Valley and found work in the construction industry. With the 2008 recession, the construction industry also suffered in the region.


A cachepot is a French term for what is usually called in modern English a "planter", namely a decorative container or "overpot" for a plant and its flowerpot, for indoors use, usually with no drainage hole at the bottom, or sometimes with a matching saucer. It is intended to be more attractive than the terracotta (or today, plastic) flowerpot in which the plant grows, and to keep water off furniture surfaces. Another French term is jardinière; the distinction is that that is usually larger, and sits on the floor, either indoors or outdoors. They are often rectangular, where a cachepot is typically round. A cachepot is meant to be displayed on a tabletop, mantel, or shelf indoors.


Most genes central in this model belong to the MADS-box genes and are transcription factors that regulate the expression of the genes specific for each floral organ. The principal purpose of a flower is the reproduction of the individual and the species. All flowering plants are heterosporous, that is, every individual plant produces two types of spores. Microspores are produced by meiosis inside anthers and megaspores are produced inside ovules that are within an ovary. Anthers typically consist of four microsporangia and an ovule is an integumented megasporangium. Both types of spores develop into gametophytes inside sporangia.

French language

French (le français, or la langue française ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders.


The table below shows some species count estimates of different green plant (Viridiplantae) divisions. It suggests there are about 300,000 species of living Viridiplantae, of which 85–90% are flowering plants. (Note: as these are from different sources and different dates, they are not necessarily comparable, and like all species counts, are subject to a degree of uncertainty in some cases.) The naming of plants is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants and International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (see cultivated plant taxonomy).


Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Caning. Rush, wrapped from rush, heavy paper, strong grasses, or hand twisted while wrapped with cattails to form the seat, usually in a pattern of four trapezoids meeting in the center, and on rare occasions, in elaborate patterns. Reed. Rawhide. Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven.


The following tables list the mechanical properties of wood and lumber plant species, including bamboo. Wood properties: Bamboo properties: It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. The wood from conifers (e.g. pine) is called softwood, and the wood from dicotyledons (usually broad-leaved trees, e.g. oak) is called hardwood. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft. The well-known balsa (a hardwood) is actually softer than any commercial softwood. Conversely, some softwoods (e.g. yew) are harder than many hardwoods.


boxesShipping Boxesark
Post box (British English and others, also written postbox), or mailbox (North American English and others) is a physical box used to collect mail that is to be sent to a destination. Variants of post boxes for outgoing mail include:. Lamp box. Ludlow wall box. Pillar box. Wall box. Letter box (in the US usually called mailbox), positioned near or on the mail recipient's home or place of work. Post office box, (often abbreviated P.O. box or PO box), a box rented by the mail recipient to be an independent postal address, located in a post office or in the premises of a company offering such facilities.


green thumbgardeninggardener's cottage
A gardener is someone who practices gardening, either professionally or as a hobby.


EgyptianEgyptian peopleEgypt
Gebel Ramlah [Neolithic Nubian/Western Desert sample] is, in fact, significantly different from Badari based on the 22-trait MMD (Table 4). For that matter, the Neolithic Western Desert sample is significantly different from all others [but] is closest to predynastic and early dynastic samples. A study published in 2017 described the extraction and analysis of DNA from 151 mummified ancient Egyptian individuals, whose remains were recovered from Abusir.

Ancient Rome

The youth of Rome had several forms of athletic play and exercise, such as jumping, wrestling, boxing, and racing. In the countryside, pastimes for the wealthy also included fishing and hunting. The Romans also had several forms of ball playing, including one resembling handball. Dice games, board games, and gamble games were popular pastimes. Women did not take part in these activities. For the wealthy, dinner parties presented an opportunity for entertainment, sometimes featuring music, dancing, and poetry readings. Plebeians sometimes enjoyed similar parties through clubs or associations, but for most Romans, recreational dining usually meant patronizing taverns.


adventitious rootsrootsroot system
To investigate this, Novoplansky and his team set up a “split root” experimental design, in which a plant's roots were split between two pots (say, Pot A and Pot B). A second plant's roots were then placed between two pots, such that half its roots were in the same pot as Plant 1 (Pot B), and half its roots in a new pot (Pot C). A third plant was chained to the first two plants, in which plant 3's roots were split between sharing Pot C with the second plant's roots and a new Pot D, and so on. In the study, six pea plants (Pisum sativum) were chained together in seven pots.


herbsculinary herbculinary
Herbs came to be considered in three groups, namely pot herbs (e.g. onions), sweet herbs (e.g. thyme), and salad herbs (e.g. wild celery). During the seventeenth century as selective breeding changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as vegetables as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide flavor rather than substance to food. Herbs can be perennials such as thyme, sage or lavender, biennials such as parsley, or annuals like basil.


vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and seeds. The alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts, and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli, and seeds such as pulses.