agar-agaragar agaragar gel
It is also the main ingredient in mizu yōkan, another popular Japanese food. In Philippine cuisine, it is used to make the jelly bars in the various gulaman refreshments or desserts such as sago gulaman, buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo, and the black and red gulaman used in various fruit salads. In Vietnamese cuisine, jellies made of flavored layers of agar agar, called thạch, are a popular dessert, and are often made in ornate molds for special occasions. In Indian cuisine, agar agar is known as "China grass" and is used for making desserts. In Burmese cuisine, a sweet jelly known as kyauk kyaw is made from agar.


allergiesallergicallergic reaction
A wide variety of foods can cause allergic reactions, but 90% of allergic responses to foods are caused by cow's milk, soy, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Other food allergies, affecting less than 1 person per 10,000 population, may be considered "rare". The use of hydrolysed milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk. The most common food allergy in the US population is a sensitivity to crustacea. Although peanut allergies are notorious for their severity, peanut allergies are not the most common food allergy in adults or children.

Vitamin A

Avitamins ARAE
Vitamin A is found in many foods, including the following list. Bracketed values are retinol activity equivalences (RAEs) and percentage of the adult male RDA, per 100 grams of the foodstuff (average). Conversion of carotene to retinol varies from person to person and bioavailability of carotene in food varies. Vitamin A plays a role in a variety of functions throughout the body, such as: The role of vitamin A in the visual cycle is specifically related to the retinal form. Within the eye, 11-cis-retinal is bound to the protein "opsin" to form rhodopsin in rods and iodopsin (cones) at conserved lysine residues.


sambal terasisambolsambal belacan
Malaysian cuisine. Nam phrik, the Thai equivalent of sambal. Singaporean cuisine. Peranakan cuisine. Filipino cuisine.

Lists of foods

. – eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin. List of egg dishes. List of egg topics. – meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans are omnivorous, and have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times.


sateBarbecueKajang Satay
Given its popularity, sate Kajang is now found throughout Malaysia. Stalls and restaurants around Kajang offer not only the more traditional chicken or beef satay, but also more exotic meats such as venison, rabbit or fish, as well as gizzard, liver, and a number of other variations. Another type of meat satay is the sate lok-lok from Penang and sate celup (dip satay) from Malacca. Both are Malaysian Chinese fusions of the hotpot and the Malay satay. Pieces of raw meat, tofu, century eggs, quail eggs, fish cake, offal or vegetables are skewered on bamboo sticks. These are cooked by being dipped in boiling water or stock.

Food additive

food additivesadditivesadditive
Apart from testing and analyzing food products during the whole production process to ensure safety and compliance with regulatory standards, Trading Standards officers (in the UK) protect the public from any illegal use or potentially dangerous mis-use of food additives by performing random testing of food products. There has been significant controversy associated with the risks and benefits of food additives. Natural additives may be similarly harmful or be the cause of allergic reactions in certain individuals. For example, safrole was used to flavor root beer until it was shown to be carcinogenic.


bone tissuecancellous bonecortical bone
Essentially the same process, with further refinement, thickening and drying, is used to make gelatin. Broth is made by simmering several ingredients for a long time, traditionally including bones. Ground bones are used as an organic phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer and as additive in animal feed. Bones, in particular after calcination to bone ash, are used as source of calcium phosphate for the production of bone china and previously also phosphorus chemicals. Bone char, a porous, black, granular material primarily used for filtration and also as a black pigment, is produced by charring mammal bones.


malt vinegarwhite vinegarcoconut vinegar
Food additive. List of condiments. Vinegar tasters.


procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
Collagen has a wide variety of applications, from food to medical. For instance, it is used in cosmetic surgery and burn surgery. It is widely used in the form of collagen casings for sausages, which are also used in the manufacture of musical strings. If collagen is subject to sufficient denaturation, e.g. by heating, the three tropocollagen strands separate partially or completely into globular domains, containing a different secondary structure to the normal collagen polyproline II (PPII), e.g. random coils. This process describes the formation of gelatin, which is used in many foods, including flavored gelatin desserts.


ramlambdomestic sheep
Byproducts from the slaughter of sheep are also of value: sheep tallow can be used in candle and soap making, sheep bone and cartilage has been used to furnish carved items such as dice and buttons as well as rendered glue and gelatin. Sheep intestine can be formed into sausage casings, and lamb intestine has been formed into surgical sutures, as well as strings for musical instruments and tennis rackets. Sheep droppings, which are high in cellulose, have even been sterilized and mixed with traditional pulp materials to make paper.


jukrice congeerice porridge
Congee is often eaten with zhacai, salted duck eggs, lettuce and dace (Cirrhinus chinensis – Chinese mud carp) paste, bamboo shoots, youtiao, rousong, pickled tofu, wheat gluten, with other condiments, meat or century eggs. Other seasonings, such as white pepper and soy sauce, may be added. Grilled fish may be mixed in to provide a different texture. Congee is often eaten with fried bread sticks known as youtiao. Congee with youtiao is commonly eaten as breakfast in many areas in China. Congee can be left watery, or can be drained so it has a texture similar to Western oatmeal porridge. Congee can also be made from brown rice, although this is less common and takes longer to cook.

Chinese cuisine

ChineseChinese restaurantChina
During the Han dynasty, the Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking, roasting, and drying grain. Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu (the Western Regions, a name for Central Asia) by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, and that it was originally known as hubing (胡餅, lit. "barbarian bread"). The shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing. Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian nan and Central Asian nan, as well as the Middle Eastern pita. Foreign westerners made and sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty.


Bó bǐngpopiaTaiwanese spring roll
Similar foods in other cuisines include the Indonesian Lumpia Basah and the Filipino lumpiang sariwa spring rolls, etymologically derived from the Hokkien name Lum Pia. Majority of ethnic Chinese in both countries are of Hokkien origin. Lumpia (Indonesia and Philippines). Chinese pancake. Burrito. Fajitas. Summer roll. Popiah Recipe. Yeo's Teochew Popiah Recipe.


greasetotal fatdietary fat
"Oil" normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while "fat" (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions.

Birds (disambiguation)

Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying animals. Birds may also refer to: The Birds (play), an ancient Greek play by Aristophanes. The Birds (novel), a novel by Tarjei Vesaas. "The Birds" (story), a 1952 story by Daphne du Maurier. Birds, the magazine of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. The Birds, a musical play by David Cerda and Pauline Pang. The Birds (band), a 1960s UK rhythm and blues band. The Birds (Respighi) or Gli Uccelli, a suite for small orchestra by Ottorino Respighi. Birds (Bic Runga album) (2005). Birds (North Sea Radio Orchestra album) (2008). Birds (Marius Neset album) (2013 album). "Birds" (Kate Nash song) (2007).


tomatoestomato plantgreen tomato
In the United States, supposed health benefits of consuming tomatoes, tomato products or lycopene to affect cancer cannot be mentioned on packaged food products without a qualified health claim statement. In a scientific review of potential claims for lycopene favorably affecting DNA, skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation, heart function and vision, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that the evidence for lycopene having any of these effects was inconclusive. The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as tomato plants.

Vegetarian cuisine

vegetarianvegetarian foodvegetarian dish
Other foods such as seaweed (however seaweed is considered inedible by some strict vegetarians for the same reason it can be considered to be non-kosher by orthodox Jews: the possibility of tiny animals sometimes adhering to it.); derived products such as agar, which has the same function as animal bone derived gelatin. Beverages such as beer, coffee, hot chocolate, lemonade, tea or wine. Dairy products (butter, cheese (except for cheese containing rennet of animal origin), milk, yogurt (excluding yogurt made with gelatin) etc.) – not eaten by vegans and pure ovo-vegetarians. Eggs – not eaten by pure vegetarians, vegans and lacto-vegetarians (most Indian vegetarians).


proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838. Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1 . He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule.


vegetablessalad vegetablewild vegetables
Some are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs, adding variety to meals with their unique flavors and at the same time, adding nutrients necessary for health. Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials, usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting.


beef rendangchicken rendangRendang ayam
Outside of its native land in Minangkabau, rendang is also known in neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and southern Thailand. Most Malaysian rendang is more like kalio, lighter in colour and taste when compared with its Minangkabau counterpart. Malaysian rendang has several variants, such as the Kelantanese rendang and the Negri Sembilan rendang. Malaysian styles of rendang are typically cooked for shorter periods and use kerisik (toasted grated coconut) to thicken the spice, instead of stirring over a low heat for many hours to evaporate the coconut milk as Indonesian rendang requires.


This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from food energy, losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch). For an overall efficiency of 20 percent, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to 4.3 kcal per hour.


fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Food and Agriculture Organization. History of organic farming. Milorganite. Phosphogypsum. Soil defertilisation. Nitrogen for Feeding Our Food, Its Earthly Origin, Haber Process. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA). Agriculture Guide, Complete Guide to Fertilizers and Fertilization. 4R's Nutrient Stewardship program from The Fertilizer Institute.


garlic clovesGarlic ProductionLargest garlic producer
Garlic may be applied to different kinds of bread, usually in a medium of butter or oil, to create a variety of classic dishes, such as garlic bread, garlic toast, bruschetta, crostini, and canapé. The flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the different cooking methods. It is often paired with onion, tomato, or ginger. Immature scapes are tender and edible. They are also known as "garlic spears", "stems", or "tops". Scapes generally have a milder taste than the cloves. They are often used in stir frying or braised like asparagus. Garlic leaves are a popular vegetable in many parts of Asia. The leaves are cut, cleaned, and then stir-fried with eggs, meat, or vegetables.


peasgreen peasgreen pea
In Japan, China, Taiwan and some Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, peas are roasted and salted, and eaten as snacks. In the Philippines, peas, while still in their pods, are a common ingredient in viands and pansit. In the UK, dried yellow or green split peas are used to make pease pudding (or "pease porridge"), a traditional dish. In North America, a similarly traditional dish is split pea soup. Pea soup is eaten in many other parts of the world, including northern Europe, parts of middle Europe, Russia, Iran, Iraq and India. In Sweden it is called ärtsoppa, and is eaten as a traditional Swedish food which predates the Viking age.