List of chicken breeds

breedchicken breedsbreeds
The physical traits used to distinguish chicken breeds are size, plumage color, comb type, skin color, number of toes, amount of feathering, egg color, and place of origin. They are also roughly divided by primary use, whether for eggs, meat, or ornamental purposes, and with some considered to be dual-purpose. In the 21st century, chickens are frequently bred according to predetermined breed standards set down by governing organizations. The first of such standards was the British Poultry Standard, which is still in publication today.

Animal

animalsmetazoanmetazoa
Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat, milk, and eggs; for materials, such as leather and wool; as pets; and as working animals for power and transport. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many terrestrial and aquatic animals are hunted for sport. Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin, meaning having breath, having soul or living being. The biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia.

Quail

quailsOld World quailtrue quail
Quail eggs. Domesticated quail.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, colon, rectum and anus. Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals, i.e., adrenal glands. Excretory system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.

Bone

bone tissuecancellous bonecortical bone
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval period
Further problems were lower rents and lower demand for food, both of which cut into agricultural income. Urban workers also felt that they had a right to greater earnings, and popular uprisings broke out across Europe. Among the uprisings were the jacquerie in France, the Peasants' Revolt in England, and revolts in the cities of Florence in Italy and Ghent and Bruges in Flanders. The trauma of the plague led to an increased piety throughout Europe, manifested by the foundation of new charities, the self-mortification of the flagellants, and the scapegoating of Jews.

Butcher

butcher shopbutcherybutchers
They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments. A butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets, slaughter houses, or may be self-employed. An ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock, butchers formed guilds in England as far back as 1272. Today, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Some areas expect a three-year apprenticeship followed by the option of becoming a master butcher. Butchery is a traditional line of work.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3.87 kilocalories of energy per gram for simple sugars, and 3.57 to 4.12 kilocalories per gram for complex carbohydrate in most other foods. Relatively high levels of carbohydrate are associated with processed foods or refined foods made from plants, including sweets, cookies and candy, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads and crackers, jams and fruit products, pastas and breakfast cereals. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit. Animal-based foods generally have the lowest carbohydrate levels, although milk does contain a high proportion of lactose.

Feather

feathersplumagebarbule
Today, feathers used in fashion and in military headresses and clothes are obtained as a waste product of poultry farming, including chickens, geese, turkeys, pheasants, and ostriches. These feathers are dyed and manipulated to enhance their appearance, as poultry feathers are naturally often dull in appearance compared to the feathers of wild birds. Feather products manufacturing in Europe has declined in the last 60 years, mainly due to competition from Asia. Feathers have adorned hats at many prestigious events such as weddings and Ladies Day at race courses (Royal Ascot). The functional view on the evolution of feathers has traditionally focused on insulation, flight and display.

Ingredient

ingredientsfood ingredientfood ingredients
Food additive. Food coloring. Preservative. Sugar substitute, artificial sweetener. Fake food. Bill of materials. Software Bill of Materials. Identification of medicinal products.

Norway

Norwegian🇳🇴NOR
However, theories about two altogether different cultures (the Komsa culture north of the Arctic Circle being one and the Fosna culture from Trøndelag to Oslofjord being the other) were rendered obsolete in the 1970s. More recent finds along the entire coast revealed to archaeologists that the difference between the two can simply be ascribed to different types of tools and not to different cultures. Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, who may have made their way along the southern coast about 10,000 BC when the interior was still covered with ice.

Goose

geesebarheaded geesegander
"Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs," derived from an old fable, is a saying referring to any greed-motivated, unprofitable action that destroys or otherwise renders a favourable situation useless. "A wild goose chase" is a useless, futile waste of time and effort. There is a legendary old woman called Mother Goose who wrote nursery rhymes for children. The fact that the laws were written with a goose quill. The fact that the laws were bound in goose skin. Because of the age of the laws — it was then believed that geese lived longer than other birds. Angel wing, a disease common in geese. Domestic goose, which includes cooking and folklore. Flying geese paradigm.

Ostrich

ostrich eggStruthioniformesostrich feather
The ostriches are a family, Struthionidae, of flightless birds. Ostriches first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene fossils may also belong to the family. Ostriches are classified in the ratite group of birds, all extant species of which are flightless, including the kiwis, emus, and rheas. Traditionally the order Struthioniformes contained all the ratites. However, recent genetic analysis has found that the group is not monophyletic, as it is paraphyletic with respect to the tinamous, so the ostriches are classified as the only members of the order.

Breed

breedsbredstandardized breed
Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO. 2007. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. FAO. 2007. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Rome. FAO. 2012. Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome. FAO. 2015. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System. Implementing the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources.

Reptile

reptilesSauropsidareptilian
Most reptiles lay amniotic eggs covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and keeps it from drying out, but it is flexible to allow gas exchange. The chorion (6) aids in gas exchange between the inside and outside of the egg. It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and oxygen gas to enter the egg. The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic fluid (12) which protects and cushions the embryo.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
In the 2010/2011 marketing year, about 29.1 million tonnes of DDGS were fed to US livestock and poultry. Because starch utilization in fermentation for ethanol production leaves other grain constituents more concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, exceeds that of the grain. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants. The following table shows the nutrient content of maize and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. Raw forms are not edible and cannot be digested. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption.

Amphibian

amphibiansAmphibiaamphibious
When they are newly hatched, frog larvae feed on the yolk of the egg. When this is exhausted some move on to feed on bacteria, algal crusts, detritus and raspings from submerged plants. Water is drawn in through their mouths, which are usually at the bottom of their heads, and passes through branchial food traps between their mouths and their gills where fine particles are trapped in mucus and filtered out. Others have specialised mouthparts consisting of a horny beak edged by several rows of labial teeth. They scrape and bite food of many kinds as well as stirring up the bottom sediment, filtering out larger particles with the papillae around their mouths.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports. Rosé wines are primarily consumed within the country, but Champagne and Bordeaux wines are major exports, being known worldwide. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased in recent years but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007. That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products. France produces rum via sugar cane-based distilleries almost all of which are located in overseas territories such as Martinique, Guadeloupe and La Réunion.

Blood

human bloodhematologicalblood-forming
Blood as food. Blood donation. Blood pressure. Blood substitutes ("artificial blood"). Blood test. Hemophobia. List of human blood components. Luminol, a visual test for blood left at crime scenes. Taboo food and drink: Blood. Oct-1-en-3-one ("Smell" of blood).

Indian subcontinent

IndiasubcontinentIndian
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Lent

LentenLenten seasonOculi
During the early Middle Ages, eggs, dairy products, and meat were generally forbidden. In favour of the traditional practice, observed both in East and West, Thomas Aquinas argued that "they afford greater pleasure as food [than fish], and greater nourishment to the human body, so that from their consumption there results a greater surplus available for seminal matter, which when abundant becomes a great incentive to lust." Aquinas also authorized the consumption of candy during Lent, because "sugared spices" (such as comfits) were, in his opinion, digestive aids on par with medicine rather than food.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Noted examples at the time included albumin from egg whites, blood serum albumin, fibrin, and wheat gluten. Proteins were first described by the Dutch chemist Gerardus Johannes Mulder and named by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1838. Mulder carried out elemental analysis of common proteins and found that nearly all proteins had the same empirical formula, C 400 H 620 N 100 O 120 P 1 S 1 . He came to the erroneous conclusion that they might be composed of a single type of (very large) molecule.

Rapeseed

rapeseed oiloilseed raperape
Food-grade canola oil derived from rapeseed cultivars, also known as rapeseed 00 oil, low erucic acid rapeseed oil, LEAR oil, and rapeseed canola-equivalent oil, has been generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Canola oil is limited by government regulation to a maximum of 2% erucic acid by weight in the USA and 5% in the EU, with special regulations for infant food. These low levels of erucic acid are not believed to cause harm in human neonates.

Fermentation in food processing

fermentationfermentedferment
Food fermentation serves five main purposes: to enrich the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates; to preserve substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations; to enrich food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, and vitamins; to eliminate antinutrients; and to reduce cooking time and the associated use of fuel.

Guineafowl

guinea fowlguinea henguineas
The helmeted guinea fowl has been introduced in East Africa, the West Indies, the United States, Britain, and India, where it is raised as food or pets. Guineafowl meat is drier and leaner than chicken meat and has a gamey flavour. It has marginally more protein than chicken or turkey, roughly half the fat of chicken and slightly fewer calories per gram. Their eggs are substantially richer than those of chickens. Genus Agelastes. White-breasted guineafowl, Agelastes meleagrides. Black guineafowl, Agelastes niger. Genus Numida. Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris. Genus Guttera. Plumed guineafowl, Guttera plumifera. Crested guineafowl, Guttera pucherani.