Fats are used to add flavor to food (e.g., butter or bacon fat), prevent food from sticking to pans and create a desirable texture. Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk, eggs and egg whites, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. Mushrooms have high protein content. Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable – meat becomes cooked and is more friable and less flexible.

United Kingdom

Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe. The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages. The British Empire facilitated a knowledge of Indian cuisine with its "strong, penetrating spices and herbs". British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain, producing many hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.


Gulai KambingGulai Nangkagule kambing
The gulai sauce found in Minangkabau, Aceh, and Malay cuisine usually has a thicker consistency, while the gulai in Java is thinner, served in soup-like dishes containing pieces of mutton, beef or offal. Gulai is usually served with steamed rice, however, some recipes such as goat or mutton gulai might be served with roti canai. Some variations of Indonesian gulai according to its ingredients: Poultry Meat Offal Fish and sea food Vegetable Gulai ayam (chicken gulai). Gulai itik (duck gulai). Gulai hati ampela (chicken gizzard, liver, and intestine gulai). Gulai telur (hard boiled chicken egg gulai). Gulai telur itik (duck egg gulai). Gulai kambing (mutton gulai). Gulai sapi (beef gulai).


Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Some consider kushari (a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni) to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta‘miya"), which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East.


🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
Chinese cuisine is also known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, as well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional Chinese medicine. Generally, China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk, remain as a popular source of protein. Pork is now the most popular meat in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.

Poaching (cooking)

Poaching is a type of moist-heat cooking technique that involves cooking by submerging food in a liquid, such as water, milk, stock or wine. Poaching is differentiated from the other "moist heat" cooking methods, such as simmering and boiling, in that it uses a relatively low temperature (about 160 - 180 F). This temperature range makes it particularly suitable for delicate food, such as eggs, poultry, fish and fruit, which might easily fall apart or dry out using other cooking methods. Poaching is often considered a healthy method of cooking because it does not use fat to cook or flavor the food.


Stuffing or filling is an edible substance or mixture, normally consisting primarily of small cut-up pieces of bread or a similar starch and served as a side dish or used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking. Many foods may be stuffed, including eggs, poultry, seafood, mammals, and vegetables, but chickens and turkey are the most common. Stuffing serves the dual purpose of helping to keep the meat moist while also adding to the mix of flavours of both the stuffing and the thing it is stuffed in. Poultry stuffing often consists of dried breadcrumbs, onion, celery, salt, pepper, and other spices and herbs, a popular herb being sage. Giblets are often used.


Salmonella typhibacteremic salmonellosisdisease of the same name
Food testing strips. List of foodborne illness outbreaks. Wright County Egg. Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth. XLD agar. American Public Health Association v. Butz. Background on Salmonella from the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. Salmonella genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID. Questions and Answers about commercial and institutional sanitizing methods. Symptoms of Salmonella Poisoning. Salmonella as an emerging pathogen from IFAS. Notes on Salmonella nomenclature. Salmonella motility video. Avian Salmonella. Overview of Salmonellosis — The Merck Veterinary Manual.

Foodborne illness

food poisoningptomaine poisoningptomaine
This study replaces a previous estimate of 5.4 million cases of food-borne illness in Australia every year, causing: Most foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia have been linked to raw or minimally cooked eggs or poultry. The Australian Food Safety Information Council estimates that one third of cases of food poisoning occur in the home The vast majority of reported cases of foodborne illness occur as individual or sporadic cases. The origin of most sporadic cases is undetermined. In the United States, where people eat outside the home frequently, 58% of cases originate from commercial food facilities (2004 FoodNet data).

Outline of food preparation

food preparationpreparationprepared
Eggs –. Fruits –. Apples –. Cherries –. Pears –. Legumes –. Beans –. Lentils –. Soy –. Miso –. Soy cheese –. Soy milk –. Soy sauce –. Soy yogurt –. Textured soy protein –. Tofu –. Meat –. Beef –. Fish –. Mutton –. Poultry –. Pork –. Mushrooms –. Champignon –. Seasonings. Herbs –. Parsley –. Spices –. Pepper –. Salt –. Sweeteners –. Agave nectar –. Fructose –. Glucose –. Honey –. Stevia –. Sugar –. Vegetables –. Cucumber –. Eggplants –. Garlic –. Onions –. Potatoes –. Squash –.

Foie gras

pâté de foie grasgoose liverDuck foie gras of the South-west
Jewish cuisine used olive oil in the Mediterranean, and sesame oil in Babylonia, but neither cooking medium was readily available in Western and Central Europe, so poultry fat (known in Yiddish as schmaltz), which could be abundantly produced by overfeeding geese, was substituted in their stead. The delicate taste of the goose's liver was soon appreciated; Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof of Kassel wrote in 1562 that the Jews raise fat geese and particularly love their livers. Some Rabbis were concerned that eating forcibly overfed geese violated Jewish food restrictions. The Chatam Sofer, Rabbi Moses Sofer, contended that it is not a forbidden food (treyf) as none of its limbs are damaged.


potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potatoes
Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes.


vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs. Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey. Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant-based diet which may also include dairy and honey, but excludes eggs, red lentils, durian, mushrooms, alliums, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, and alcoholic drinks. Coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg, and any other type of stimulant (including excessively pungent spices) are sometimes excluded, as well.

Vitamin B12

vitamin B 12 cobalaminB12
Animals store vitamin B 12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals as well as humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B 12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B 12 —50 to 99 µg B 12 per 100 grams of food —include clams; liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; mackerel; and crab meat. Natural sources of B 12 include dried and fermented plant foods, such as tempeh, nori and laver, a seaweed.


head chefchefscook
If wound dressings are required they should be blue—an unusual colour for foodstuffs—so that they are noticeable if they fall into food. Facial hair and longer hair are often required to be netted, or trimmed, for food safety. Bandages on the hands are usually covered with nylon gloves. Latex is not typically used for food preparation due to latex allergy. American Culinary Federation. Auguste Escoffier. Brigade de cuisine. Culinary art. Celebrity chef. Development chef. List of chefs. List of pastry chefs. List of restaurant terminology. Personal chef. World Association of Chefs Societies. Official certification levels of the American Culinary Federation.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BSEmad cow diseasemad cow
Thillier himself queried why there had never been a ban on French beef or basic safety precautions to stop the food chain becoming contaminated, suggesting "Perhaps because the French government forgot its role in guaranteeing the safety of food products, and this neglect cost the lives of nine people." The Sydney Morning Herald added, "while blustering French politicians blamed Britain for the emergence of the disease – and tried to quarantine the country by banning imports of British beef – they failed to adopt measures to prevent a hidden epidemic at home." In 2016 France confirmed a further case of BSE. In October 2015 a case of BSE was confirmed at a farm in Carmarthenshire in Wales.

Dietary Reference Intake

Tolerable Upper Intake LevelRDArecommended daily allowance
Dietary Reference Values – recommended dietary requirements for the European Union's European Food Safety Authority and the United Kingdom. Mineral (nutrient). Essential amino acid. Essential fatty acid. Essential nutrient. Food composition. Food pyramid (nutrition). Healthy diet. Protein quality. Reference Daily Intake - used in the United States to set % Daily Values (%DV) on food and dietary supplement labels. Reference Intakes – a system of nutrient labeling used in Europe. Hypervitaminosis - vitamin toxicity.


Hochzeitssuppe (literally: "wedding soup") is a clear, German soup based on chicken broth, fortified with chicken meat, small meatballs (Fleischklößchen), asparagus heads, noodles and savoury egg custard garnish (Eierstich). Sometimes raisins are added as well. Hochzeitssuppe is eaten in Northern Germany and Southern Germany by the bride and groom and guests, traditionally after the wedding ceremony, and it is usually served as the starter on the menu at the wedding reception. It is also eaten in other regions of Germany, because the Brautsuppe ("bride's soup") served to all the guests used to be an element of every wedding.

Agricultural policy

.: "Transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 from domestic poultry back to migratory waterfowl in western China has increased the geographic spread. The spread of H5N1 and its likely reintroduction to domestic poultry increase the need for good agricultural vaccines. In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by co-circulating influenza viruses or bad agricultural vaccines." Dr. Robert Webster explains: "If you use a good vaccine you can prevent the transmission within poultry and to humans. But if they have been using vaccines now [in China] for several years, why is there so much bird flu?

Common Agricultural Policy

agricultureCAPCommon Agricultural Policy (CAP)
. * past and present UK subsidy schemes Opinions * The CAP reform, Council of the European Union * Archival Sources relating to the history of the Common Agricultural Policy can be consulted at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence cereal, rice, potatoes. oil. dried fodder. milk and milk products, wine, honey. beef and veal, poultry meat and eggs, pig meat, sheep / lamb meat and goat meat. sugar. fruit and vegetables. cotton. peas, field beans. sweet lupins. olives. Flax seeds.


"Wet-Burger"), which a beef slider doused in seasoned tomato sauce and steamed inside a special glass chamber, and has its origins in the Turkish fast food retailer Kizilkayalar. Other variations include lamb-burgers and offal-burgers, which are offered by local fast food businesses and global chains alike, such as McDonald's and Burger King. Most burger shops have also adopted a pizzeria-like approach when it comes to home delivery, and almost all major fast food chains deliver. In the former Yugoslavia, and originally in Serbia, there is a local version of the hamburger known as the pljeskavica. It is often served as a patty, but may have a bun as well.

Rationing in the United Kingdom

rationingfood rationingrationed
In December 1939 Elsie Widdowson and Robert McCance of the University of Cambridge tested whether the United Kingdom could survive with only domestic food production if U-boats ended all imports. Using 1938 food production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers one egg, one pound of meat and four ounces of fish a week; one quarter pint (0.14 litre) of milk a day; four ounces of margarine; and unlimited amounts of potatoes, vegetables and wholemeal bread. Two weeks of intensive outdoor exercise simulated the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would likely have to perform.

List of nutrition guides

nutrition guidesnutrition guideItalian Food Pyramid
Cereals are at the large base; topped by vegetables and fruits; then fish, poultry, meat, eggs and other animal foods; followed by milk and soy foods; and topped with fats and oils in the small spire. Beside the pagoda are images representing water and exercise. Denmark's Food Administration uses the Diet Compass (Kostkompasset) to depict its "Dietary 8" (8 kostråd) guidelines, with an image on each compass point representing a guideline.

Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat.


kosherdietary lawsJewish dietary laws
Food cooked by a non-Jew (bishul akum): this law was enacted for concerns of intermarriage. Non-Jewish bread (pat akum): this law was enacted for concerns of intermarriage. Health risk (sakanah): certain foods and mixtures are considered a health risk, such as mixtures of fish and meat. D—Dairy. DE—Dairy equipment. M—Meat, including poultry. Pareve—Food that is neither meat nor dairy. Fish. P—Passover-related (P is not used for Pareve). Eco-Kashrut. Israeli cuisine. Jewish cuisine. Kosher certification agency. Kosher tax. Sabbath food preparation. Jewish vegetarianism. Jewish Veg. Treef. Treif. Unclean animal. Ahimsa (non-violence to living beings). Buddhist cuisine and vegetarianism.