Intensive farming

industrial agricultureintensive agricultureintensive
Most of the meat, dairy products, eggs, fruits, and vegetables available in supermarkets are produced by such farms. Some intensive farms can use sustainable methods, although this may necessitate higher inputs of labor or lower yields. Intensive animal farming involves large numbers of animals raised on limited land, for example by rotational grazing, or in the Western world sometimes as concentrated animal feeding operations. These methods increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to extensive animal husbandry; concentrated feed is brought to seldom-moved animals, or with rotational grazing the animals are repeatedly moved to fresh forage.

List of chicken breeds

breedchicken breedschicken breed
The physical traits used to distinguish chicken breeds are size, plumage color, comb type, skin color, number of toes, amount of feathering, egg color, and place of origin. They are also roughly divided by primary use, whether for eggs, meat, or ornamental purposes, and with some considered to be dual-purpose. In the 21st century, chickens are frequently bred according to predetermined breed standards set down by governing organizations. The first of such standards was the British Poultry Standard, which is still in publication today.

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat, milk, and eggs; for materials, such as leather and wool; as pets; and as working animals for power and transport. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many terrestrial and aquatic animals are hunted for sport. Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin, meaning having breath, having soul or living being. The biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia.

Quail

quailsOld World quailthree-toed quail
Quail eggs. Domesticated quail.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus. Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals, i.e., adrenal glands. Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation), Bones (TV series), or Bones (disambiguation); note that this article uses anatomical terminology.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Further problems were lower rents and lower demand for food, both of which cut into agricultural income. Urban workers also felt that they had a right to greater earnings, and popular uprisings broke out across Europe. Among the uprisings were the jacquerie in France, the Peasants' Revolt in England, and revolts in the cities of Florence in Italy and Ghent and Bruges in Flanders. The trauma of the plague led to an increased piety throughout Europe, manifested by the foundation of new charities, the self-mortification of the flagellants, and the scapegoating of Jews.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3.87 kilocalories of energy per gram for simple sugars, and 3.57 to 4.12 kilocalories per gram for complex carbohydrate in most other foods. Relatively high levels of carbohydrate are associated with processed foods or refined foods made from plants, including sweets, cookies and candy, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads and crackers, jams and fruit products, pastas and breakfast cereals. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit. Animal-based foods generally have the lowest carbohydrate levels, although milk does contain a high proportion of lactose.

Butcher

butchersbutcher shopbutchery
They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. A butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets, slaughter houses, or may be self-employed. Butchery is an ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock; its practitioners formed guilds in England as far back as 1272. Today, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Trade qualification is earned through a three to four year apprenticeship although some training organisations qualify their students sooner, depending on their competency.

Omnivore

omnivorousomnivoresomnivory
While most mammals may display "omnivorous" behavior patterns depending on conditions of supply, culture, season and so on, they will generally prefer a particular class of food, to which their digestive processes are adapted. Like most arboreal species, most squirrels are primarily granivores, subsisting on nuts and seeds. But like virtually all mammals, squirrels avidly consume some animal food when it becomes available. For example, the American eastern gray squirrel has been introduced by humans to parts of Britain, continental Europe and South Africa. Where it flourishes, its effect on populations of nesting birds is often serious, largely because of consumption of eggs and nestlings.

Ingredient

ingredientsfood ingredientfood ingredients
Food additive. Food coloring. Preservative. Sugar substitute, artificial sweetener. Fake food. Bill of materials. Software Bill of Materials. Identification of medicinal products.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
However, theories about two altogether different cultures (the Komsa culture north of the Arctic Circle being one and the Fosna culture from Trøndelag to Oslofjord being the other) were rendered obsolete in the 1970s. More recent finds along the entire coast revealed to archaeologists that the difference between the two can simply be ascribed to different types of tools and not to different cultures. Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, who may have made their way along the southern coast about 10,000 BC when the interior was still covered with ice.

Feather

feathersplumagebarbule
Today, feathers used in fashion and in military headresses and clothes are obtained as a waste product of poultry farming, including chickens, geese, turkeys, pheasants, and ostriches. These feathers are dyed and manipulated to enhance their appearance, as poultry feathers are naturally often dull in appearance compared to the feathers of wild birds. Feather products manufacturing in Europe has declined in the last 60 years, mainly due to competition from Asia. Feathers have adorned hats at many prestigious events such as weddings and Ladies Day at race courses (Royal Ascot). The functional view on the evolution of feathers has traditionally focused on insulation, flight and display.

Breed

breedsbredstandardized breed
Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO. 2007. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. FAO. 2007. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Rome. FAO. 2012. Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome. FAO. 2015. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System.

Goose

geesegoslinggoslings
"Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs," derived from an old fable, is a saying referring to any greed-motivated, unprofitable action that destroys or otherwise renders a favourable situation useless. "A wild goose chase" is a useless, futile waste of time and effort. There is a legendary old woman called Mother Goose who wrote nursery rhymes for children. The fact that the laws were written with a goose quill. The fact that the laws were bound in goose skin. Because of the age of the laws — it was then believed that geese lived longer than other birds. Angel wing, a disease common in geese. Domestic goose, which includes cooking and folklore. Flying geese paradigm.

Reptile

reptilesReptiliaSauropsida
Most reptiles lay amniotic eggs covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and keeps it from drying out, but it is flexible to allow gas exchange. The chorion (6) aids in gas exchange between the inside and outside of the egg. It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic fluid (12) which protects and cushions the embryo.

Amphibian

Amphibiaamphibiansamphibious
When they are newly hatched, frog larvae feed on the yolk of the egg. When this is exhausted some move on to feed on bacteria, algal crusts, detritus and raspings from submerged plants. Water is drawn in through their mouths, which are usually at the bottom of their heads, and passes through branchial food traps between their mouths and their gills where fine particles are trapped in mucus and filtered out. Others have specialised mouthparts consisting of a horny beak edged by several rows of labial teeth. They scrape and bite food of many kinds as well as stirring up the bottom sediment, filtering out larger particles with the papillae around their mouths.

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
In the 2010/2011 marketing year, about 29.1 million tonnes of DDGS were fed to US livestock and poultry. Because starch utilization in fermentation for ethanol production leaves other grain constituents more concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, exceeds that of the grain. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants. The following table shows the nutrient content of maize and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. Raw forms are not edible and cannot be digested. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption.

Lamb and mutton

lambmuttonmeat
It is the most common form of offal eaten in the UK, traditionally used in the family favourite (and pub grub staple) of liver with onions and/or bacon and mashed potatoes. It is a major ingredient, along with the lungs and heart (the pluck), in the traditional Scottish dish of haggis. Lamb testicles, also known as lamb's fries (a term also used for other lamb offal), is another delicacy. Lamb kidneys are found in many cuisines across Europe and the Middle East, often split into two halves and grilled (on kebabs in the Middle East), or sautéed in a sauce. They are generally the most highly regarded of all kidneys.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
Blood as food. Blood donation. Blood pressure. Blood substitutes ("artificial blood"). Blood test. Hemophobia. List of human blood components. Luminol, a visual test for blood left at crime scenes. Taboo food and drink: Blood. Oct-1-en-3-one ("Smell" of blood). Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Free online book at NCBI Bookshelf ID: NBK2261. Blood Photomicrographs.

Lent

LentenLenten seasonOculi
During the early Middle Ages, eggs, dairy products, and meat were generally forbidden. In favour of the traditional practice, observed both in East and West, Thomas Aquinas argued that "they afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust." Aquinas also authorized the consumption of candy during Lent, because "sugared spices" (such as comfits) were, in his opinion, digestive aids on par with medicine rather than food.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838. Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1. He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule.

Foie gras

pâté de foie grasgoose liverPate de foie gras
Jewish cuisine used olive oil in the Mediterranean, and sesame oil in Babylonia, but neither cooking medium was readily available in Western and Central Europe, so poultry fat (known in Yiddish as schmaltz), which could be abundantly produced by overfeeding geese, was substituted in their stead. The delicate taste of the goose's liver was soon appreciated; Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof of Kassel wrote in 1562 that the Jews raise fat geese and particularly love their livers. Some Rabbis were concerned that eating forcibly overfed geese violated Jewish food restrictions.

Fermentation in food processing

fermentationfermentedferment
Curing (food preservation). Smoking (cooking). Pickling. Brining. Curing (food preservation). Smoking (cooking). Pickling. Brining. Curing (food preservation). Smoking (cooking). Brining. Curing (food preservation). Smoking (cooking). Science aid: Fermentation - Process and uses of fermentation. Fermented cereals. A global perspective - FAO 1999.

Pea

peasPisum sativumgreen peas
In Sweden it is called ärtsoppa, and is eaten as a traditional Swedish food which predates the Viking age. This food was made from a fast-growing pea that would mature in a short growing season. Ärtsoppa was especially popular among the poor, who traditionally only had one pot and everything was cooked together for a dinner using a tripod to hold the pot over the fire. In Chinese cuisine, the tender new growth [leaves and stem] dou miao (豆苗; dòu miáo) are commonly used in stir-fries. Much like picking the leaves for tea, the farmers pick the tips off of the pea plant. In Greece, Tunisia, Turkey, Cyprus, and other parts of the Mediterranean, peas are made into a stew with lamb and potatoes.