farming - Pot-in-pot - Potting bench - Potting soil - Precision seeding - Pruning - Pruning shears - Pseudanthium - Pulse drip irrigation Rain garden - Rainwater harvesting - Raised bed gardening - Rake - Reflecting pool - Remontancy - Rhubarb forcer - Ring culture - Ripening - Robotic lawn mower - Rock garden - Roji - Roman garden - Roof garden - Root - Root barrier - Root rot - Rootstock - Root trainer - Rose - Rose (symbolism) - Rose garden - Rose hip - Rose show - Rose trial grounds - Row cover - Royal Botanic Society - Royal Horticultural Society - Rubber mulch Sacred garden - Sacred herb - Salt pruning - School garden - Sculpture garden - Season extension - Seawater greenhouse - Seed -
List of gardening topics
urban gardeningurban gardensurban and peri-urban horticulture
Flowerpot farming. Foodscaping. Folkewall. Garden sharing. Germination. Green wall. Intercultural Garden. Organic horticulture. Rooftop farming. Roof garden. Sprouting. Urban agriculture. Vertical farming. Victory garden. Tixier, Philippe and de Bon, Hubert; 2006. Ch. 11. "Urban Horticulture" in Cities Farming for the Future - Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities by René van Veenhuizen (Ed.), International Development Research Centre (Canada). Garden Culture, A magazine that focuses on growing food in an urban environment. Flowerpot Farming: Creating your own Urban Kitchen Garden, Jayne Neville, Good Life Press; Ill edition (June 1, 2008), ISBN: 978-1904871316.
. * Guide to garden ornaments bird baths. bird feeders. birdhouses. columns – cast stone. flower box. window box. folly. fountains. jardiniere. kugel fountain. garden furniture. gazing spheres. hanging baskets. holiday – seasonal ornaments and decorations. landscape lighting – decorative fixtures. lawn ornaments. bathtub madonnas. concrete geese. garden gnomes. lawn jockeys. plastic pink flamingos. moon bridge – small ornament versions. outdoor fireplace. outdoor sculpture. found objects such as recycled bowling balls, toilet planters, antique farm equipment. kinetic sculpture. masks. obelisks. renewable energy sculpture. pagoda – small versions. pedestals – e.g. terracotta, cast stone. pond
Window box. Winter garden. Xeriscaping. Zen.
Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops. Hügelkultur is concerned with growing plants on piles of rotting wood, as a form of raised bed gardening and composting in situ. An English loanword from German, it means "mound garden." Toby Hemenway, noted permaculture author and teacher, considers wood buried in trenches to also be a form of hugelkultur referred to as a dead wood swale.
Flower box. Grow bag. Grow box. Houseplant care. Orchard. Seedling. Sub-irrigated planter. Urban compost. Urban gardening. Urban horticulture.
earthen potearthenwaresblack and red ware
Darker-colored terracotta earthenware, typically orange or red due to a comparatively high content of iron oxide, are widely used for flower pots, tiles and some decorative and oven ware. A general body formulation for contemporary earthenware is 25% kaolin, 25% ball clay, 35% quartz and 15% feldspar. Modern earthenware may be biscuit (or "bisque") fired to temperatures between 1,000 to 1,150 C and glost-fired (or "glaze-fired") to between 950 to 1,050 C, the usual practice in factories and some studio potteries. Some studio potters follow the reverse practice, with a low-temperature biscuit firing and a high-temperature glost firing.
Sub-irrigated planter (SIP) is a generic name for a special type of planting box used in container gardening and commercial landscaping. A SIP is any method of watering plants where the water is introduced from the bottom, allowing the water to soak upwards to the plant through capillary action. It is possible to automate the watering and thus SIPs are popular with professional landscapers in buildings or urban settings. SIPs are available as commercial products or as do-it-yourself projects made from plastic buckets, boxes or storage totes. One of the disadvantages of such closed systems is that soluble salts cannot be flushed into the lower soil profile and build up over time.
Brackets can support many architectural items, including a wall, balcony, parapets, eaves, the spring of an arch, beams, pergola roof, window box, or a shelf. The term is also used to describe a shelf designed to hold a statue. In adjustable shelving systems, the bracket may be in two parts, with the load-bearing horizontal support fitting into a wall-mounted slotted vertical metal strip. Brackets also are an element in the systems used to mount modern facade cladding systems onto the outside of contemporary buildings, as well as interior panels. ;Architectural sculptures Brackets are often in the form of architectural sculptures with reliefs of objects and scrolls.
urban farmingurban farmcity farm
Another option urban gardeners have used is Farm-in-A-Box LLC, a company that provides hand-made, ready-to-use garden boxes to residents and schools. In response to the recession of 2008, a coalition of community-based organizations, farmers, and academic institutions in California's Pomona Valley formed the Pomona Valley Urban Agriculture Initiative. After the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement, cheap grain from the United States flooded Mexico, driving peasant farmers off of their land. Many immigrated to the Pomona Valley and found work in the construction industry. With the 2008 recession, the construction industry also suffered in the region.
A cachepot is a French term for what is usually called in modern English a "planter", namely a decorative container or "overpot" for a plant and its flowerpot, for indoors use, usually with no drainage hole at the bottom, or sometimes with a matching saucer. It is intended to be more attractive than the terracotta (or today, plastic) flowerpot in which the plant grows, and to keep water off furniture surfaces. Another French term is jardinière; the distinction is that that is usually larger, and sits on the floor, either indoors or outdoors. They are often rectangular, where a cachepot is typically round. A cachepot is meant to be displayed on a tabletop, mantel, or shelf indoors.
Most genes central in this model belong to the MADS-box genes and are transcription factors that regulate the expression of the genes specific for each floral organ. The principal purpose of a flower is the reproduction of the individual and the species. All flowering plants are heterosporous, that is, every individual plant produces two types of spores. Microspores are produced by meiosis inside anthers and megaspores are produced inside ovules that are within an ovary. Anthers typically consist of four microsporangia and an ovule is an integumented megasporangium. Both types of spores develop into gametophytes inside sporangia.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
Post box (British English and others, also written postbox), or mailbox (North American English and others) is a physical box used to collect mail that is to be sent to a destination. Variants of post boxes for outgoing mail include:. Lamp box. Ludlow wall box. Pillar box. Wall box. Letter box (in the US usually called mailbox), positioned near or on the mail recipient's home or place of work. Post office box, (often abbreviated P.O. box or PO box), a box rented by the mail recipient to be an independent postal address, located in a post office or in the premises of a company offering such facilities.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed. Seedling development starts with germination of the seed. A typical young seedling consists of three main parts: the radicle (embryonic root), the hypocotyl (embryonic shoot), and the cotyledons (seed leaves). The two classes of flowering plants (angiosperms) are distinguished by their numbers of seed leaves: monocotyledons (monocots) have one blade-shaped cotyledon, whereas dicotyledons (dicots) possess two round cotyledons. Gymnosperms are more varied. For example, pine seedlings have up to eight cotyledons. The seedlings of some flowering plants have no cotyledons at all. These are said to be acotyledons.
green thumbgardeninggardener's cottage
A gardener is someone who practices gardening, either professionally or as a hobby.
The Westland produces mostly vegetables, besides plants and flowers; Aalsmeer is noted mainly for the production of flowers and potted plants. Since the 20th century, the area around Venlo and parts of Drenthe have also become important regions for greenhouse agriculture. Since 2000, technical innovations include the "closed greenhouse", a completely closed system allowing the grower complete control over the growing process while using less energy. Floating greenhouses are used in watery areas of the country.
adventitious rootsrootsroot system
To investigate this, Novoplansky and his team set up a “split root” experimental design, in which a plant's roots were split between two pots (say, Pot A and Pot B). A second plant's roots were then placed between two pots, such that half its roots were in the same pot as Plant 1 (Pot B), and half its roots in a new pot (Pot C). A third plant was chained to the first two plants, in which plant 3's roots were split between sharing Pot C with the second plant's roots and a new Pot D, and so on. In the study, six pea plants (Pisum sativum) were chained together in seven pots.
Herbs came to be considered in three groups, namely pot herbs (e.g. onions), sweet herbs (e.g. thyme), and salad herbs (e.g. wild celery). During the seventeenth century as selective breeding changed the plants size and flavor away from the wild plant, pot herbs began to be referred to as vegetables as they were no longer considered only suitable for the pot. Culinary herbs are distinguished from vegetables in that, like spices, they are used in small amounts and provide flavor rather than substance to food. Herbs can be perennials such as thyme, sage or lavender, biennials such as parsley, or annuals like basil.
vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and seeds. The alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts, and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli, and seeds such as pulses.
Some containers are designed to be planted with the tree e.g., the tar paper pot, the Alberta peat sausage, the Walters square bullet, and paper pot systems, are filled with rooting medium and planted with the tree (Tinus and McDonald 1979). Also planted with the tree are other containers that are not filled with rooting medium, but in which the container is a molded block of growing medium, as with Polyloam ®, Tree Start ®, and BR-8 Blocks ®. Designs of containers for raising planting stock have been many and various. Containerized white spruce stock is now the norm.
A kitchen garden can be created by planting different herbs in pots or containers, with the added benefit of mobility. Although not all herbs thrive in pots or containers, some herbs do better than others. Mint, a fragrant yet invasive herb, is an example of an herb that is advisable to keep in a container or it will take over the whole garden. Culinary herbs in temperate climates are to a large extent still the same as in the medieval period. Herbs often have multiple uses. For example, mint may be used for cooking, tea, and pest control. Among the many uses of herbs are: * Wilson, C. A. (ed.) (1998). The Country House Kitchen Garden 1600-1950: How Produce Was Grown and How it Was Used.
A Windowfarm is a hydroponic urban gardening system that was originally developed by Britta Riley using open-source designs. A Windowfarm is an indoor garden that allows for year-round growing in almost any window. It lets plants use natural light, the climate control of your living space, and organic “liquid soil.”
African continentAfricanAfrican politics
The Nok people produced lifelike representations in terracotta, including human heads and human figures, elephants, and other animals. By 500 BC they were smelting iron. By 200 AD the Nok culture had vanished. Based on stylistic similarities with the Nok terracottas, the bronze figurines of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife and those of the Bini kingdom of Benin are now believed to be continuations of the traditions of the earlier Nok culture. Pre-colonial Africa possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule.
furniture designhome furnishingsoffice furniture
Historical knowledge of Greek furniture is derived from various sources, including literature, terracotta, sculptures, statuettes, and painted vases. Some pieces survive to this day, primarily those constructed from metals, including bronze, or marble. Wood was an important material in Greek furniture, both domestic and imported. A common technique was to construct the main sections of the furniture with cheap solid wood, then apply a veneer using an expensive wood, such as maple or ebony. Greek furniture construction also made use of dowels and tenons for joining the wooden parts of a piece together.