Vitamin D

DCalciferol1,25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
In 1923, American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials. After irradiating rodent food, Steenbock discovered the rodents were cured of rickets. A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. Using $300 of his own money, Steenbock patented his invention. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk. By the expiration of his patent in 1945, rickets had been all but eliminated in the US.


Easter SundayPaschaEaster Day
Easter customs vary across the Christian world, and include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, and decorating Easter eggs (symbols of the empty tomb). The Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, and Easter parades. There are also various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits (such as breadfruit and plantains). Staple foods may also include (depending on the region): olive oil, coconut oil and sugar (e.g. from plantains).

Vegetarian cuisine

vegetarianvegetarian foodvegetarian dish
Tomato omelette where tomatoes and a paste of flour are used to produce a vegetable omelette without the use of eggs. Scrambled eggs where tofu is mashed and fried with spices (often including turmeric, for its strong yellow color) to produce a dish that strongly resembles eggs. When baking, eggs are easily replaced by ground flax seeds, applesauce, mashed bananas, or commercial egg replacer. Indian vegetarian cuisine. Chinese Buddhist cuisine. Korean vegetarian cuisine. Veganism. List of meat substitutes. List of vegetable dishes. List of vegetarian restaurants. List of vegetarian and vegan companies. South Asian Veggie Table - Vegetarian cooking television show.


egg yolkegg yolksyolks
Among animals which produce eggs, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo. Some types of egg contain no yolk, for example because they are laid in situations where the food supply is sufficient (such as in the body of the host of a parasitoid) or because the embryo develops in the parent's body, which supplies the food, usually through a placenta. Reproductive systems in which the mother's body supplies the embryo directly are said to be matrotrophic; those in which the embryo is supplied by yolk are said to be lecithotrophic.


Pica is an abnormal appetite for non-nutritive objects or for food items in a form not normally eaten, such as flour. Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, an abnormal ingestive behavior common in some animals. Larvae of the parasite Trichinella encyst within muscles and are transmitted when a new host eats the infected flesh of a former host animal. The parasite Dracunculus is ingested in drinking water, which is contaminated with larvae released as the parasite emerges from the host's skin. The bacterium Salmonella most commonly infects humans via consumption of undercooked eggs.


choline salicylateanticholinergicCholine bitartrate
Choline occurs in foods as a free molecule and in the form of phospholipids, especially as phosphatidylcholines. The total choline content accounting for all of these forms is one of the highest of all foods in hen egg yolk. It has about 670 milligrams of total choline per 100 grams of yolk (mg/100 g). After eggs, content decreases in general and respectively in meats, grains, vegetables, fruits and fats. Cooking oils and other food fats have about 5 mg/100 g of total choline.


bakedbaked goodsbake
Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote (French for "in parchment"). In this method, the food is covered by baking paper (or aluminium foil) to protect it while it is being baked. The cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert.

Chicken as food

chickenchicken meatchicken wings
Chicken eggs: The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. Heart and gizzard: in Brazilian churrascos, chicken hearts are an often seen delicacy. Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, and is used in such dishes as Pâté and chopped liver. Schmaltz: This is produced by rendering the fat, and is used in various dishes. Barbecue chicken. Battery cage. Bush legs. Chicken Soup. Chickens as pets. Chicken patty. List of chicken dishes. page on use of chicken in cooking. US government fact sheet on chicken as food.

Codex Alimentarius

Codex Alimentarius Commission codex alimentarius standardcodex
Meat products (fresh, frozen, processed meats and poultry). Fish and fishery products (marine, fresh water and aquaculture). Milk and milk products. Foods for special dietary uses (including infant formula and baby foods). Fresh and processed vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices. Cereals and derived products, dried legumes. Fats, oils and derived products such as margarine. Miscellaneous food products (chocolate, sugar, honey, mineral water). FDA Food Safety Modernization Act. Food Chemicals Codex. Codex Alimentarius - official website. 'Understanding the Codex Alimentarius' Published in 2005 by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


pâtésmeat pastePate
In Poland, pasztet is made from poultry, fish, venison, ham, or pork with eggs, flour, bread crumbs, and a varied range of additions, such as pepper, tomato sauce, mushrooms, spices, vegetables, ginger, nutmeg, cheese, or sugar. In Russia and Ukraine, the dish is mostly prepared with beef, goose or chicken liver and thus is commonly known as pechyonochniy pashtet (печёночный паштет, "liver pâté"), however other meats also can be used. Unlike the Western European method the liver is first cooked (boiled or fried) and mixed with butter or fat and seasoning such as fresh or fried onion, carrots, spices and herbs.

Food processing

food manufacturingprocessingprocessed
Food packaging plant. Industrial rendering. Meat packing plant. Slaughterhouse. Sugar industry. Best before. Brewery. Canning. Dietary supplement. Enzyme. Flavoring. Food additive. Food and Bioprocess Technology. Food coloring. Food extrusion. Food fortification. Food quality. Food rheology. Food science. Food storage. Genetically modified food. List of cooking techniques. Material handling. Nutraceutical. Pasteurization. Pink slime. Shelf-life. Snap freezing. Ultra-high temperature processing. Fábricas de alimentos, 9th edition (in Spanish). Nutritional evaluation of food processing. Food preservation 2nd edition, by Norman W. Desrosier.


Hen egg lysozyme, an antibiotic protein found in chicken eggs, is also sweet. Some variation in values is not uncommon between various studies. Such variations may arise from a range of methodological variables, from sampling to analysis and interpretation. Indeed, the taste index of 1, assigned to reference substances such as sucrose (for sweetness), hydrochloric acid (for sourness), quinine (for bitterness), and sodium chloride (for saltiness), is itself arbitrary for practical purposes. Some values, such as those for maltose and glucose, vary little. Others, such as aspartame and sodium saccharin, have much larger variation.


saladssalad dressinggarden salad
Hard-boiled eggs, bacon, shrimp, and cheeses may be used as garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more likely in a dinner salad. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce (such as iceberg) halved or quartered, with other ingredients on top. Bound salads are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with a scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, chicken salad, egg salad, and potato salad. Bound salads are often used as sandwich fillings. They are popular at picnics and barbecues.


Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include carbohydrates such as grains or cereals, fruit, vegetables, protein foods like eggs, meat or fish, and beverages such as tea, coffee, milk, or fruit juice, juices often taken first of all. Coffee, milk, tea, juice, breakfast cereals, pancakes, waffles, sausages, French toast, bacon, fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast with butter, margarine, jam or marmalade are common examples of Western breakfast foods, though a large range of preparations and ingredients are associated with breakfast globally.


jukrice congeerice porridge
Multigrain congee mixes are sold in the health food sections of Chinese supermarkets. Savory congee, generally cooked with salt and often fresh ginger and other flavorful ingredients, is usually eaten with zhacai, salted duck eggs, lettuce and dace (Chinese mud carp paste), bamboo shoots, youtiao, rousong, pickled tofu, wheat gluten, with other condiments, meats and organ meats including tripe and intestine, crab or hundred-year eggs. Other seasonings such as white pepper and soy sauce may be added after the congee is cooked. Grilled or steamed and deboned fish may be mixed in to provide a different texture.

Food allergy

food allergiesfood allergensallergy
However, some meat, poultry, and egg processed products may contain allergenic ingredients. These products are regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), which requires that any ingredient be declared in the labeling only by its common or usual name. Neither the identification of the source of a specific ingredient in a parenthetical statement nor the use of statements to alert for the presence of specific ingredients, like "Contains: milk", are mandatory according to FSIS. FALCPA also does not apply to food prepared in restaurants.


Gulai Kambinggule kambingMutton Gulai
The gulai sauce found in Minangkabau, Aceh, and Malay cuisine usually has a thicker consistency, while the gulai in Java is thinner, served in soup-like dishes containing pieces of mutton, beef or offal. Gulai is usually served with steamed rice, however, some recipes such as goat or mutton gulai might be served with roti canai. Some variations of Indonesian gulai according to its ingredients: Poultry Meat Offal Fish and sea food Vegetable Gulai ayam (chicken gulai). Gulai itik (duck gulai). Gulai telur (hard boiled chicken egg gulai). Gulai telur itik (duck egg gulai). Gulai kambing (mutton gulai). Gulai sapi (beef gulai). Gulai hati (cattle liver gulai).

Intensive animal farming

factory farmingfactory farmsfactory farm
In the late 1950s, egg prices had fallen so dramatically that farmers typically tripled the number of hens they kept, putting three hens into what had been a single-bird cage or converting their floor-confinement houses from a single deck of roosts to triple-decker roosts. Not long after this, prices fell still further and large numbers of egg farmers left the business. This fall in profitability was accompanied by a general fall in prices to the consumer, allowing poultry and eggs to lose their status as luxury foods. Robert Plamondon reports that the last family chicken farm in his part of Oregon, Rex Farms, had 30,000 layers and survived into the 1990s.


gastric millgizzardsventriculus
Poultry gizzards are a popular food throughout the world. Grilled chicken gizzards are sold as street food in Haiti and throughout Southeast Asia. Giblets consist of the heart, liver and gizzard of a bird, and are often eaten themselves or used as the basis for a soup or stock. Gizzard and mashed potato is a popular food in many European countries. Stewed gizzards are eaten as a snack in Portugal. In Hungary, it is made with paprika. In France, especially the Dordogne region, duck gizzards are eaten in the traditional Périgordian salad, along with walnuts, croutons and lettuce. In Italy, gizzards are often used mixed with other offal.

Indonesian cuisine

IndonesianIndonesiaCuisine of Indonesia
Chicken eggs, poultry and meats are also consumed. Most of the fat intake comes from cooking oil (coconut oil) of fried dishes, coconut milk, peanuts, as well as meats and offals. However, according to a WHO nutrition study, compared to global diet average, Indonesians consumes less protein, vegetables and fruits. Which means most of Indonesian diet consist heavily of carbohydrate, which is mostly contributed by high consumption of rice. The campaign for a well-balanced diet is promoted ever since. Some Indonesian fruit and vegetable dishes such as fruit rujak, gado-gado, karedok, pecel, lalab, capcay, tofu and tempeh are known as healthy foods with low fat and high fibre.


supermarketssupermarket chainGrocery Store
Bulk dried foods such as legumes, flour, rice, etc. (typically available for self-service). Canned goods and dried cereals. CDs, audio cassettes, DVDs, and videos (including video rentals). Cigarettes and other tobacco products (as country, state, provincial or local laws allow). Confections and candies. Cosmetics. Dairy products and eggs. Delicatessen foods (ready-to-eat). Diet foods. Dressings and Sauces. Electrical products such as light bulbs, extension cords, etc. Feminine hygiene products. Financial services and products such as mortgages, credit cards, savings accounts, wire transfers, etc. (typically offered in-store by a partnering bank or other financial institution). Flowers.


kholodetspiftiepork jelly
The stock can be clarified with egg whites, and then filled and flavored just before the aspic sets. Almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, and/or vegetables. Aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. A meat jelly that includes cream is called a chaud-froid. Almost any meat (poultry or fish included) can be used to make gelatin. The aspic may need additional gelatin in order to set properly. Veal stock (in particular, stock from a boiled calf's foot) provides a great deal of gelatin; in making stock, veal is often included with other meat for that reason.

Food science

food scientistfoodBromatology
Food science brings together multiple scientific disciplines. It incorporates concepts from fields such as chemistry, physics, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry. Food technology incorporates concepts from chemical engineering, for example. Some of the subdisciplines of food science are described below. Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples.


Bennecultured buttermelted butter
"Butter", Food Resource, College of Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, 20 February 2007. – FAQ, links, and extensive bibliography of food science articles on butter. Cork Butter Museum: the story of Ireland’s most important food export and the world’s largest butter market. Virtual Museum Exhibit on Milk, Cream & Butter.