The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of more than 19 billion as of 2011. There are more chickens in the world than any other bird or domesticated fowl. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food (consuming both their meat and eggs) and, less commonly, as pets. Originally raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period (4th–2nd centuries BC).


meatcattleFrozen Beef
During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians and Catholics give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws. India is one of the biggest exporters of buffalo meat. Though some states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by Caste and Religion based Politics. Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts concur. However certain Hindu castes and sects continue to avoid beef from their diets.


potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potatoes
Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes.


bean curdbeancurdsilken tofu
Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines are major producers of tofu and have plants in many municipalities. Tofu in the Philippines is an essential in the daily diet, as taho. It is widely eaten as breakfast, or tokwa (a dry, fried variation), which is a staple alternative to meat in main meals and in numerous regional dishes. Tofu was introduced to the archipelago in the 10th to 13th centuries by Song dynasty Chinese mariners and merchants, along with many other foods that became staples of the Philippine diet.


meatsmeat consumptionprocessed meat
The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which also mean 'food'. The word mete also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets (sweets) and dierfied (animal feed). Most often, meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal.


pig meatpigpigs
In one instance, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) detected Listeria monocytogenes in 460 lbs of Polidori brand fully cooked pork sausage crumbles, although no one was made ill from consumption of the product. The FSIS has previously stated that listeria and other microorganisms must be "...destroyed by proper handling and thorough cooking to an internal temperature of 160 °F," and that other microorganisms, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in inadequately cooked pork, poultry, and other meats. The FSIS, a part of the USDA, currently recommends cooking ground pork to 160 °F and whole cuts to 145 °F followed by a 3-minute rest.

Rice (disambiguation)

riceAman paddypaddy
Rice (cooking), a food–processing technique. RICE (medicine), a treatment for soft-tissue injury. RICE (chemotherapy), a chemotherapy regimen containing Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide. Rice (novel), a Chinese novel by Su Tong. Rice (film), a 1963 South Korean film. Radio Ice Cerenkov Experiment, a Cherenkov emission detection project. Rice distribution, a probability distribution. Rice coding, a data compression technique. Rice Army Airfield, near Rice, California. Rice Hotel, a historic place in Houston, Texas, now known as the Post Rice Lofts. Rice House (disambiguation), various buildings on the National Register of Historic Places.


Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu – dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and the like – to add flavor to the staple food. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food, quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The phrase ichijū-sansai refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, honzen, and yūsoku cuisine.


🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine. Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.


vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs. Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey. Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant-based diet which may also include dairy and honey, but excludes eggs, red lentils, durian, mushrooms, alliums, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, and alcoholic drinks. Coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg, and any other type of stimulant (including excessively pungent spices) are sometimes excluded, as well.


veganvegansvegan diet
Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, animal seafood, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool, and silk), toiletries, and similar. Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products, and rejects the commodification of animals altogether.

Indonesian cuisine

IndonesianIndonesiaIndonesian dishes
Chicken eggs, poultry and meats are also consumed. Most of the fat intake comes from cooking oil (coconut oil) of fried dishes, coconut milk, peanuts, as well as meats and offals. However, according to a WHO nutrition study, compared to global diet average, Indonesians consumes less protein, vegetables and fruits. Which means most of Indonesian diet consist heavily of carbohydrate, which is mostly contributed by high consumption of rice. The campaign for a well-balanced diet is promoted ever since. Some Indonesian fruit and vegetable dishes such as fruit rujak, gado-gado, karedok, pecel, lalab, capcay, tofu and tempeh are known as healthy foods with low fat and high fibre.


Encyclopedia of Food and Culture: Gelatin. Latvian pork aspic. Russian Meat Aspic.

Thai cuisine

ThaiThailandThai food
Sangkhaya fak thong – egg and coconut custard served with pumpkin, similar to the coconut jam of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Sarim – multi-colored mung bean flour noodles in sweetened coconut milk served with crushed ice. Tako – jasmine scented coconut pudding set in cups of pandanus leaf. Thong yip- "pinched gold egg yolks". One of the nine auspicious Thai desserts. Thong yot – sweet round egg ball. One of the nine auspicious Thai desserts. Cha yen – Thai iced tea. Krating Daeng – an energy drink and the origin of Red Bull. Nam maphrao – the juice of a young coconut, often served inside the coconut.


Stuffing or filling is an edible substance or mixture, normally consisting primarily of small cut-up pieces of bread or a similar starch and served as a side dish or used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking. Many foods may be stuffed, including eggs, poultry, seafood, mammals, and vegetables, but chickens and turkey are the most common. Stuffing serves the dual purpose of helping to keep the meat moist while also adding to the mix of flavours of both the stuffing and the thing it is stuffed in. Poultry stuffing often consists of dried breadcrumbs, onion, celery, salt, pepper, and other spices and herbs, a popular herb being sage. Giblets are often used.


bananasbanana treebanana flower
Bananas feature prominently in Philippine cuisine, being part of traditional dishes and desserts like maruya, turón, and halo-halo or saba con yelo. Most of these dishes use the Saba or Cardaba banana cultivar. Bananas are also commonly used in cuisine in the South-Indian state of Kerala, where they are steamed (puzhungiyathu), made into curries, fried into chips, (upperi) or fried in batter (pazhampori). Pisang goreng, bananas fried with batter similar to the Filipino maruya or Kerala pazhampori, is a popular dessert in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. A similar dish is known in the United Kingdom and United States as banana fritters.

Animal slaughter

In general, the animals would be killed for food; however, they might also be slaughtered for other reasons such as being diseased and unsuitable for consumption. The slaughter involves some initial cutting, opening the major body cavities to remove the entrails and offal but usually leaving the carcass in one piece. Such dressing can be done by hunters in the field (field dressing of game) or in a slaughterhouse. Later, the carcass is usually butchered into smaller cuts.

United States

Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence". The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns.


sausagespork sausagesmoked sausage
Chorizo de Bilbao seems to be a purely Filipino term as the variant does not exist in Spain. List of sausages. List of smoked foods.


breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Bread is used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as the use of breadcrumbs to provide crunchy crusts or thicken sauces, sweet or savoury bread puddings, or as a binding agent in sausages and other ground meat products. Nutritionally, bread is categorized as a source of grains in the food pyramid and is a good source of carbohydrates and nutrients such as magnesium, iron, selenium, B vitamins, and dietary fiber. Bread crust is formed from surface dough during the cooking process. It is hardened and browned through the Maillard reaction using the sugars and amino acids and the intense heat at the bread surface.


supermarketssupermarket chainGrocery Store
Baby foods and baby-care products such as disposable diapers. Breads and bakery products (many stores may have a bakery on site that offers specialty and dessert items). Baking needs. Books, newspapers, and magazines, including supermarket tabloids. Bulk dried foods such as legumes, flour, rice, etc. (typically available for self-service). Canned goods and dried cereals. CDs, audio cassettes, DVDs, and videos (including video rentals). Cigarettes and other tobacco products (as country, state, provincial or local laws allow). Confections and candies. Cosmetics. Dairy products and eggs. Delicatessen foods (ready-to-eat). Diet foods. Dressings and Sauces.


corncorn (maize)Zea mays
As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant maize varieties were grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the European Union, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and USA, and insect-resistant corn was grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, USA, and Uruguay.


ingredientsfood ingredientfood ingredients
Food additive. Food coloring. Preservative. Sugar substitute, artificial sweetener. Fake food. Bill of materials. Software Bill of Materials. Identification of medicinal products.


🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia. At 4884 m, Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi).


Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. Many cultures from within the country and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Much of the influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route. The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.