Jay Treaty

Jay's TreatyJay Treaty of 1794treaty
At the national level American politics was divided between the factions of Jefferson and Madison, which favored the French, and the Federalists led by Hamilton, who saw Britain as a natural ally and thus sought to normalize relations with Britain, especially in the area of trade. Washington sided with Hamilton. Hamilton devised a framework for negotiations, and President George Washington sent Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay to London to negotiate a comprehensive treaty. The American government had several outstanding issues: Both sides achieved many objectives.

Patrick Henry

American patriotPatrick Henry, Junrthat revolutionary patriot
The "real" Henry was branded a traitor and apostate on multiple occasions by his many enemies, including Thomas Jefferson. His vision of the American republic was not a matter of sentiment and grand words and gestures; it was grounded in virtue, religious faith, and responsive local government. Standing against his fellow Founders James Madison and Thomas Jefferson at almost every turn in the 1780s and '90s, and steadfastly opposing the adoption of the Constitution, he was the boldest of patriots." * * William Wirt Henry, ed.

Robert R. Livingston (chancellor)

Robert R. LivingstonRobert LivingstonChancellor Livingston
He was a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Roger Sherman. Livingston administered the Oath of Office to George Washington when he assumed the presidency in 1789. Livingston was the eldest son of Judge Robert Livingston (1718–1775) and Margaret ( Beekman) Livingston, uniting two wealthy Hudson River valley families. He had nine brothers and sisters, all of whom wed and made their homes on the Hudson River near the family seat at Clermont Manor. Among his siblings was his younger brother, Edward Livingston (1764-1836), who also served as U.S.

George Clinton (vice president)

George ClintonGovernor George ClintonClinton
Clinton was selected as President Jefferson's running mate in the 1804 presidential election, replacing Aaron Burr. Vice President Burr had fallen out with the Jefferson administration early in his tenure, and President Jefferson often consulted with Clinton rather than Burr regarding New York appointments. Clinton was selected to replace Burr in 1804 due to his long public service and his popularity in the electorally important state of New York. He was also favored by Jefferson because, at age 69 in 1808, Jefferson anticipated that Clinton would be too old to launch a presidential bid against Jefferson's preferred successor, Secretary of State James Madison.


Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union. Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was 26; she was a 32-year-old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution. Five days after Joséphine's first husband's death, the Reign of Terror initiator Maximilien de Robespierre was executed, and, with the help of high-placed friends, Joséphine was freed. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as "Rose", a name which he disliked.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Declaration of the Rights of ManDeclaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
"Active Citizen/Passive Citizen", Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution (accessed 30 October 2011). Gérard Conac, Marc Debene, Gérard Teboul, eds, La Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789; histoire, analyse et commentaires, Economica, Paris, 1993, ISBN: 978-2-7178-2483-4. McLean, Iain. "Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and the Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen" in The Future of Liberal Democracy: Thomas Jefferson and the Contemporary World (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) online.

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Secretary of the TreasuryTreasury SecretaryU.S. Secretary of the Treasury
The secretary of the treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury which is concerned with all financial and monetary matters relating to the federal government, and, until 2003, also included several major federal law enforcement agencies. This position in the federal government of the United States is analogous to the minister of finance in many other countries. The secretary of the treasury is a member of the president's Cabinet, and is nominated by the president of the United States. Nominees for secretary of the treasury undergo a confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Finance before being voted on by the United States Senate.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Charles C. PinckneyCharles PinckneyPinckney
Seeing little hope of defeating popular incumbent President Thomas Jefferson, the Federalists chose Pinckney as their presidential nominee for the 1804 election. Neither Pinckney nor the party pursued an active campaign, and Jefferson won in a landslide. The Federalists nominated Pinckney again in 1808, in the hope that Pinckney's military experience and Jefferson's economic policies would give the party a chance of winning. Though the 1808 presidential election was closer than the 1804 election had been, Democratic-Republican nominee James Madison nonetheless prevailed.

John Marshall

Chief Justice MarshallMarshallChief Justice John Marshall
The Life of George Washington, Vol. 1 (of 5) Commander in Chief of the American Forces During the War which Established the Independence of his Country and First President of the United States (English). The Life of George Washington, Vol. 2 (of 5). The Life of George Washington, Vol. 3 (of 5). The Life of George Washington, Vol. 4 (of 5). The Life of George Washington, Vol. 5 (of 5). The John Marshall Foundation, Richmond, Virginia. John Marshall Papers, 1755–1835 at The College of William & Mary. National Park Service, "The Great Chief Justice" at Home, Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan. Research Collections: Marshall, John at the Federal Judicial Center.

Compromise of 1790

bargaincompromisesecret conversations
Good credit allowed Jefferson's Treasury Secretary, Albert Gallatin, to borrow in Europe to finance the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, as well as to borrow to finance the War of 1812. The compromise is dramatized in the musical Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda in the song "The Room Where It Happens", which tells the story from the perspective of Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton – United States Secretary of the Treasury. James Madison – Congressman. Thomas Jefferson – United States Secretary of State. George Washington – President of the United States. First Report on the Public Credit. Residence Act. Brock, W.R. 1957.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
The resulting paralysis embarrassed and frustrated many American nationalists, including George Washington. Many of the most prominent national leaders, such as Washington, John Adams, John Hancock, and Benjamin Franklin, retired from public life, served as foreign delegates, or held office in state governments; and for the general public, local government and self-rule seemed quite satisfactory. This served to exacerbate Congress's impotence. Inherent weaknesses in the confederation's frame of government also frustrated the ability of the government to conduct foreign policy.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington; D.C.; or the district, is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

James Wilkinson

General James WilkinsonGeneral WilkinsonAnn Biddle
In October 1806 Wilkinson sent to President Jefferson a letter in which he painted Burr's actions in the worst possible light, while portraying himself as innocent of any involvement. Jefferson ordered Burr's arrest, and Burr was apprehended near Natchez, Mississippi. Wilkinson testified at Burr's trial, and the documents presented as evidence included the "cipher letter", which Wilkinson had given the prosecution. However the letter was clearly altered to minimize Wilkinson's culpability. This forgery, coupled with Wilkinson's obviously self-serving testimony, had the effect of making Burr seem to be the victim of an overzealous government.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
My Fellow Americans: The Most Important Speeches of America's presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush. Sourcebooks Trade. 2003.

Edmund Randolph

Edmund Jennings RandolphMr. RandolphEdmund J. Randolph
He was the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General during George Washington's presidency. Randolph was born on August 10, 1753 to the influential Randolph family in Williamsburg in the Colony of Virginia. He was educated at the College of William and Mary. After graduation he began reading law with his father John Randolph and uncle, Peyton Randolph. In 1775, with the start of the American Revolution, Randolph's father remained a Loyalist and returned to Britain; Edmund Randolph remained in America where he joined the Continental Army as an aide-de-camp to General George Washington.

First Bank of the United States

Bank of the United Statesnational bankFirst
The decision would ultimately fall on President George Washington, following his deliberate investigation of the cabinet members' opinions. George Washington initially declared that he was hesitant to sign the "bank bill" into law. Washington asked for the written advice and supporting reasons from all his cabinet members—most particularly from Hamilton. Attorney General Edmund Randolph from Virginia felt that the bill was unconstitutional. Jefferson, also from Virginia, agreed that Hamilton's proposal was against both the spirit and letter of the Constitution.


Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence. When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack. In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown.


In 2013 the first atheist monument on American government property was unveiled at the Bradford County Courthouse in Florida: a 1,500-pound granite bench and plinth inscribed with quotes by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Madalyn Murray O'Hair. "New Atheism" is the name that has been given to a movement among some early-21st-century atheist writers who have advocated the view that "religion should not simply be tolerated but should be countered, criticized, and exposed by rational argument wherever its influence arises." The movement is commonly associated with Sam Harris, Daniel C. Dennett, Richard Dawkins, Victor J.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Benjamin Franklin is a prominent figure in American history comparable to Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln, and as such he has been honored on U.S. postage stamps many times. The image of Franklin, the first Postmaster General of the United States, occurs on the face of U.S. postage more than any other notable American save that of George Washington. Franklin appeared on the first U.S. postage stamp (displayed above) issued in 1847. From 1908 through 1923, the U.S.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
Under the military leadership of General George Washington, and, with economic and military assistance from France, the Dutch Republic, and Spain, the United States held off successive British invasions. The Americans captured two main British armies in 1777 and 1781. After that King George III lost control of Parliament and was unable to continue the war. It ended with the Treaty of Paris by which Great Britain relinquished the Thirteen Colonies and recognized the United States. The war was expensive but the British financed it successfully.

List of delegates to the Continental Congress

Delegate to the Continental CongressDelegateContinental Congress Delegate
The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from several British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution era, who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen colonies that ultimately became the United States of America. The term most specifically refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–81. More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–89, thus covering the entire period the Continental Congress served as the chief legislative and executive body of the U.S. government.

Martha Washington

MarthaMartha Dandridge CustisMartha Custis Washington
By tradition, Washington was described as spending her days at the Revolutionary War winter encampments visiting with the common soldiers in their huts. But Nancy Loane, author of Following the Drum: Women at the Valley Forge Encampment, says there is no evidence that Washington visited with the common soldiers, noting that Martha Washington was fashionably dressed, assertive, and a woman of great wealth and independent means. Mrs. Washington joined her husband during the Revolution for all the Continental Army's winter encampments. Before the revolution began, she had kept close to home; during it, she traveled thousands of miles to be with her husband.

Reign of Terror

the TerrorTerrorFrench Terror
Accessed 23 October 2018. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/273/. Baker, Keith M. François Furet, and Colin Lucas, eds. (1987) The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 4, The Terror (London: Pergamon Press, 1987). Gough, Hugh. The terror in the French revolution (London: Macmillan, 1998). Kennedy, Emmet. A Cultural History of the French Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991. Linton, Marisa, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2013). McLetchie, Scott. "Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror." Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror.

French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
The French Revolution Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964). Lynn, John A. The Bayonets of the Republic: Motivation And Tactics In The Army Of Revolutionary France, 1791–94 (1984). Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon (2014), a major biography. Rodger, A.B. The War of the Second Coalition: 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary (1964). Ross, Steven T. Quest for Victory; French Military Strategy, 1792–1799 (1973). Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe (1969). Rothenberg, Gunther E. "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon," Journal of Interdisciplinary History (1988) 18#4 pp. 771–93 in JSTOR. Schroeder, Paul W.

Ohio River

OhioOhio ValleyList of cities and towns along the Ohio River
In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation and trading route. Its waters connected communities.