List of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wines. List of VDQS wines. French wine regions list. Wine label. History of wine. List of Vins de Primeur. Old World wine. Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union.
As the largest appellation producing fine wines, and the strong foundation of the pyramid of Bordeaux wines, Bordeaux AOC & Bordeaux Supérieur AOC today account for 55% of all Bordeaux wines consumed in the world. Plan Bordeaux is an initiative introduced in 2005 by ONIVINS, the French vintners association, designed to reduce France's wine glut and improve sales. Part of the plan is to uproot 17,000 hectares of the 124,000 hectares of vineyards in Bordeaux. The wine industry in Bordeaux has been experiencing economic problems in the face of strong international competition from New World wines and declining wine consumption in France.
With an annual production of approximately 960 million bottles, the Bordeaux area produces large quantities of everyday wine as well as some of the most expensive wines in the world. Included among the latter are the area's five premier cru (first growth) red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from Graves), established by the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855: Both red and white wines are made in the Bordeaux region. Red Bordeaux wine is called claret in the United Kingdom. Red wines are generally made from a blend of grapes, and may be made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit verdot, Malbec, and, less commonly in recent years, Carménère.
Italy is the world's biggest wine producer, and one of the leading in olive oil, fruits (apples, olives, grapes, oranges, lemons, pears, apricots, hazelnuts, peaches, cherries, plums, strawberries and kiwifruits), and vegetables (especially artichokes and tomatoes). The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and the Piedmontese Barolo. Other famous wines are Barbaresco, Barbera d'Asti, Brunello di Montalcino, Frascati, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, Morellino di Scansano, and the sparkling wines Franciacorta and Prosecco.
The Bergerac wine-growing region, a subregion of South West France around the town of Bergerac in the Dordogne department, comprises 93 communes. Its boundaries correspond more or less with those of the Arrondissement of Bergerac, immediately east of the Bordeaux wine region. 1,200 wine-growers cultivate an area of 12000 ha. The Bergerac area contains 13 Appellations d'origine contrôlées (AOCs) for red, white (dry, medium-sweet and sweet) and rosé wines. The vineyards extend across the southern part of the Dordogne department, the Arrondissement (urban district) of Bergerac. Bergerac soil also features excellent drainage as a result of its proximity to the Dordogne River.
Sub-appellations include the Fréjus, La Londe, Pierrefeu and Montagne Sainte-Victoire regions. The Côtes du Luberon AOC in the nearby Vaucluse département is occasionally cited by some sources with Provence due to some similarities in wine style; the appellation is however officially part of the Rhône wine region and its typicity more closely approaches that of its neighbour on its northern border, Côtes de Ventoux AOC, also a Rhône wine. The region has several vin de pays designations, with Bouches-du-Rhône, near Aix-en-Provence, being one of the most common designations seen abroad.
Bourgueil is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. Bourgueil is an appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine in the Loire Valley region, and produces primarily red wine from the grape variety Cabernet Franc. Bourgueil wine was mentioned in the works of François Rabelais. Bourgueil is served by the A85 autoroute, a nearby railway line and the cycling-route, Loire a vélo. Bourgueil was the birthplace of: In Acadian Genealogy, Bourgueil is notable as the birthplace of Guillaume Trahan. * INSEE commune file Moses Amyraut (1596–1664), Protestant theologian and metaphysician. Antoine Brutus Menier (1795–1853), chocolatier. Jean Carmet (1920–1994), actor.
Pécharmant is a wine appellation (Appellation d'origine contrôlée, AOC) for certain wines produced in the hills to the North-East of the market town of Bergerac, France. With a surface area of 400 hectares the communes of Bergerac, Creysse and Lembras produce nearly 15 000 hectolitres of the red wine. Pécharmant is the best known of the Dordogne region wines and has been classified AOC since 1936. The identification "Pécharmant" dates from 1946 and new AOC since March 13, 1992. First produced in the eleventh century, Pécharmant is the oldest collective of vineyards in the region of Bergerac.
Fronton is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. It lies 28 km north of Toulouse and within its metropolitan area. It is the centre of one of the oldest wine regions in France, producing the AOC Côtes du Frontonnais, based (50%) on the local négrette grape (known as Pinot Saint-George in the United States) plus some or other of Syrah, Côt, cabernet franc, Cabernet sauvignon, fer servadou, gamay, cinsaut and mauzac. *Communes of the Haute-Garonne department * INSEE
Under French wine laws, wines labelled gris de gris must only be made from lightly tinted grape varieties such as Cinsault, Gamay and Grenache gris. The style is a specialty of the Lorraine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) Côtes de Toul made from Gamay and in Morocco where the orange-pink wine is made from a blend of Cinsault, Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon. Another method of producing rosé is to severely decolorize a red wine using absorbent charcoal such as activated carbon.
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Saint-AmatorBlack Virgin of RocamadourOur Lady of Rocamadour
Rocamadour (Rocamador in Occitan) is a commune in the Lot department in southwestern France. It lies in the former province of Quercy. Rocamadour has attracted visitors for its setting in a gorge above a tributary of the River Dordogne, and especially for its historical monuments and its sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which for centuries has attracted pilgrims from many countries, among them kings, bishops, and nobles.
Blanquette de LimouxLimouxblanquette
Limoux wine is produced around the city of Limoux in Languedoc in southwestern France. Limoux wine is produced under four Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) designations: Blanquette de Limoux, Blanquette méthode ancestrale, Crémant de Limoux and Limoux, the first three of which are sparkling wines and dominate the production around Limoux. The main grape of the region is the Mauzac, locally known as Blanquette, followed by Chardonnay and Chenin blanc. In 2005, the Limoux AOC was created to include red wine production consisting of mostly Merlot. Wine historians believe that the world's first sparkling wine was produced in this region in 1531, by the monks at the abbey in Saint-Hilaire.
CubzaguaisLe Bouilh, or Saint André Bouilh Cubzac
In oenological terms, Cubzac is near the appellations d'origine contrôlée (AOC) côtes de Bourg and Fronsac, with its own wine castles. Cubzac's climate is oceanic, part of the Dfb group in the Köppen climate classification. Periodically, the river Dordogne causes flooding. Nowadays Cubzac is protected by a dam, but is still vulnerable to flooding during high tides and strong winds. Flooding occurred last in the 1999 Martin and 2010 Xynthia storms. The 1999 storm destroyed many trees from the Terrefort castle park. In 1708, a temperature extremum of -15 °C caused the river and vineyards to freeze.
Château Margaux, archaically La Mothe de Margaux, is a wine estate of Bordeaux wine, and was one of four wines to achieve Premier cru (first growth) status in the Bordeaux Classification of 1855. The estate's best wines are very expensive, with a standard-sized bottle of the Château Margaux grand vin retailing at an average price of $639. The estate is located in the commune of Margaux on the left bank of the Garonne estuary in the Médoc region, in the département of Gironde, and the wine is delimited to the AOC of Margaux.
CheninPineau Blanc de la Loire
Chenin blanc is an authorized planting in many Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) regions but is mostly planted in the Middle Loire AOCs of Anjou, Bonnezeaux, Crémant de Loire, Coteaux de l'Aubance, Coteaux du Layon, Jasnières, Montlouis, Quarts de Chaume, Saumur, Savennières, and Vouvray. The wines of the Coteaux du Layon, Bonnezeaux, and Quarts de Chaume are produced as sweet dessert wines, while Savennières produce predominately dry wines. The wines of Anjou, Crémant de Loire, Coteaux de l'Aubance, Jasnières, Montlouis, Saumur, and Vouvray have a wide range of sweetness levels, from dry to semi-sweet to sweet.
Emilianusjurisdiction of Saint-EmilionSaint-Émilion Grand Cru
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The red and rosé varieties, very popular locally, are made from the grapes Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot, and are aged for at least 14 months, including a minimum of 8 months in oak barrels. The finished drink is again between 16 and 22% ABV (usually 17%) and varies between a deep mahogany brown colour and a very dark pink. The annual production of pineau is around 14,000,000 litres. Around 80% of this is made in the Charente-Maritime département. Its production is controlled under the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée 'vin de liqueur' classification, though it is not a wine in the ordinary sense.
Nonetheless it is home to many vineyards whose blends of cabernet sauvignon, merlot and cabernet franc can age over a long period. *Communes of the Gironde department * INSEE * Listrac-Médoc on the site of Insee
Outside of Cahors, Malbec is still found in small amounts as a permitted variety in the AOCs of Bergerac, Buzet, Côtes de Duras, Côtes du Marmandais, Fronton and Pécharmant. It is also permitted in the Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) of Côtes du Brulhois. In the MIDI region of the Languedoc, it is permitted (but rarely grown) in the AOC regions of Cabardès and Côtes de Malepère. There is a small amount of Malbec grown in the middle Loire Valley and permitted in the AOCs of Anjou, Coteaux du Loir, Touraine and the sparkling wine AOC of Saumur where it is blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and Gamay.
Despite the variety of bries, the French government officially certifies only two types of cheese to be sold under that name: Brie de Meaux and Brie de Melun. Brie de Meaux is an unpasteurized brie, with an average weight of 2.8 kg for a diameter of 36 to 37 cm. Manufactured in the town of Meaux in the Brie region of northern France since the 8th century, it was originally known as the "King's Cheese", or, after the French Revolution, the "King of Cheeses," and was enjoyed by the peasantry and nobility alike. It was granted the protection of Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) status in 1980, and it is produced primarily in the eastern part of the Parisian basin.
These are for the breeding of sheep and goats, including the production of milk used for cheese making under Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for Banon cheese. The winemakers of Pierrevert also have an appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) ranking for their production. The Alpes de Hautes-Provence department is a region where 49.1% of the area is forested or 343,691 hectares, with an average rate of 39.4% for the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. The National Office of Forests (ONF) manages 86,000 hectares. The main species exploited are Scots pine, black pine, larch, pubescent oak (or white oak), and beech. Fir and spruce are less common.
The Sauvignon blanc grape traces its origins to western France in the Loire Valley and Bordeaux Regions. As noted above, it is not clear that the vine originated in western France. Ongoing research suggests it may have descended from Savagnin. It has also been associated with the Carmenere family. At some point in the 18th century, the vine paired with Cabernet Franc to parent the Cabernet Sauvignon vine in Bordeaux. In the 19th century, plantings in Bordeaux were often interspersed with Sauvignon vert (In Chile, known as Sauvignonasse) as well as the Sauvignon blanc pink mutation Sauvignon gris.
In France, there are eight appellations for sparkling wine which include the designation Crémant in their name: There is also a Crémant designation outside France: *Crémant de Luxembourg French appellation laws dictate that a Crémant must be harvested by hand with yields not exceeding a set amount for their AOC. The wines must also be aged for a minimum of one year. The Loire Valley is France's largest producer of sparkling wines outside of the Champagne region. The majority of these Crémant de Loire are produced around the city of Saumur and are a blend of the Chardonnay, Chenin blanc and Cabernet franc.
Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is an official language in 29 countries across multiple different continents, most of which are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), the community of 84 countries which share the official use or teaching of French.