Tapa (Filipino cuisine)

tapatapsilogbeef tapa
Sisilog - sisig, fried rice and fried egg. SPAMsilog - SPAM brand luncheon meat, fried rice and fried egg. Tosilog - tocino, fried rice and fried egg. Vicsilog - vic (chinless hogfish), fried rice and hard-cooked egg yolks. Tinapa. Filipino cuisine. List of Philippine dishes.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
Pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ("the Act") and accompanying legislation, the FDA has authority to oversee the quality of substances sold as food in the United States, and to monitor claims made in the labeling about both the composition and the health benefits of foods. The FDA subdivides substances that it regulates as food into various categories—including foods, food additives, added substances (man-made substances that are not intentionally introduced into food, but nevertheless end up in it), and dietary supplements. Specific standards the FDA exercises differ from one category to the next.

Song dynasty

SongSouthern SongNorthern Song dynasty
This growth was made possible by expanded rice cultivation in central and southern Song, the use of early-ripening rice from south-east and southern Asia, and the production of widespread food surpluses. The Northern Song census recorded 20 million households, double of the Han and Tang dynasties. It is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of some 120 million people, and 200 million by the time of the Ming dynasty. This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China.


bakedbaked goodsbake
Eleven events occur concurrently during baking, some of which (such as starch gelatinization) would not occur at room temperature. The dry heat of baking changes the form of starches in the food and causes its outer surfaces to brown, giving it an attractive appearance and taste. The browning is caused by caramelization of sugars and the Maillard reaction. Maillard browning occurs when "sugars break down in the presence of proteins. Because foods contain many different types of sugars and proteins, Maillard browning contributes to the flavour of a wide range of foods, including nuts, roast beef and baked bread."


The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial, particularly in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.

Sweet potato

sweet potatoeskumarakūmara
In Malaysia and Singapore, sweet potato is often cut into small cubes and cooked with taro and coconut milk (santan) to make a sweet dessert called bubur caca or "bubur cha cha". A favorite way of cooking sweet potato is deep frying slices of sweet potato in batter, and served as a tea-time snack. In homes, sweet potatoes are usually boiled. The leaves of sweet potatoes are usually stir-fried with only garlic or with sambal belacan and dried shrimp by Malaysians. In the Philippines, sweet potatoes (locally known as camote or kamote) are an important food crop in rural areas.


salad dressingsaladssalad dressings
Main course salads—usually containing a portion of a high-protein food, such as meat, fish, eggs, legumes, or cheese. Dessert salads—sweet versions containing fruit, gelatin, sweeteners or whipped cream. Vinaigrettes based on a mixture (emulsion) of salad oil and vinegar, often flavored with herbs, spices, salt, pepper, sugar, and other ingredients. Creamy dressings, usually based on mayonnaise or fermented milk products, such as yogurt, sour cream (crème fraîche, smetana), or buttermilk. Blue cheese dressing. French dressing. Ginger dressing. Honey mustard. Italian dressing. Louis dressing. Tahini. Thousand Island dressing. Wafu dressing. Antipasto. List of salads. List of Arab salads.

Poultry farming

poultry farmpoultrychicken farm
Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry - mostly chickens - are farmed in great numbers. Farmers raise more than 50 billion chickens annually as a source of food, both for their meat and for their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In the United States, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organisation is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).


Tartaric acid is an important component of some commonly used foods like unripened mangoes and tamarind. Natural fruits and vegetables also contain acids. Citric acid is present in oranges, lemon and other citrus fruits. Oxalic acid is present in tomatoes, spinach, and especially in carambola and rhubarb; rhubarb leaves and unripe carambolas are toxic because of high concentrations of oxalic acid. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential vitamin for the human body and is present in such foods as amla (Indian gooseberry), lemon, citrus fruits, and guava. Many acids can be found in various kinds of food as additives, as they alter their taste and serve as preservatives.


Christmas DayDecember 25Nativity
Slovaks prepare the traditional Christmas bread potica, bûche de Noël in France, panettone in Italy, and elaborate tarts and cakes. The eating of sweets and chocolates has become popular worldwide, and sweeter Christmas delicacies include the German stollen, marzipan cake or candy, and Jamaican rum fruit cake. As one of the few fruits traditionally available to northern countries in winter, oranges have been long associated with special Christmas foods. Eggnog is a sweetened dairy-based beverage traditionally made with milk, cream, sugar, and whipped eggs (which gives it a frothy texture). Spirits such as brandy, rum or bourbon are often added.

Fried egg

friedfried eggssunny-side up
Americans use different terms to describe the degree and method to which fried eggs are cooked, including: In Egypt, fried eggs are a common breakfast food. They are fried in fat such as vegetable oil, butter or ghee and served either plain or with other foodstuffs such as tomatoes,cheese, sausage or minced meat with onions and spices; they may also be served with ful medames (slow-cooked fava beans). In India, fried eggs are commonly served alone or as an accompaniment to bread. It may also occasionally be served with dosa, paratha, or roti. During or after the frying stage, they are sometimes sprinkled lightly with condiments such as black pepper, chili powder, green chili, and salt.


MerengueMeringue tartMerenguitos
Meringue is a type of dessert or candy, often associated with French, Swiss, and Italian cuisine, traditionally made from whipped egg whites and sugar, and occasionally an acidic ingredient such as lemon, vinegar, or cream of tartar. A binding agent such as salt, corn starch, or gelatin may also be added to the eggs. The key to the formation of a good meringue is the formation of stiff peaks by denaturing the protein ovalbumin (a protein in the egg whites) via mechanical shear.


CaCa 2+ calcium ion
Many calcium compounds are used in food, as pharmaceuticals, and in medicine, among others. For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and tricalcium phosphate. The last is also used as a polishing agent in toothpaste and in antacids. Calcium lactobionate is a white powder that is used as a suspending agent for pharmaceuticals. In baking, calcium monophosphate is used as a leavening agent.

United Kingdom

Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe. The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages. The British Empire facilitated a knowledge of Indian cuisine with its "strong, penetrating spices and herbs". British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain, producing many hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.


Even though Sadat's policy was intended to modernise Egypt and assist the middle class, it mainly benefited the higher class, and, because of the elimination of subsidies on basic foodstuffs, led to the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots. Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most Egyptians. Sadat was assassinated by an Islamic extremist in October 1981. Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat in a referendum in which he was the only candidate.

Fish ball

fish ballsfishballfishballs
Fish balls, known as 鱼圆 (yú yuán) or 魚丸 (yú wán), are cooked in many ways in Malaysia and Singapore. They can be served with soup and noodles like the Chiuchow style or with yong tau foo. They can also be served with noodles called mee pok. Fish balls are a popular street food in the Philippines, and considered a cultural delicacy. The most common type of Filipino fish balls are known as bola-bola (literally, "ball-ball"). They are somewhat flat in shape, most often made from cuttlefish or pollock, and served with a sweet and spicy sauce or with a thick, black, sweet and sour sauce. Fish balls in the Philippines are sold by street vendors pushing wooden deep-frying carts.


Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food. In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community. As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts, a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity. In fact, In Islamic tradition, the idea of social welfare has been presented as one of its principal values.


Salmonella typhibacteremic salmonellosisdisease of the same name
Food testing strips. List of foodborne illness outbreaks. Wright County Egg. Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth. XLD agar. American Public Health Association v. Butz. Background on Salmonella from the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. Salmonella genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID. Questions and Answers about commercial and institutional sanitizing methods. Symptoms of Salmonella Poisoning. Salmonella as an emerging pathogen from IFAS. Notes on Salmonella nomenclature. Salmonella motility video. Avian Salmonella. Overview of Salmonellosis — The Merck Veterinary Manual.

Foodborne illness

food poisoningptomaine poisoningptomaine
This study replaces a previous estimate of 5.4 million cases of food-borne illness in Australia every year, causing: Most foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia have been linked to raw or minimally cooked eggs or poultry. The Australian Food Safety Information Council estimates that one third of cases of food poisoning occur in the home The vast majority of reported cases of foodborne illness occur as individual or sporadic cases. The origin of most sporadic cases is undetermined. In the United States, where people eat outside the home frequently, 58% of cases originate from commercial food facilities (2004 FoodNet data).

Nasi goreng

Indonesian fried rice dishnas''i ''gor''engNasi goreng kambing
Cuisine of Malaysia. Cuisine of Singapore. Cuisine of the Philippines. Java Rice. Nasi Goreng Petai Mangga Besar. Nasi Goreng Kambing Kebon Sirih. Nasi Goreng Ikan Teri.

Outline of food preparation

food preparationpreparationprepared
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to cooking. * Grilling – a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below. * Microwave oven – type of oven that heats foods quickly and efficiently using microwaves. However, unlike conventional ovens, a microwave oven does not brown bread or bake food. This makes microwave ovens unsuitable for cooking certain foods and unable to achieve certain culinary effects.

Foie gras

pâté de foie grasgoose liverDuck foie gras of the South-west
Jewish cuisine used olive oil in the Mediterranean, and sesame oil in Babylonia, but neither cooking medium was readily available in Western and Central Europe, so poultry fat (known in Yiddish as schmaltz), which could be abundantly produced by overfeeding geese, was substituted in their stead. The delicate taste of the goose's liver was soon appreciated; Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof of Kassel wrote in 1562 that the Jews raise fat geese and particularly love their livers. Some Rabbis were concerned that eating forcibly overfed geese violated Jewish food restrictions. The Chatam Sofer, Rabbi Moses Sofer, contended that it is not a forbidden food (treyf) as none of its limbs are damaged.

American cuisine

AmericanUnited StatesAmerican food
List of American breads. List of American foods. List of American regional and fusion cuisines. List of fast food restaurant chains#United States. Native American cuisine. Tlingit cuisine. Cuisine of the Americas. Western pattern diet.


biriyaniBiryani ricechicken biryani
Nasi Briyani dishes are very popular in Malaysia and Singapore. As an important part of Malaysian Indian cuisine, they are popularized through Mamak stalls, hawker centres, food courts as well as fine dining restaurants. Biryani dishes are very popular in Mauritius especially at Hindu and Muslim weddings. It is also widely available at street food places. Kapampangan cuisine of Philippines (often in Pampanga) features a special dish called Nasing Biringyi (chicken saffron rice), that is typically prepared only during special occasions such as weddings, family get-togethers or fiestas. It is not a staple diet as it is difficult to prepare compared to other usual dishes.


pineapplespineapple juicesymbol of hospitality
It has spiny leaves, and is grown in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa. "Pernambuco" ("eleuthera") weighs 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), and has pale yellow to white flesh. It is sweet, melting in texture, and excellent for eating fresh; it is poorly adapted for shipping, has spiny leaves, and is grown in Latin America. "Red Spanish", at 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), has pale yellow flesh with a pleasant aroma, is squarish in shape, and well-adapted for shipping as fresh fruit to distant markets; it has spiny leaves and is grown in Latin America and the Philippines. It was the original pineapple cultivar in the Philippines grown for their leaf fibers (piña) in the traditional Philippine textile industry.