Omega-3 fatty acid

omega-3omega-3 fatty acidsomega 3 fatty acid
A recent trend has been to fortify food with omega−3 fatty acid supplements. Global food companies have launched omega−3 fatty acid fortified bread, mayonnaise, pizza, yogurt, orange juice, children's pasta, milk, eggs, popcorn, confections, and infant formula. The microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii and Schizochytrium are rich sources of DHA but not EPA, and can be produced commercially in bioreactors. Oil from brown algae (kelp) is a source of EPA. The alga Nannochloropsis also has high levels of EPA.

Saturated fat

saturatedsaturated fatty acidsaturated fats
Food groups. Food guide pyramid. Healthy diet. Diet and heart disease. Fast food. Junk food. Advanced glycation endproduct. ANGPTL4. Iodine value. Framingham Heart Study. Seven Countries Study. Ancel Keys. D. Mark Hegsted. Western pattern diet.


De-beakingbeak trimmingBeak-trimming
Cannibalism is a serious management problem dating back to the periods before intensive housing of poultry became popular. Poultry books written before vertical integration of the poultry industry describe the abnormal pecking of poultry: Chicks and adult birds' picking at each other until blood shows and then destroying one another by further picking is a source of great loss in many flocks, especially when kept in confinement .... The recommendation of the Ohio Experiment Station of cutting back the tip of the upper beak has been found to be effective until the beak grows out again.


bean curdbeancurdsilken tofu
Whole beaten eggs are combined with dashi, poured into molds, and cooked in a steamer (cf. chawanmushi). This tofu has a pale golden color that can be attributed to the addition of eggs and, occasionally, food coloring. This tofu has a fuller texture and flavor than silken tofu, due to the presence of egg fat and proteins. Plain "dried tofu" can be flavored by stewing in soy sauce to make soy-sauce tofu. It is common to see tofu sold from hot food stalls in this soy-sauce stewed form. Today Egg "Japanese" tofu is made of eggs, water, vegetable protein, and seasoning. Egg tofu was invented in Japan during the Edo period.

Vitamin D

Dcalciferol1,25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
In 1923, American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials. After irradiating rodent food, Steenbock discovered the rodents were cured of rickets. A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. Using $300 of his own money, Steenbock patented his invention. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk. By the expiration of his patent in 1945, rickets had been all but eliminated in the US.


Easter SundayPaschaEaster Day
After the dismissal of the liturgy, the priest may bless paschal eggs and baskets brought by the faithful containing those foods which have been forbidden during the Great Fast. Immediately after the Liturgy it is customary for the congregation to share a meal, essentially an agápē dinner (albeit at 2:00 am or later). In Greece the traditional meal is mageiritsa, a hearty stew of chopped lamb liver and wild greens seasoned with egg-and-lemon sauce. Traditionally, easter eggs, hard-boiled eggs dyed bright red to symbolize the spilt Blood of Christ and the promise of eternal life, are cracked together to celebrate the opening of the Tomb of Christ.

Vegetarian cuisine

vegetarianvegetarian foodvegetarian dish
Tomato omelette where tomatoes and a paste of flour are used to produce a vegetable omelette without the use of eggs. Scrambled eggs where tofu is mashed and fried with spices (often including turmeric, for its strong yellow color) to produce a dish that strongly resembles eggs. When baking, eggs are easily replaced by ground flax seeds, applesauce, mashed bananas, or commercial egg replacer. Indian vegetarian cuisine. Chinese Buddhist cuisine. Korean vegetarian cuisine. Veganism. List of meat substitutes. List of vegetable dishes. List of vegetarian restaurants. List of vegetarian and vegan companies. South Asian Veggie Table - Vegetarian cooking television show.


Pica is an abnormal appetite for non-nutritive objects or for food items in a form not normally eaten, such as flour. Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, an abnormal ingestive behavior common in some animals. Larvae of the parasite Trichinella encyst within muscles and are transmitted when a new host eats the infected flesh of a former host animal. The parasite Dracunculus is ingested in drinking water, which is contaminated with larvae released as the parasite emerges from the host's skin. The bacterium Salmonella most commonly infects humans via consumption of undercooked eggs.


bakedbaked goodsbake
Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking, is to cook it en papillote (French for "in parchment"). In this method, the food is covered by baking paper (or aluminium foil) to protect it while it is being baked. The cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert.

Codex Alimentarius

Codex Alimentarius Commission codex alimentarius standardcodex
Meat products (fresh, frozen, processed meats and poultry). Fish and fishery products (marine, fresh water and aquaculture). Milk and milk products. Foods for special dietary uses (including infant formula and baby foods). Fresh and processed vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices. Cereals and derived products, dried legumes. Fats, oils and derived products such as margarine. Miscellaneous food products (chocolate, sugar, honey, mineral water). FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Food Chemicals Codex. Codex Alimentarius - official website. 'Understanding the Codex Alimentarius' Published in 2005 by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


pâtésmeat pastePate
In Poland, pasztet is made from poultry, fish, venison, ham, or pork with eggs, flour, bread crumbs, and a varied range of additions, such as pepper, tomato sauce, mushrooms, spices, vegetables, ginger, nutmeg, cheese, or sugar. In Russia and Ukraine, the dish is mostly prepared with beef, goose or chicken liver and thus is commonly known as pechyonochniy pashtet (печёночный паштет, "liver pâté"), however other meats also can be used. Unlike the Western European method the liver is first cooked (boiled or fried) and mixed with butter or fat and seasoning such as fresh or fried onion, carrots, spices and herbs.

Food processing

processingfood manufacturingprocessed
Food packaging plant. Industrial rendering. Meat packing plant. Slaughterhouse. Sugar industry. Best before. Brewery. Canning. Dietary supplement. Enzyme. Flavoring. Food additive. Food and Bioprocess Technology. Food coloring. Food extrusion. Food fortification. Food quality. Food rheology. Food science. Food storage. Genetically modified food. List of cooking techniques. Material handling. Nutraceutical. Pasteurization. Pink slime. Shelf-life. Snap freezing. Ultra-high temperature processing. Fábricas de alimentos, 9th edition (in Spanish). Nutritional evaluation of food processing. Food preservation 2nd edition, by Norman W. Desrosier.


Hen egg lysozyme, an antibiotic protein found in chicken eggs, is also sweet. Even some inorganic compounds are sweet, including beryllium chloride and Lead(II) acetate. The latter may have contributed to lead poisoning among the ancient Roman aristocracy: the Roman delicacy sapa was prepared by boiling soured wine (containing acetic acid) in lead pots. Hundreds of synthetic organic compounds are known to be sweet. The number of these that are legally permitted as food additives is, however, much smaller.


salad dressingsaladssalad dressings
Hard-boiled eggs, bacon, shrimp, and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more likely in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce (such as iceberg) halved or quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, and potato salad. Bound salads are often used as sandwich fillings. They are popular at picnics and barbecues.


Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include a carbohydrate such as grains or cereals, fruit, vegetables, a protein food such as eggs, meat or fish, and a beverage such as tea, coffee, milk, or fruit juice. Coffee, milk, tea, juice, breakfast cereals, pancakes, waffles, sausages, French toast, bacon, fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast with butter, margarine, jam or marmalade are common examples of Western breakfast foods, though a large range of preparations and ingredients are associated with breakfast globally.

Food allergy

food allergiesfood allergensallergy
In the United States, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA) requires companies to disclose on the label whether a packaged food product contains any of these eight major food allergens, added intentionally: cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy and wheat. This list originated in 1999 from the World Health Organisation Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Intensive animal farming

factory farmingfactory farmsfactory farm
This fall in profitability was accompanied by a general fall in prices to the consumer, allowing poultry and eggs to lose their status as luxury foods. The vertical integration of the egg and poultry industries was a late development, occurring after all the major technological changes had been in place for years (including the development of modern broiler rearing techniques, the adoption of the Cornish Cross broiler, the use of laying cages, etc.). By the late 1950s, poultry production had changed dramatically. Large farms and packing plants could grow birds by the tens of thousands.

Indonesian cuisine

IndonesianIndonesiaIndonesian dishes
Chicken eggs, poultry and meats are also consumed. Most of the fat intake comes from cooking oil (coconut oil) of fried dishes, coconut milk, peanuts, as well as meats and offals. However, according to a WHO nutrition study, compared to global diet average, Indonesians consumes less protein, vegetables and fruits. Which means most of Indonesian diet consist heavily of carbohydrate, which is mostly contributed by high consumption of rice. The campaign for a well-balanced diet is promoted ever since. Some Indonesian fruit and vegetable dishes such as fruit rujak, gado-gado, karedok, pecel, lalab, capcay, tofu and tempeh are known as healthy foods with low fat and high fibre.


The stock can be clarified with egg whites, and then filled and flavored just before the aspic sets. Almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, or vegetables. Aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. A meat jelly that includes cream is called a chaud-froid. Almost any meat, poultry, or fish can be used to make gelatin. The aspic may need additional gelatin in order to set properly. Veal stock provides a great deal of gelatin; in making stock, veal is often included with other meat for that reason.


supermarketssupermarket chainGrocery Store
Baby foods and baby-care products such as disposable diapers. Breads and bakery products (many stores may have a bakery on site that offers specialty and dessert items). Baking needs. Books, newspapers, and magazines, including supermarket tabloids. Bulk dried foods such as legumes, flour, rice, etc. (typically available for self-service). Canned goods and dried cereals. CDs, audio cassettes, DVDs, and videos (including video rentals). Cigarettes and other tobacco products (as country, state, provincial or local laws allow). Confections and candies. Cosmetics. Dairy products and eggs. Delicatessen foods (ready-to-eat). Diet foods. Dressings and Sauces.


gizzardsventriculuschicken gizzard
Poultry gizzards are a popular food throughout the world. Grilled chicken gizzards are sold as street food in Haiti and throughout Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, gizzard and liver are considered part of a complete fried poultry dish. In Mexico they are eaten with rice or with chicken soup. They are also served grilled and prepared scrambled with eggs, onions, garlic, and salsa; and served with beans and tortillas for breakfast and other meals. Stewed gizzards are eaten as a snack in Portugal. In Hungary it is made with paprika. In Ghana, it is eaten boiled, fried or grilled. Grilled, skewered gizzards, with spices and optional green peppers and onions, are popular.

Food science

food scientistfoodFood Science and Technology
Activities of food technologists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of products using survey panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of food products and its properties. Food science brings together multiple scientific disciplines. It incorporates concepts from fields such as chemistry, physics, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry... Food technology incorporates concepts from chemical engineering, for example.


jukrice congeerice porridge
Traditionally, a boiling fowl containing small, immature eggs is used; the eggs are carefully boiled and served in the canja. This soup is sometimes served with a fresh mint leaf on top. Strongly valued as comfort food, it is traditionally given to people recovering from disease, as in Asia, and in some regions of Portugal, there is even an ancient custom of feeding the mother a strict diet of canja in the first weeks after childbirth. It is also eaten traditionally in Brazil and Cape Verde, former Portuguese colonies. In Singapore, Teochew porridge or Singapore-style porridge is a version of Singapore congee.


Bennecultured buttermelted butter
"Butter", Food Resource, College of Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, 20 February 2007. – FAQ, links, and extensive bibliography of food science articles on butter. Cork Butter Museum: the story of Ireland’s most important food export and the world’s largest butter market. Virtual Museum Exhibit on Milk, Cream & Butter.

Intensive farming

industrial agricultureintensive agricultureintensive
According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry, 43 percent of beef, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way. Concerns over the sustainability of industrial agriculture, which has become associated with decreased soil quality, and over the environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticides, have not subsided. Alternatives such as integrated pest management (IPM) have had little impact because policies encourage the use of pesticides and IPM is knowledge-intensive. These concerns sustained the organic movement and caused a resurgence in sustainable intensive farming, as well as funding for the development of appropriate technology.