Louisiana Purchase

LouisianaLouisiana TerritorySale of Louisiana
Acquisition of Louisiana was a long-term goal of President Thomas Jefferson, who was especially eager to gain control of the crucial Mississippi River port of New Orleans. Jefferson tasked James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston with purchasing New Orleans. Negotiating with French Treasury Minister François Barbé-Marbois (who was acting on behalf of Napoleon), the American representatives quickly agreed to purchase the entire territory of Louisiana after it was offered. Overcoming the opposition of the Federalist Party, Jefferson and Secretary of State James Madison convinced Congress to ratify and fund the Louisiana Purchase.

Battles of Saratoga

Battle of SaratogaSaratogaBattle of Bemis Heights
There are a number of ships named after the battles including USS Saratoga (1842), USS Saratoga (CV-3), and USS Saratoga (CV-60) In an episode of The Brady Bunch titled "Everyone Can't be George Washington", which originally aired on December 22, 1972, Peter (Christopher Knight) is assigned the part of Benedict Arnold in a school play about the American Revolution. His teacher Miss Bailey incorrectly states that Benedict Arnold was wounded at the Battle of Saratoga when there was, in fact no single Battle of Saratoga. She also fails to mention that Arnold was wounded during the assault on Quebec City in the same leg. * * * List of American Revolutionary War battles.

Intolerable Acts

Coercive Actsactsamong other actions
George Washington called this the "Murder Act" because he believed that it allowed British officials to harass Americans and then escape justice. Many colonists believed the act was unnecessary because British soldiers had been given a fair trial following the Boston Massacre in 1770. The Quartering Act applied to all of the colonies, and sought to create a more effective method of housing British troops in America. In a previous act, the colonies had been required to provide housing for soldiers, but colonial legislatures had been uncooperative in doing so. The new Quartering Act allowed a governor to house soldiers in other buildings if suitable quarters were not provided.

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

Lord CornwallisCornwallisCharles Cornwallis
With the arrival of the French fleet under the Comte de Grasse and General Washington's combined French-American army, Cornwallis found himself cut off. After the Royal Navy fleet under Admiral Thomas Graves was defeated by the French at the Battle of the Chesapeake, and the French siege train arrived from Newport, Rhode Island, his position became untenable. He surrendered after about three weeks' siege to General Washington and the French commander, the Comte de Rochambeau, on 19 October 1781. Cornwallis, apparently not wanting to face Washington, claimed to be ill on the day of the surrender, and sent Brigadier General Charles O'Hara in his place to surrender his sword formally.


François-Marie ArouetVoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
Regarding Voltaire as a forerunner of the French Revolution, the National Assembly of France had his remains brought back to Paris, and enshrined in the Panthéon on 11 July 1791. It is estimated that a million people attended the procession, which stretched throughout Paris. There was an elaborate ceremony, complete with an orchestra, and the music included a piece that André Grétry had composed especially for the event, which included a part for the "tuba curva" (an instrument that originated in Roman times as the cornu but had recently been revived under a new name).

Louisiana Territory

Territory of LouisianaLouisianaterritorial
James Wilkinson was appointed by President Thomas Jefferson as the first territorial governor. Wilkinson concurrently held the position of Senior Officer of the United States Army. Meriwether Lewis (1807–1809) served as the 2nd and William Clark (1813–1820) served as the 4th, and final, territorial governor. On June 4, 1812, the Twelfth U.S. Congress enacted legislation which renamed Louisiana Territory as Missouri Territory, in order to avoid confusion with the recently admitted State of Louisiana. * Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase from the Library of Congress Historic regions of the United States. Territorial evolution of the United States.

Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state
In English, the exact term is an offshoot of the phrase, "wall of separation between church and state", as written in Thomas Jefferson's letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802.


The anti-clericalism during the French Revolution initially began with attacks on church corruption and the wealth of the higher clergy, an action with which even many Christians could identify, since the Roman Catholic church held a dominant role in pre-revolutionary France. During a two-year period known as the Reign of Terror, the episodes of anti-clericalism grew more violent than any in modern European history. The new revolutionary authorities suppressed the church; abolished the Catholic monarchy; nationalized church property; exiled 30,000 priests and killed hundreds more. Many churches were converted into "temples of reason," in which services were held.

House of Burgesses

Virginia House of BurgessesBurgessHouse of Burgesses of Virginia
From 1769 -1775 Thomas Jefferson represented Albemarle County as a delegate in the Virginia House of Burgesses. He pursued reforms to slavery and introduced legislation allowing masters to take control over the emancipation of slaves in 1769, taking discretion away from the royal Governor and General Court. Jefferson persuaded his cousin Richard Bland to spearhead the legislation's passage, but reaction was strongly negative.

Kingdom of Naples

NaplesNeapolitanKing of Naples
Being a member of the House of Bourbon, Ferdinand IV was a natural opponent of the French Revolution and Napoleon. On 29 November 1798, he effectively started the War of the Second Coalition by briefly occupying Rome, but was expelled from it by French Revolutionary forces within the year and safely returned home. Soon afterwards, on 23 December 1798, Ferdinand fled Naples to Palermo, Sicily as a French army closed in. In January 1799 the French armies installed a Parthenopaean Republic, but this proved short-lived, and a peasant counter-revolution inspired by the clergy allowed Ferdinand to return to his capital.

John Jay

Chief Justice John JayJayfirst Chief Justice of the United States
In September 1789, Jay declined George Washington's offer of the position of Secretary of State (which was technically a new position but would have continued Jay's service as Secretary of Foreign Affairs). Washington responded by offering him the new title, which Washington stated "must be regarded as the keystone of our political fabric," as Chief Justice of the United States, which Jay accepted. Washington officially nominated Jay on September 24, 1789, the same day he signed the Judiciary Act of 1789 (which created the position of Chief Justice) into law. Jay was unanimously confirmed by the US Senate on September 26, 1789; Washington signed and sealed Jay's commission the same day.

Haitian Revolution

revolutionslave revoltHaiti
The neighboring revolution brought the slavery question to the forefront of US politics, and the resulting intensification of racial divides and sectional politics ended the idealism of the Revolutionary period. The American President Thomas Jefferson—who was a slaveholder himself—refused to establish diplomatic relations with Haiti (the United States did not recognize Haiti until 1862) and imposed an economic embargo on trade with Haiti that also lasted until 1862 in an attempt to ensure the economic failure of the new republic as Jefferson wanted Haiti to fail, regarding a successful slave revolt in the West Indies as a dangerous example for American slaves.

University of Virginia

VirginiaUniversity of Virginia at CharlottesvilleThe University of Virginia
Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn – a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan.

Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr, Jr.Aaron Burr Jr.Burr, Aaron
John was later appointed by Thomas Jefferson to a post in the Territory of Orleans as the first judge of the Louisiana Supreme Court. Burr served as a guardian to Nathalie de Lage de Volude (1782–1841) from 1794 to 1801, during Theodosia's childhood. The young daughter of a French marquis, Nathalie had been taken to New York for safety during the French Revolution by her governess Caroline de Senat. Burr opened his home to them, allowing Madame Senat to tutor private students there along with his daughter, and Nathalie became a companion and close friend to Theodosia.

Causes of the French Revolution

verge of bankruptcy and revolutionfiscal and agricultural crisisFrance's fiscal crisis
Liberty or Death: The French Revolution (2016).

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia and Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia Resolutions
George Washington was so appalled by them that he told Patrick Henry that if "systematically and pertinaciously pursued", they would "dissolve the union or produce coercion". The influence of Jefferson's doctrine of states' rights reverberated right up to the Civil War and beyond.

Randolph family of Virginia

Randolph familyRandolphsRandolph
Edmund Randolph, grandson of Sir John Randolph, was an aid-de-camp to George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. He was afterward seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. Thomas Jefferson, great-grandson of William Randolph, was a Virginia Burgess for Albemarle County and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. At the beginning of the American Revolution he was a delegate to the Continental Congress for Virginia, also serving as a wartime Governor of Virginia. Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat to Paris and became the United States Minister to France.

American Philosophical Society

Transactions of the American Philosophical SocietyThe American Philosophical SocietyAmerican Philosophical Society Museum
Early members included George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James McHenry, Thomas Paine, David Rittenhouse, Nicholas Biddle, Owen Biddle, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, Michael Hillegas, John Marshall, and John Andrews. The society also recruited members from other countries, including Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and Princess Dashkova. By 1746 the society had lapsed into inactivity.

George Wythe

WytheWythe, George
When war seemed inevitable, Wythe was elected as Virginia's delegate to replace George Washington, who took command of the continental forces. George and Elizabeth Wythe moved to Philadelphia by September, and were inoculated against smallpox, as were fellow delegate Francis Lightfoot Lee and his lady and others. By October, Thomas Jefferson had rejoined the Congress to work with his former teacher and the other delegates, although personal tragedy forced him to leave for five months in the winter and spring. Wythe accepted many assignments relating to military, currency and other matters.

Richmond, Virginia

RichmondRichmond, VARichmond City
John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack. The latter motive proved to be in vain, and in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city.

Gordonsville, Virginia

GordonsvilleGordonsville, VA
President Thomas Jefferson described the tavern in 1802 as a "good house" when recommending the best route south to Charlottesville from the recently established national capital on the Potomac. The building was known as Gordon's Tavern, Gordon Tavern and later as Gordon Inn. The commemorative marker at the site lists prominent Americans as guests at the tavern: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, James & Philip Pendleton Barbour, James Waddel, William Wirt and Henry Clay. Another famous visitor was Major General the Marquis de Lafayette. Gordon was named the first postmaster of the area in 1813, and the area became known as Gordonsville.

George Tucker (politician)

George TuckerProf. George Tucker
Free public domain ebook: The life of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States: with parts of his correspondence never before published. The Valley of Shenandoah; or, Memoirs of the Graysons ... Digital images of the 1824 edition. Free public domain ebook: The life of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States: with parts of his correspondence never before published. The Valley of Shenandoah; or, Memoirs of the Graysons ... Digital images of the 1824 edition.

Alexandria, Virginia

AlexandriaAlexandria, VAAlexandria City
Other major routes include north–south U.S. 1 (Patrick and Henry Streets after Patrick Henry, Jefferson Davis Highway and Richmond Highway), Washington St/George Washington Memorial Parkway, Russell Rd, Quaker Lane, Van Dorn St and Beauregard St, and east–west Duke Street (State Route 236), Braddock Rd and Janneys Lane/Seminary Rd. Alexandria is adjacent to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Arlington County. Alexandria is also near to Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia. Alexandria Union Station, the city's historic train station, has Amtrak intercity services and the Virginia Railway Express regional rail service.


After the American Revolution, independent U.S. Grand Lodges developed within each state. Some thought was briefly given to organising an overarching "Grand Lodge of the United States," with George Washington (who was a member of a Virginian lodge) as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived. The various state Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body. Freemasonry was imported to Jamaica by British immigrants who colonized the island for over 300 years. In 1908, there were eleven recorded Masonic Lodges which included three Grand Lodges, two Craft Lodges, and two Rose Croix Chapters.

Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States

Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the USAreportdeveloping new systems of weights and measures
The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Monticello Edition, Washington, D.C.: The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904, Vol. 3 pp. 26–59. Thomas Jefferson to House of Representatives, July 4, 1790, Report on Plan for Establishing a Uniform Currency, with Draft Copy archived at Library of Congress. Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States. A metrication timeline that places the work of Thomas Jefferson in context. How Pirates Of The Caribbean Hijacked America's Metric System by Joe Palca for NPR.