Presidency of John Adams

J. Adams presidencypresidency2
Adams, who had served as vice president under George Washington, took office as president after winning the 1796 presidential election. The only member of the Federalist Party to ever serve as president, his presidency ended after a single term following his defeat in the 1800 presidential election. He was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party. When Adams entered office, the ongoing war between France and Great Britain was causing great difficulties for American merchants on the high seas and arousing intense partisanship among contending political factions nationwide.

Timeline of Baltimore

Baltimore Town
Hanson takes refuge in home of partner Jacob Wagner on South Charles Street (between Pratt and Lombard Streets) and issues another editorial condemning the city watch (police), the town and the mayor and comparing to French Revolution radicalism on July 27.

Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin

C.B.J.F. de Saint-MéminSt. Memin
He fled France during the revolution, and worked as a portrait engraver in the United States in the early 19th century. He created portraits from life of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and others. He later served as museum director in Dijon. Born in France in 1770, to parents Benigne Charles Fevret and Victoire Marie de Motmans, Saint-Memin was educated at Ecole Militaire, Paris, France, graduating in 1785. In 1788, he served in the French Guard. During the French Revolution, Saint-Memin and his family travelled to Switzerland, and then in 1793 to New York City.


July 12 – French Revolution: The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed. This completes the destruction of the monastic orders, legislating out of existence all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships. July 14 – French Revolution: Citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation, in the Fête de la Fédération. July 16 – U.S. President George Washington signs the Residence Act into law, establishing a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia and the future site of the capital of the United States.


General George Washington is certified as President-elect, and John Adams is certified as Vice-President elect. April 7 – Selim III (1789–1807) succeeds Abdul Hamid I (1773–1789), as Ottoman Sultan. April 21 – John Adams takes office as the first Vice President of the United States, and begins presiding over the United States Senate. April 28 – Mutiny on the Bounty: Fletcher Christian leads the mutiny on the British Royal Navy ship against Captain William Bligh, in the Pacific Ocean. April 30 – George Washington is inaugurated at Federal Hall in New York City, beginning his term as the first President of the United States.

American civil religion

civil religion
The American Revolution was the main source of civil religion. It produced a Moses-like leader (George Washington), prophets (Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine), apostles (John Adams, Benjamin Franklin) and martyrs (Boston Massacre, Nathan Hale), as well as devils (Benedict Arnold), sacred places (Valley Forge), rituals (raising the Liberty Tree), flags (the Betsy Ross flag), sacred holidays (July 4th) and a holy scripture (The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution). The elitists who ran the Federalists were conscious of the need to boost voter identification with their party.

18th century

warrior and Muslim mystic, leads a coalition of Muslim Caucasian tribes from throughout the Caucasus in a holy war against Russian settlers and military bases in the Caucasus, as well as against local traditionalists, who followed the traditional customs and common law (Adat) rather than the theocratic Sharia. 1785–1795: The Northwest Indian War is fought between the United States and Native Americans. 1786-1787 : Mozart premieres The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni. 1787–1792: Russo-Turkish War. 1788–1790: Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790). 1789: George Washington is elected the first President of the United States; he serves until 1797. 1789–1799: French Revolution. 1789: The Liège Revolution

List of fictional United States presidencies of historical figures (P–R)

In the last category, he is approached by only George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. Of the four, he is the only one remembered in an entirely positive light as Washington and Jefferson were from Virginia and Lincoln lost the War of Succession. In the Confederacy, Roosevelt was remembered as a fearsome enemy, but the memory was wreathed in a healthy respect. Roosevelt's burial in Lee's onetime home offended many Confederates, especially in the Freedom Party.

Tadeusz Kościuszko

KościuszkoKosciuszkoThaddeus Kosciuszko
There he learned of the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, in which the British colonies in North America had revolted against the crown and begun their struggle for independence. The first American successes were well-publicized in France, and the French people and government openly supported the revolutionaries' cause. On learning of the American Revolution, Kościuszko, himself a man of revolutionary aspirations, sympathetic to the American cause and an advocate of human rights, sailed for America in June 1776 along with other foreign officers, likely with the help of a French supporter of the American revolutionaries, Pierre Beaumarchais.

History of conservatism in the United States

Thomas Jefferson has been a major hero to both left and right, although at different times for different reasons. In the New Deal era of the 1930s, Jefferson's memory became contested ground. Franklin D. Roosevelt greatly admired Jefferson and had the Jefferson Memorial built to honor his hero. Even more dramatic, however, was the reaction of the conservatives, as typified by the American Liberty League (comprising mostly conservative Democrats who resembled the Bourbon Democrats of the 1870–1900 era), and the Republican Party. Conservative Republicans abandoned their Hamiltonian views because they led to enlarged national government.

Picpus Cemetery

cimetière de PicpusPicpus
Arguably Picpus Cemetery's most famous tomb is that of the Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, the French aristocrat and general who was a close friend of many American Founding Fathers including George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson and fought in the Continental Army even before France officially entered the American Revolutionary War. He died in 1834 from natural causes at the age of 76, and an American flag always flies over his grave, courtesy of the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). He is buried next to his wife, Adrienne de La Fayette, whose sister, mother and grandmother were among those beheaded and thrown into the common pit.

George Rogers Clark

General George Rogers ClarkColonel George Rogers ClarkGeorge R. Clark
Patrick Henry had been a leading land speculator before the Revolution in lands west of the Appalachians where Virginians had sought control from the Indians, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. In July 1778, Clark led the Illinois Regiment of the Virginia State Forces of about 175 men and crossed the Ohio River at Fort Massac and marched to Kaskaskia, capturing it on the night of July 4 without firing their weapons. The next day, Captain Joseph Bowman and his company captured Cahokia in a similar fashion without firing a shot. The garrison at Vincennes along the Wabash River surrendered to Clark in August.

USS Constellation (1797)

USS ''ConstellationConstellationUSS Constellation
In response, Thomas Jefferson sent a squadron of frigates to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and pursue peace with the Barbary States. The first squadron, under the command of Richard Dale in, was instructed to escort merchant ships through the Mediterranean and negotiate with leaders of the Barbary States. Sailing with the squadron of Commodore Richard Morris, and later, with that of Commodores Samuel Barron and John Rodgers, Constellation served in the blockade of Tripoli in May 1802.

Second Amendment to the United States Constitution

Second Amendment2nd AmendmentSecond
In October, President George Washington and General Harry Lee marched on the 7,000 rebels who conceded without fighting. The episode provoked criticism of the citizen militia and inspired calls for a universal militia. Secretary of War Henry Knox and Vice-President John Adams had lobbied Congress to establish federal armories to stock imported weapons and encourage domestic production. Congress did subsequently pass "[a]n act for the erecting and repairing of Arsenals and Magazines" on April 2, 1794, two months prior to the insurrection.

1776 (film)

17761972 filmfilm version
The song "Cool Considerate Men" is anachronistic; the terms "right" and "left" in politics were not in use until the French Revolution of 1789. John Dickinson, who is portrayed as an antagonist here, was motivated mainly by his Quaker roots and his respect for the British Constitution, having lived in England for 3 years in the 1750s. He was no wealthier than some members of the pro-Independence faction, and freed his slaves in 1777. Thomas Jefferson wrote that "his name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution".

Georges Washington de La Fayette

Georges WashingtonGeorge Washington de LafayetteGeorges
He was away from Paris during the revolution of July 1830, but he took an active part in the Campagne des banquets, which led up to the French Revolution of 1848. Georges accompanied his father on the latter's triumphant visit to America in 1824 and 1825. Throughout most of the long tour, he kept close company with his father's secretary, Auguste Levasseur. They observed a volunteer fire company turnout in New York City. He met George Washington Parke Custis at Arlington House. He visited Mount Vernon, and he met Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. In 1802, Georges Washington de Lafayette married Emilie Destutt de Tracy, daughter of the Comte de Tracy.

Isaac Shelby

Col. Isaac ShelbyShelby
They admired the republican government that had arisen from the French Revolution, and they had not forgotten France's aid during the Revolutionary War. When French Ambassador Edmond-Charles Genêt, popularly known as Citizen Genêt, arrived in the United States in April 1793, George Rogers Clark was already considering an expedition to capture Spanish lands in the west. Genêt's agent, André Michaux, was dispatched to Kentucky to assess the support of Kentuckians toward Clark's expedition. When he gained an audience with Governor Shelby, he did so with letters of introduction from Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Kentucky Senator John Brown.

The Age of Reason

Age of Reason
Hailed only a few years earlier as a hero of the American Revolution, Paine was now lambasted in the press and called "the scavenger of faction", a "lilly-livered sinical [sic] rogue", a "loathsome reptile", a "demi-human archbeast", "an object of disgust, of abhorrence, of absolute loathing to every decent man except the President of the United States [Thomas Jefferson]".

Planter class

planterplantersplantation owner
President Thomas Jefferson, was built in a style unique to Jefferson. This has been emulated in the construction of many colleges, such as The Rotunda of the University of Virginia, as well as churches, court houses, concert halls, and military schools.

Gouverneur Morris

His diaries during that time have become a valuable chronicle of the French Revolution, capturing much of the turbulence and violence of that era, as well as documenting his affairs with women there. Unlike Thomas Jefferson, Morris was far more critical of the French Revolution and considerably more sympathetic to the deposed queen consort, Marie Antoinette. Commenting on her grandfather's sometimes Tory-minded outlook of the world, Anne Cary Morris said, "His creed was rather to form the government to suit the condition, character, manners, and habits of the people.

James Cole Mountflorence

In 1791, Mountflorence briefly advised United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson regarding a land dispute between Virginia and Tennessee (then a federal territory known as the Territory South of the River Ohio). In January 1792, Mountflorence sailed to Europe on business for the Blounts. In Paris, Mountflorence quickly befriended influential Americans, such as American ambassador Gouverneur Morris. He also sent an intriguing proposal to the French minister of foreign affairs, Pierre Lebrun, asking to lead a covert mission against Spanish Louisiana.

1776 (musical)

17761776'' (musical)1969 Broadway musical of the same name
The song "Cool Considerate Men" is anachronistic because the terms "right" and "left" in politics were not in use until the French Revolution of 1789. John Dickinson, who is portrayed as an antagonist here, was motivated mainly by his Quaker roots and his respect for the British Constitution, having lived in England for 3 years in the 1750s. He was no wealthier than some members of the pro-Independence faction, and freed his slaves in 1777. Thomas Jefferson wrote that "his name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution". The musical also deviates from history in its portrayal of attitudes about slavery.

History of Europe

European historyModern European historyEurope
The American Revolution (1775–1783) was the first successful revolt of a colony against a European power. It proclaimed, in the words of Thomas Jefferson, that "all men are created equal," a position based on the principles of the Enlightenment. It rejected aristocracy and established a republican form of government under George Washington that attracted worldwide attention. The French Revolution (1789–1804) was a product of the same democratic forces in the Atlantic World and had an even greater impact.

History of Western civilization

Western historyWestern civilizationhistory and formation of Western society
George Washington led the new Continental Army against the British forces, who had many successes early in this American Revolution. After years of fighting, the colonists formed an alliance with France and defeated the British at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781. The treaty ending the war granted independence to the colonies, which became The United States of America. The other major Western revolution at the turn of the 19th century was the French Revolution. In 1789 France faced an economical crisis.