Franco-American alliance

alliance with FranceAmerican allyan American ally
." - George Washington letter to General Heath, 2 May 1777. On 13 June 1777, the Marquis de Lafayette reached America and joined George Washington in the Continental Army as Major General. He participated to the Battle of Brandywine where he was wounded, and later served at the Battle of Rhode Island. Lafayette would later return to France during the war in order to advocate more support for the American cause. The alliance was formally negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, but it progressed slowly until after news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga arrived in France. On February 6, 1778 two treaties were signed.

Economic history of the United States

American economic historyeconomic historyAmerican
Honoré Blanc, who had served as inspector general of the three French arsenals, began producing muskets with interchangeable locks in France when Thomas Jefferson was minister to France. Jefferson wrote a letter to John Jay about these developments in 1785. The idea of armament standardization was advocated by Louis de Tousard, who fled the French Revolution and in 1795 joined the U.S. Corps of Artillerists and Engineers where he taught artillery and engineering he learned in France. At the suggestion of George Washington, Tousard had been working on an artillery manual, which he published as The American Artillerist's Companion (1809).

Francisco de Miranda

MirandaFrancisco MirandaFrancesco Miranda
Similarly to some others in the history of American Independence (George Washington, José de San Martín, Bernardo O'Higgins and Simón Bolívar), Miranda was a Freemason. In London he founded the lodge "The Great American Reunion". After fighting for Revolutionary France, Miranda finally made his home in London, where he had two children, Leandro (1803 – Paris, 1886) and Francisco (1806 – Cerinza, Colombia, 1831), with his housekeeper, Sarah Andrews, whom he later married. He had a friendship with the painter James Barry, the uncle of the surgeon James Barry; Miranda helped to keep the secret that the latter was assigned female at birth.

Religious affiliations of presidents of the United States

Religious affiliations of United States PresidentsfirstList of United States Presidential religious affiliations
Washington quotes on religion. Jefferson quotes on religion. George Washington as Deist.

Presidency of John Adams

John Adamspresidency2
Adams, who had served as vice president under George Washington, took office as president after winning the 1796 presidential election. The only member of the Federalist Party to ever serve as president, his presidency ended after a single term following his defeat in the 1800 presidential election. He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party. When Adams entered office, the ongoing war between France and Great Britain was causing great difficulties for American merchants on the high seas and arousing intense partisanship among contending political factions nationwide.

Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin

C.B.J.F. de Saint-MéminSaint-MéminSt. Memin
He fled France during the revolution, and worked as a portrait engraver in the United States in the early 19th century. He created portraits from life of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and others. He later served as museum director in Dijon. Born in France in 1770, to parents Benigne Charles Fevret and Victoire Marie de Motmans, Saint-Memin was educated at Ecole Militaire, Paris, France, graduating in 1785. In 1788, he served in the French Guard. During the French Revolution, Saint-Memin and his family travelled to Switzerland, and then in 1793 to New York City.

French Revolutionary Legion

Clark won the tacit support of Kentucky governor Isaac Shelby, who when pressed by the Washington administration to arrest Clark, responded with doubts that he had "any legal authority to restrain or to punish them." Thomas Jefferson officially protested the Legion's violation of U.S. neutrality, but suggested that the campaign would be in the best interests of the United States. Clark advertised in the Centinel of the Northwest Territory that anyone who served with the French Legion would be granted 1,000 to 3,000 acres of conquered lands, depending on the years of service; and all plunder would be divided.

Federalist Era

FederalFederal PeriodFederalist period
In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States. In July 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington. Maryland and Virginia donated land to the federal government that collectively formed a square measuring 10 mi on each side.


July 12 – French Revolution: The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed. This completes the destruction of the monastic orders, legislating out of existence all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships. July 14 – French Revolution: Citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation, in the Fête de la Fédération. July 16 – U.S. President George Washington signs the Residence Act into law, establishing a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia and the future site of the capital of the United States.


General George Washington is certified as President-elect, and John Adams is certified as Vice-President elect. April 7 – Selim III (1789–1807) succeeds Abdul Hamid I (1773–1789), as Ottoman Sultan. April 21 – John Adams takes office as the first Vice President of the United States, and begins presiding over the United States Senate. April 28 – Mutiny on the Bounty: Fletcher Christian leads the mutiny on the British Royal Navy ship against Captain William Bligh, in the Pacific Ocean. April 30 – George Washington is inaugurated at Federal Hall in New York City, beginning his term as the first President of the United States.

American civil religion

civil religionworship of the Constitution
The American Revolution was the main source of civil religion. It produced a Moses-like leader (George Washington), prophets (Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine), apostles (John Adams, Benjamin Franklin) and martyrs (Boston Massacre, Nathan Hale), as well as devils (Benedict Arnold), sacred places (Valley Forge), rituals (raising the Liberty Tree), flags (the Betsy Ross flag), sacred holidays (July 4th) and a holy scripture (The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution). The elitists who ran the Federalists were conscious of the need to boost voter identification with their party.

18th century

18th18th-centuryEighteenth Century
Washington is elected the first President of the United States; he serves until 1797. 1789–1799: French Revolution. 1789: The Liège Revolution. 1789: The Brabant Revolution. 1791: Suppression of the Liège Revolution by Austrian forces and re-establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. 1791–1795: George Vancouver explores the world during the Vancouver Expedition. 1791–1804: The Haitian Revolution. 1791 Mozart premieres The Magic Flute. 1792–1802: The French Revolutionary Wars lead into the Napoleonic Wars, which last from 1803–1815. 1792: The New York Stock & Exchange Board is founded. 1792: Polish–Russian War of 1792. 1793: Upper Canada bans slavery. 1793: The largest yellow fever epidemic

List of fictional United States presidencies of historical figures (P–R)

In the last category, he is approached by only George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. Of the four, he is the only one remembered in an entirely positive light as Washington and Jefferson were from Virginia and Lincoln lost the War of Succession. In the Confederacy, Roosevelt was remembered as a fearsome enemy, but the memory was wreathed in a healthy respect. Roosevelt's burial in Lee's onetime home offended many Confederates, especially in the Freedom Party.


enlightenment thinkerparti philosophiquephilosophie au triomphe de laquelle était consacrée l’''Encyclopédie
United States: John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Thomas Paine, George Washington. Gazette de Leyde. Political Spectrum. Lettres d'une Péruvienne by Françoise de Graffigny. Modernity. Rationalism. Universalism. Virtual tour of the French National Library.

Tadeusz Kościuszko

KościuszkoTadeusz KosciuszkoThaddeus Kosciuszko
Soon after Kościuszko had finished fortifying West Point, in August 1780, General George Washington granted Kościuszko's request to transfer to combat duty with the Southern Army. Kościuszko's West Point fortifications would be widely praised as innovative for the time. After traveling south through rural Virginia in October 1780, Kościuszko proceeded to North Carolina to report to his former commander General Gates. However, following Gates's disastrous defeat at Camden on August 16, 1780, the Continental Congress had selected Washington's choice, Major General Nathanael Greene, to replace the disgraced Gates as commander of the Southern Department.

Picpus Cemetery

Cimetière de PicpusPicpus
Arguably Picpus Cemetery's most famous tomb is that of the Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, the French aristocrat and general who was a close friend of many American Founding Fathers including George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson and fought in the Continental Army even before France officially entered the American Revolutionary War. He died in 1834 from natural causes at the age of 76, and an American flag always flies over his grave, courtesy of the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). He is buried next to his wife, Adrienne de La Fayette, whose sister, mother and grandmother were among those beheaded and thrown into the common pit.

History of conservatism in the United States

Thomas Jefferson has been a major hero to both left and right, although at different times for different reasons. In the New Deal era of the 1930s, Jefferson's memory became contested ground. Franklin D. Roosevelt greatly admired Jefferson and had the Jefferson Memorial built to honor his hero. Even more dramatic, however, was the reaction of the conservatives, as typified by the American Liberty League (comprising mostly conservative Democrats who resembled the Bourbon Democrats of the 1870–1900 era), and the Republican Party. Conservative Republicans abandoned their Hamiltonian views because they led to enlarged national government.

George Rogers Clark

General George Rogers ClarkColonel George Rogers ClarkGeorge R. Clark
Patrick Henry had been a leading land speculator before the Revolution in lands west of the Appalachians where Virginians had sought control from the Indians, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. In July 1778, Clark led the Illinois Regiment of the Virginia State Forces of about 175 men and crossed the Ohio River at Fort Massac and marched to Kaskaskia, capturing it on the night of July 4 without firing their weapons. The next day, Captain Joseph Bowman and his company captured Cahokia in a similar fashion without firing a shot. The garrison at Vincennes along the Wabash River surrendered to Clark in August.

1776 (film)

17761972 filmfilm version
The song "Cool Considerate Men" is anachronistic; the terms "right" and "left" in politics were not in use until the French Revolution of 1789. John Dickinson, who is portrayed as an antagonist here, was motivated mainly by his Quaker roots and his respect for the British Constitution, having lived in England for 3 years in the 1750s. He was no wealthier than some members of the pro-Independence faction, and freed his slaves in 1777. Thomas Jefferson wrote that "his name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution".

Second Amendment to the United States Constitution

Second Amendment2nd AmendmentSecond
In October, President George Washington and General Harry Lee marched on the 7,000 rebels who conceded without fighting. The episode provoked criticism of the citizen militia and inspired calls for a universal militia. Secretary of War Henry Knox and Vice President John Adams had lobbied Congress to establish federal armories to stock imported weapons and encourage domestic production. Congress did subsequently pass "[a]n act for the erecting and repairing of Arsenals and Magazines" on April 2, 1794, two months prior to the insurrection.

USS Constellation (1797)

USS ''ConstellationConstellationUSS Constellation
In response, Thomas Jefferson sent a squadron of frigates to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and pursue peace with the Barbary States. The first squadron, under the command of Richard Dale in, was instructed to escort merchant ships through the Mediterranean and negotiate with leaders of the Barbary States. Sailing with the squadron of Commodore Richard Morris, and later, with that of Commodores Samuel Barron and John Rodgers, Constellation served in the blockade of Tripoli in May 1802.

Post-presidency of George Washington

On September 25, 1797, Carr sent a letter to the General, under the pseudonym John Langhorne, to entice Washington to attack Republicans, that would be circulated in the Republican press. Washington did not respond and the plot was thwarted. Washington, however, took things further and blamed the plot on Jefferson. His relationship with fellow Virginian Jefferson disintegrated. In March 1798, Washington agreed with a negative assessment that Jefferson was "one of the most artful, intriguing, industrious and double-faced politicians in America." Washington went on the offensive. While visiting the Federal City, Washington publicly denounced the French Revolution.

Georges Washington de La Fayette

George Washington LafayetteGeorges WashingtonGeorges Washington Louis Gilbert du Motier
He was away from Paris during the revolution of July 1830, but he took an active part in the Campagne des banquets, which led up to the French Revolution of 1848. Georges accompanied his father on the latter's triumphant visit to America in 1824 and 1825. Throughout most of the long tour, he kept close company with his father's secretary, Auguste Levasseur. They observed a volunteer fire company turnout in New York City. He met George Washington Parke Custis at Arlington House. He visited Mount Vernon, and he met Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. In 1802, Georges Washington de Lafayette married Emilie Destutt de Tracy, daughter of the Comte de Tracy.

The Age of Reason

Age of Reason
Hailed only a few years earlier as a hero of the American Revolution, Paine was now lambasted in the press and called "the scavenger of faction," a "lilly-livered sinical [sic] rogue," a "loathsome reptile," a "demi-human archbeast," "an object of disgust, of abhorrence, of absolute loathing to every decent man except the President of the United States [Thomas Jefferson]."

Gouverneur Morris

Gouvernor MorrisGouveneur Morrisauthor
His diaries during that time have become a valuable chronicle of the French Revolution, capturing much of the turbulence and violence of that era, as well as documenting his affairs with women there. Unlike Thomas Jefferson, Morris was far more critical of the French Revolution and considerably more sympathetic to the deposed queen consort, Marie Antoinette. Commenting on her grandfather's sometimes Tory-minded outlook of the world, Anne Cary Morris said, "His creed was rather to form the government to suit the condition, character, manners, and habits of the people.