Historians have portrayed the Revolution as the main source of the non-denominational "American civil religion" that has shaped patriotism, and the memory and meaning of the nation's birth ever since. Key events and people were viewed as icons of fundamental virtues. Thus the Revolution produced a Moses-like leader (George Washington), prophets (Thomas Jefferson, Tom Paine), disciples (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison) and martyrs (Boston Massacre, Nathan Hale), as well as devils (Benedict Arnold).
United Statesearly Americaindependence
During the fight against King Washington's tyranny, Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the New York rebellion. When Ratonhnhaké:ton crashed the Aquila into another ship off the shore of New York City, Washington traveled to the docks to investigate the disturbance. Jefferson seized this opportunity and infiltrated Washington's fortress. He was later quickly overwhelmed and required Ratonhnhaké:ton's assistance in order to retreat. Shaun Hasting claims Jefferson advocated the castration of homosexuals; Jefferson was actually liberalizing the law in Virginia, which previously punished anyone convicted of sodomy with death.
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President George Washington on April 22, 1793 that declared the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war. News that Revolutionary France had declared war on Great Britain in February 1793, and with this declaration that France, by the country's own volition, was now at war with all of Europe, did not reach America until the first half of April of that year. President Washington was at Mount Vernon attending the funeral of a nephew when he was given the news. He hurried back to Pennsylvania and summoned a cabinet meeting on April 19.
USS Washington (1776) Galley. USS George Washington (1798) Frigate. USS (1814) Warship. USS George Washington (SSBN-598) (1959) Nuclear Ballistic Missile Submarine. USS George Washington (CVN-73) (1992) Nuclear Aircraft Carrier Active Service 2018.
In Harry Turtledove's Southern Victory alternate history series, George Washington served as the first President from April 30, 1789, to March 4, 1797, as he was in real life. After the Confederate States of America achieved its independence in the War of Secession (1861–1862), U.S. historians continued to so regard Washington, alongside Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt as the most memorable of presidents, though only Roosevelt was viewed in an entirely positive light. As a young man, Roosevelt admired Washington as a great leader. However, the general public did not always remembered kindly.
Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (Oxford U.P., 1975) * "Jefferson's Ancestry" Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia
An American Army, organized by Congress and under the control of general George Washington, forced the British out of Boston. After securing unanimous support from the legislatures of all 13 states, Congress voted for independence on July 2. The Declaration of Independence, drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson, was unanimously adopted by the Congress on July 4. Historian George Billias says: :Independence amounted to a new status of interdependence: the United States was now a sovereign nation entitled to the privileges and responsibilities that came with that status.
George Washington was a vigorous promoter of tolerance for all religious denominations as commander of the army (1775-1783) where he suppressed anti-Catholic celebrations in the Army and appealed to French Catholics in Canada to join the American Revolution; a few hundred did join. Likewise he guaranteed a high degree of freedom of religion as president (1789-1797), when he often attended services of different denominations. The military alliance with Catholic France in 1778 changed attitudes radically in Boston. Local leaders enthusiastically welcomed French naval and military officers, realizing the alliance was critical to winning independence.
Charles III was credited with saving the situation by his witty remark to George Washington, who went on to become one of Britain's greatest generals, and his colleagues: "Gentlemen, we have one thing in common: my family have no more cause to like the House of Commons than you have.". Henry IX of England and I of Scotland: James III's second son. As Duke of York, his patronage helped ensure the flourishing of literature and art in Britain and this policy continued after he came to the throne as Henry IX. After the French Revolution drove the deposed Electors of Hanover into exile in 1789, he gave them a "generous pension.". James IV of England and IX of Scotland.
Thomas Jefferson. George Washington. The Ruins of Religion. Rousseau. The Cult of Sensibility. Wordsworth. Constable. Turner. The Sky. Impressionism. An Escape from Reason. The French Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte. Beethoven. Byron. Turner and Gericault. Delacroix. Rodin. The Abolition of Slavery. The Industrial Revolution. Humanitarianism. Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Courbet and Millet. Tolstoy. Our Urge to Destruction. God-given Genius. Ways of Seeing. The Ascent of Man. The Shock of the New. Encyclopedia of Television. British Film Institute Screen Online.
The American influence was a major factor for Chile's liberal revolutionary intelligentsia, and the Aurora republished speeches by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other American revolutionaries, who became heroes in the Chilean press. On April 1, 1813, the paper was transformed into El Monitor Araucano. Official site of the Aurora de Chile. Full text of the Aurora de Chile.
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Paine later quipped that "the French revolution, and Mr Burke's attacks upon it, drew me off any pontifical works".
According to a Rasmussen poll conducted in 2007, six Presidents—George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy—were rated favorably by at least 80% of Americans. A Gallup poll about presidential greatness taken February 2–5, 2011, asked 1,015 adults in the United States the following question: "Who do you regard as the greatest United States president?". In addition, "Other" received 1%, "None" received 1% and "No opinion" received 5%. These polls evaluate recent Presidents only.
William & MaryCollege of William and MaryWilliam and Mary
William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college.
French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
Led by George Washington, they ambushed a small French force at Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754 killing ten, including commander Jumonville. The French retaliated by attacking Washington's army at Fort Necessity on 3 July 1754 and forced Washington to surrender. These were the first engagements of what would become the worldwide Seven Years' War. News of this arrived in Europe, where Britain and France unsuccessfully attempted to negotiate a solution. The two nations eventually dispatched regular troops to North America to enforce their claims.
On July 4, 1775, revolutionary Georgians held a Provincial Congress to decide how to respond to the American Revolution, and that congress decided on July 8 to send delegates to the Continental Congress. They arrived on September 13. The First Continental Congress had sent entreaties to King George III to stop the Coercive Acts; they had also created the Continental Association to establish a coordinated protest of those acts, putting a boycott on British goods.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792. The Treaty was designed by Alexander Hamilton and supported by President George Washington. It angered France and bitterly divided Americans.
Sedition ActSedition Act of 1798Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison also secretly drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions denouncing the federal legislation, though many other state legislatures strongly opposed these resolutions. Though the resolutions followed Madison's "interposition" approach, Jefferson advocated nullification and at one point drafted a threat for Kentucky to secede. Jefferson's biographer Dumas Malone argued that this might have gotten Jefferson impeached for treason, had his actions become known at the time. In writing the Kentucky Resolutions, Jefferson warned that, "unless arrested at the threshold," the Alien and Sedition Acts would "necessarily drive these states into revolution and blood."