The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which also mean 'food'. The word mete also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets (sweets) and dierfied (animal feed). Most often, meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal.
meatsmeat consumptionprocessed meat
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of more than 19 billion as of 2011. There are more chickens in the world than any other bird or domesticated fowl. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food (consuming both their meat and eggs) and, less commonly, as pets. Originally raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period (4th–2nd centuries BC).
In one instance, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) detected Listeria monocytogenes in 460 lbs of Polidori brand fully cooked pork sausage crumbles, although no one was made ill from consumption of the product. The FSIS has previously stated that listeria and other microorganisms must be "...destroyed by proper handling and thorough cooking to an internal temperature of 160 °F," and that other microorganisms, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus can be found in inadequately cooked pork, poultry, and other meats. The FSIS, a part of the USDA, currently recommends cooking ground pork to 160 °F and whole cuts to 145 °F followed by a 3-minute rest.
In general, the animals would be killed for food; however, they might also be slaughtered for other reasons such as being diseased and unsuitable for consumption. The slaughter involves some initial cutting, opening the major body cavities to remove the entrails and offal but usually leaving the carcass in one piece. Such dressing can be done by hunters in the field (field dressing of game) or in a slaughterhouse. Later, the carcass is usually butchered into smaller cuts.
Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence". The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns.
Second World WarwarWWII
Before taking effect though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless. The United States, concerned with events in Europe and Asia, passed the Neutrality Act in August of the same year. Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rhineland in March 1936, encountering little opposition due to appeasement. In October 1936, Germany and Italy formed the Rome–Berlin Axis. A month later, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, which Italy would join in the following year.
Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu – dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and the like – to add flavor to the staple food. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food, quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The phrase ichijū-sansai refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, honzen, and yūsoku cuisine.
During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians and Catholics give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws. India is one of the biggest exporters of buffalo meat. Though some states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by Caste and Religion based Politics. Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts concur. However certain Hindu castes and sects continue to avoid beef from their diets.
Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, animal seafood, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool, and silk), toiletries, and similar. Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or use of animal products, and rejects the commodification of animals altogether.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, beans, onions, peppers, tomatoes, etc.), plus meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, pork, lamb or mutton, sausages, and seafood are also used. Fish stew – includes a list of many fish stews. List of Azerbaijani soups and stews. List of fish and seafood soups. List of Japanese soups and stews. List of soups. List of Spanish soups and stews.
techniquescooking techniquecooking techniques
., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature until a crust forms from browning. Seasoning. Separating eggs. Shallow frying. Shirred eggs. Shrivelling. Shuck - to remove the outer casing of a food item, such as an ear of corn or the shell of an oyster. Simmering. Skimming. Slow cooker. Smoking. Smothering. Souring. Sous-vide. Thermal immersion circulator. Spatchcock – poultry or game that has been prepared for roasting or grilling by removing the backbone, and sometimes the sternum of the bird and flattening it out before cooking. Spherification. Steaming. Food steamer. Steeping. Stewing. Stir frying. Straight dough.
A wide variety of foods can cause allergic reactions, but 90% of allergic responses to foods are caused by cow's milk, soy, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Other food allergies, affecting less than 1 person per 10,000 population, may be considered "rare". The use of hydrolysed milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk. The most common food allergy in the US population is a sensitivity to crustacea. Although peanut allergies are notorious for their severity, peanut allergies are not the most common food allergy in adults or children.
Vitamin A is found in many foods, including the following list. Bracketed values are retinol activity equivalences (RAEs) and percentage of the adult male RDA, per 100 grams of the foodstuff (average). Conversion of carotene to retinol varies from person to person and bioavailability of carotene in food varies. Vitamin A plays a role in a variety of functions throughout the body, such as: The role of vitamin A in the visual cycle is specifically related to the retinal form. Within the eye, 11-cis-retinal is bound to the protein "opsin" to form rhodopsin in rods and iodopsin (cones) at conserved lysine residues.
. – eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin. List of egg dishes. List of egg topics. – meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans are omnivorous, and have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times.
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List of smoked foods.
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Chicken eggs: The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. Heart and gizzard: in Brazilian churrascos, chicken hearts are an often seen delicacy. Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, and is used in such dishes as Pâté and chopped liver. Schmaltz: This is produced by rendering the fat, and is used in various dishes. Barbecue chicken. Battery cage. Bush legs. Chickens as pets. Chicken patty. List of chicken dishes. Foodnetwork.com page on use of chicken in cooking. US government fact sheet on chicken as food.
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"Oil" normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while "fat" (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions.
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying animals. Birds may also refer to: The Birds (play), an ancient Greek play by Aristophanes. The Birds (novel), a novel by Tarjei Vesaas. "The Birds" (story), a 1952 story by Daphne du Maurier. Birds, the magazine of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. The Birds, a musical play by David Cerda and Pauline Pang. The Birds (band), a 1960s UK rhythm and blues band. The Birds (Respighi) or Gli Uccelli, a suite for small orchestra by Ottorino Respighi. Birds (Bic Runga album) (2005). Birds (North Sea Radio Orchestra album) (2008). Birds (Marius Neset album) (2013 album). "Birds" (Kate Nash song) (2007).
animal productsanimal by-productsslaughterhouse waste
Carmine also known as cochineal (food dye). Casein (found in milk and cheese). Civet oil (food flavoring additive). Dairy products (e.g., milk, cheese, yogurt, etc.). Eggs. Gelatin. Honey. Honeydew (secretion). Isinglass (used in clarification of beer and wine). L-cysteine from human hair and pig bristles (used in the production of biscuits and bread). Lard. Kopi Luwak & Black Ivory Coffee. Meat (including fish, poultry, and game). Rennet (commonly used in the production of cheese). Shellac. Swiftlet's nest (made of saliva). Whey (found in cheese and added to many other products). Animal fiber. Ambergris. Beeswax.
Rice (cooking), a food–processing technique. RICE (medicine), a treatment for soft-tissue injury. RICE (chemotherapy), a chemotherapy regimen containing Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide. Rice (novel), a Chinese novel by Su Tong. Rice (film), a 1963 South Korean film. Radio Ice Cerenkov Experiment, a Cherenkov emission detection project. Rice distribution, a probability distribution. Rice coding, a data compression technique. Rice Army Airfield, near Rice, California. Rice Hotel, a historic place in Houston, Texas, now known as the Post Rice Lofts. Rice House (disambiguation), various buildings on the National Register of Historic Places.
This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from food energy, losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch). For an overall efficiency of 20 percent, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to 4.3 kcal per hour.
Food and Agriculture Organization. History of organic farming. Milorganite. Phosphogypsum. Soil defertilisation. Nitrogen for Feeding Our Food, Its Earthly Origin, Haber Process. International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA). Agriculture Guide, Complete Guide to Fertilizers and Fertilization. 4R's Nutrient Stewardship program from The Fertilizer Institute.
The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial, particularly in the gut flora. However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.
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Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry - mostly chickens - are farmed in great numbers. Farmers raise more than 50 billion chickens annually as a source of food, both for their meat and for their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In the United States, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organisation is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
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Soup kitchen, a place that serves prepared food of any kind to the homeless. Stone soup, a popular children's fable about a poor man who encourages villagers to share their food with him by telling them that he can make soup with a stone. Souperism, the practice of bible societies during the Irish Great Famine to feed the hungry in exchange for religious instruction. The expression 'took the soup' is used to refer to those who converted at the behest of these organizations' offers of food. Tag soup, poorly coded HTML. Instant soup. List of foods. List of soups. List of bean soups. List of cold soups. List of fish and seafood soups. Soup and sandwich. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe.