Fried egg

fried eggsfriedsunny-side up
Americans use different terms to describe the degree and method to which fried eggs are cooked, including: In Egypt, fried eggs are a common breakfast food. They are fried in fat such as vegetable oil, butter or ghee and served either plain or with other foodstuffs such as tomatoes, cheese, sausage or minced meat with onions and spices; they may also be served with ful medames (slow-cooked fava beans). In India, fried eggs are commonly served alone or as an accompaniment to bread. It may also occasionally be served with dosa, paratha, or roti. During or after the frying stage, they are sometimes sprinkled lightly with condiments such as black pepper, chili powder, green chili, and salt.

Lists of foods

List of foods
Seeds also provide most cooking oils, many beverages and spices and some important food additives. List of culinary nuts. List of edible seeds. List of sesame seed dishes. List of breads. List of American breads. List of brand name breads. List of bread rolls. List of buns. List of British breads. List of Indian breads. List of Pakistani breads. List of quick breads. List of sweet breads. List of bread dishes. – dairy products are food produced from the milk of mammals. Dairy products are usually high energy-yielding food products. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory.


Bò bíaPopiaBó bǐng
Similar foods in other cuisines include the Indonesian Lumpia Basah and the Filipino lumpiang sariwa spring rolls, etymologically derived from the Hokkien name Lum Pia. Majority of ethnic Chinese in both countries are of Hokkien origin. Lumpia (Indonesia and Philippines). Chinese pancake. Burrito. Fajitas. Summer roll. Popiah Recipe. Yeo's Teochew Popiah Recipe.


Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003, 76 million tons of poultry and 61 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide. Chickens account for much of human poultry consumption, though domesticated turkeys, ducks, and geese are also relatively common. Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas. The most important birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include pheasants, wild turkeys, quail, doves, partridge, grouse, snipe, and woodcock.


sateBarbecueChicken satay
Given its popularity, sate Kajang is now found throughout Malaysia. Stalls and restaurants around Kajang offer not only the more traditional chicken or beef satay, but also more exotic meats such as venison, rabbit or fish, as well as gizzard, liver, and a number of other variations. Another type of meat satay is the sate lok-lok from Penang and sate celup (dip satay) from Malacca. Both are Malaysian Chinese fusions of the hotpot and the Malay satay. Pieces of raw meat, tofu, century eggs, quail eggs, fish cake, offal or vegetables are skewered on bamboo sticks. These are cooked by being dipped in boiling water or stock.

Food additive

food additivesadditivesadditive
The Food Labelling Regulations (1984). Advanced Modular Science, Nelson, Food and Health, by John Adds, Erica Larkcom and Ruth Miller. Food Trade's Juicy Secrets by John Triggs in the Daily Express July 17, 2007. Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) i.e. Castor oil, etc. EU legislation on food additives. CSPI's guide to food additives, ( PDF). Food Standards Australia and New Zealand page on food additives. Evaluation of certain Food Additives and Contaminants; Sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.


cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
Essentially the same process, with further refinement, thickening and drying, is used to make gelatin. Broth is made by simmering several ingredients for a long time, traditionally including bones. Ground bones are used as an organic phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer and as additive in animal feed. Bones, in particular after calcination to bone ash, are used as source of calcium phosphate for the production of bone china and previously also phosphorus chemicals. Bone char, a porous, black, granular material primarily used for filtration and also as a black pigment, is produced by charring mammal bones.


malt vinegarwhite vinegarcoconut vinegar
Food additive. List of condiments. Vinegar tasters.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits (such as breadfruit and plantains). Staple foods may also include (depending on the region): olive oil, coconut oil and sugar (e.g. from plantains).


procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
Collagen has a wide variety of applications, from food to medical. For instance, it is used in cosmetic surgery and burn surgery. It is widely used in the form of collagen casings for sausages, which are also used in the manufacture of musical strings. If collagen is subject to sufficient denaturation, e.g. by heating, the three tropocollagen strands separate partially or completely into globular domains, containing a different secondary structure to the normal collagen polyproline II (PPII), e.g. random coils. This process describes the formation of gelatin, which is used in many foods, including flavored gelatin desserts.


jukrice congeerice porridge
Multigrain congee mixes are sold in the health food sections of Chinese supermarkets. Savory congee, generally cooked with salt and often fresh ginger and other flavorful ingredients, is usually eaten with zhacai, salted duck eggs, lettuce and dace (Chinese mud carp paste), bamboo shoots, youtiao, rousong, pickled tofu, wheat gluten, with other condiments, meats and organ meats including tripe and intestine, crab or hundred-year eggs. Other seasonings such as white pepper and soy sauce may be added after the congee is cooked. Grilled or steamed and deboned fish may be mixed in to provide a different texture.


Gulai Kambinggule kambingMutton Gulai
The gulai sauce found in Minangkabau, Aceh, and Malay cuisine usually has a thicker consistency, while the gulai in Java is thinner, served in soup-like dishes containing pieces of mutton, beef or offal. Gulai is usually served with steamed rice, however, some recipes such as goat or mutton gulai might be served with roti canai. Some variations of Indonesian gulai according to its ingredients: Poultry Meat Offal Fish and sea food Vegetable Gulai ayam (chicken gulai). Gulai itik (duck gulai). Gulai telur (hard boiled chicken egg gulai). Gulai telur itik (duck egg gulai). Gulai kambing (mutton gulai). Gulai sapi (beef gulai). Gulai hati (cattle liver gulai).

Chinese cuisine

ChineseChinese foodChinese restaurant
During the Han dynasty, the Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking, roasting, and drying grain. Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu (the Western Regions, a name for Central Asia) by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, and that it was originally known as hubing (胡餅, lit. "barbarian bread"). The shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing. Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian nan and Central Asian nan, as well as the Middle Eastern pita. Foreign westerners made and sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty.

Spring roll

spring rollsChicken Rollsvegetarian spring roll
Egg roll. Dim sum. List of stuffed dishes. Lumpia. Pastel. Popiah. Sambousa. Summer roll.


greasetotal fatdietary fat
Oil normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while fat (in the strict sense) specifically refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, fat (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans) and are the most energy dense, thus the most efficient form of energy storage.


tomatoesSolanum lycopersicumLycopersicon esculentum
It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced, and was certainly being used as food by the early 17th century in Spain. The tomato was introduced to China, likely via the Philippines or Macau, in the 1500s. It was given the name fan chieh (barbarian eggplant), as the Chinese named many foodstuffs introduced from abroad, but referring specifically to early introductions.

Lamb and mutton

It is the most common form of offal eaten in the UK, traditionally used in the family favourite (and pub grub staple) of liver with onions and/or bacon and mashed potatoes. It is a major ingredient, along with the lungs and heart (the pluck), in the traditional Scottish dish of haggis. Lamb testicles, also known as lamb's fries (a term also used for other lamb offal), is another delicacy. Lamb kidneys are found in many cuisines across Europe and the Middle East, often split into two halves and grilled (on kebabs in the Middle East), or sautéed in a sauce. They are generally the most highly regarded of all kidneys.


proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838. Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1. He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule.

Vegetarian cuisine

vegetarianvegetarian foodvegetarian dish
Other foods such as seaweed (however seaweed is considered inedible by some strict vegetarians for the same reason it can be considered to be non-kosher by orthodox Jews: the possibility of tiny animals sometimes adhering to it.); derived products such as agar, which has the same function as animal bone derived gelatin. Beverages such as beer, coffee, hot chocolate, lemonade, tea or wine. Dairy products (butter, cheese (except for cheese containing rennet of animal origin), milk, yogurt (excluding yogurt made with gelatin) etc.) – not eaten by vegans and pure ovo-vegetarians. Eggs – not eaten by pure vegetarians, vegans and lacto-vegetarians (most Indian vegetarians).


vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Some are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs, adding variety to meals with their unique flavors and at the same time, adding nutrients necessary for health. Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials, usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting.


Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia. At 4884 m, Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea and include Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam.


beef rendangchicken rendangRendang ayam
It mainly consists of beef, offal, poultry products, jackfruit, and many other vegetables and animal products which are found in these places. Rendang pesisir (‘coastal rendang’) is from the coastal regions of Minangkabau such as Pariaman, Padang, Painan and Pasaman. Rendang pesisir mainly consists of seafood, although it is not unusual for them to incorporate beef or water buffalo meat in their rendang. Indonesian Rendang variations: Outside of its native land in Minangkabau, rendang is also known in neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, southern Thailand, and the southern Philippines.


This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from food energy, losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch). For an overall efficiency of 20 percent, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to 4.3 kcal per hour.


fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Food and Agriculture Organization. History of organic farming. Milorganite. Nutrient Recovery and Reuse. Phosphogypsum. Soil defertilisation. Nitrogen for Feeding Our Food, Its Earthly Origin, Haber Process. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA). Agriculture Guide, Complete Guide to Fertilizers and Fertilization.


Allium sativumgarlic clovesGarlic Production
Garlic may be applied to different kinds of bread, usually in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini, and canapé. The flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as "garlic spears", "stems", or "tops". Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables.