Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

Lord CornwallisCharles CornwallisCornwallis
With the arrival of the French fleet under the Comte de Grasse and General Washington's combined French-American army, Cornwallis found himself cut off. After the Royal Navy fleet under Admiral Thomas Graves was defeated by the French at the Battle of the Chesapeake, and the French siege train arrived from Newport, Rhode Island, his position became untenable. He surrendered after about three weeks' siege to General Washington and the French commander, the Comte de Rochambeau, on 19 October 1781. Cornwallis, apparently not wanting to face Washington, claimed to be ill on the day of the surrender, and sent Brigadier General Charles O'Hara in his place to surrender his sword formally.

Haitian Revolution

revolutionslave rebellionslave revolt
The neighboring revolution brought the slavery question to the forefront of U.S. politics, and the resulting intensification of racial divides and sectional politics ended the idealism of the Revolutionary period. The American President Thomas Jefferson—who was a slaveholder himself—refused to establish diplomatic relations with Haiti (the United States did not recognize Haiti until 1862) and imposed an economic embargo on trade with Haiti that also lasted until 1862 in an attempt to ensure the economic failure of the new republic as Jefferson wanted Haiti to fail, regarding a successful slave revolt in the West Indies as a dangerous example for American slaves.

United States Secretary of State

Secretary of StateU.S. Secretary of StateUS Secretary of State
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.


VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
Regarding Voltaire as a forerunner of the French Revolution, the National Assembly of France had his remains brought back to Paris, and enshrined in the Panthéon on 11 July 1791. It is estimated that a million people attended the procession, which stretched throughout Paris. There was an elaborate ceremony, complete with an orchestra, and the music included a piece that André Grétry had composed especially for the event, which included a part for the "tuba curva" (an instrument that originated in Roman times as the cornu but had recently been revived under a new name).

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the Supreme CourtSupreme Court Chief Justice
Robert Livingston, as Chancellor of the State of New York (the state's highest ranking judicial office), administered the oath of office to George Washington at his first inauguration; there was no Chief Justice of the United States, nor any other federal judge prior to their appointments by President Washington in the months following his inauguration. William Cushing, an associate justice of the Supreme Court, administered Washington's second oath of office in 1793. Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath to his son after the death of Warren Harding.

University of Virginia

VirginiaUVAthe University of Virginia
Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson. List of World Heritage Sites in the United States. University of Virginia Athletics website. Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn - a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan.

Modern history

modern eramodernmodern times
It has been argued that GDP per capita was much more stable and progressed at a much slower rate until the industrial revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, and that it has since increased rapidly in capitalist countries. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European continent. Described as a revolutionary wave, the period of unrest began in France and then, further propelled by the French Revolution of 1848, soon spread to the rest of Europe.

Causes of the French Revolution

verge of bankruptcy and revolutionfiscal and agricultural crisisFrance's fiscal crisis
The American Revolution demonstrated that it was plausible for Enlightenment ideas about how a government should be organized to actually be put into practice. Some American diplomats, like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, had lived in Paris, where they consorted freely with members of the French intellectual class. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French troops who served in North America helped spread revolutionary ideas to the French people. France in 1787, although it faced some difficulties, was one of the most economically capable nations of Europe.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia and Kentucky ResolutionsKentucky Resolution
George Washington was so appalled by them that he told Patrick Henry that if "systematically and pertinaciously pursued", they would "dissolve the union or produce coercion". The influence of Jefferson's doctrine of states' rights reverberated right up to the Civil War and beyond. Future president James Garfield, at the close of the Civil War, said that Jefferson's Kentucky Resolution "contained the germ of nullification and secession, and we are today reaping the fruits". * Bird, Wendell.

Randolph family of Virginia

Randolph familyRandolphsRandolph
Edmund Randolph, grandson of Sir John Randolph, was an aid-de-camp to George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. He was afterward seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. Thomas Jefferson, great-grandson of William Randolph, was a Virginia Burgess for Albemarle County and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. At the beginning of the American Revolution he was a delegate to the Continental Congress for Virginia, also serving as a wartime Governor of Virginia. Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat to Paris and became the United States Minister to France.

American Philosophical Society

Transactions of the American Philosophical SocietyPhilosophical SocietyThe American Philosophical Society
Early members included George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James McHenry, Thomas Paine, David Rittenhouse, Nicholas Biddle, Owen Biddle, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, Michael Hillegas, John Marshall, and John Andrews. The society also recruited members from other countries, including Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and Princess Dashkova. By 1746 the society had lapsed into inactivity.

George Wythe

WytheWythe, George
When war seemed inevitable, Wythe was elected as Virginia's delegate to replace George Washington, who took command of the continental forces. George and Elizabeth Wythe moved to Philadelphia by September, and were inoculated against smallpox, as were fellow delegate Francis Lightfoot Lee and his lady and others. By October, Thomas Jefferson had rejoined the Congress to work with his former teacher and the other delegates, although personal tragedy forced him to leave for five months in the winter and spring. Wythe accepted many assignments relating to military, currency and other matters.

Richmond, Virginia

RichmondRichmond, VARichmond City
In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (drafted by Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826) was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States. A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, and was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), Richmond emerged as an important industrial center.

Gordonsville, Virginia

President Thomas Jefferson described the tavern in 1802 as a "good house" when recommending the best route south to Charlottesville from the recently established national capital on the Potomac. The building was known as Gordon's Tavern, Gordon Tavern and later as Gordon Inn. The commemorative marker at the site lists prominent Americans as guests at the tavern: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, James & Philip Pendleton Barbour, James Waddel, William Wirt and Henry Clay. Another famous visitor was Major General the Marquis de Lafayette. Gordon was named the first postmaster of the area in 1813, and the area became known as Gordonsville.

George Tucker (politician)

George TuckerProf. George Tucker
Free public domain ebook: The life of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States: with parts of his correspondence never before published. The Valley of Shenandoah; or, Memoirs of the Graysons ... Digital images of the 1824 edition.

Storming of the Bastille

fall of the BastilleBastillestormed the Bastille
"The Politics of Escalation in French Revolutionary Protest: Political Demonstrations, Nonviolence and Violence in the Grandes journees of 1789", French History (Fall 2009). Alpaugh, Micah. "A Self-Defining Bourgeoisie in the Early French Revolution: The Milice bourgeoise, the Bastille Days of 1789, and their Aftermath", Journal of Social History 47, no. 3 (Spring 2014), 696–720. Place de la Bastille – Official French website (in English). Thomas Jefferson's letter to John Jay recounting the storming of the Bastille.

Estates General of 1789

Estates-GeneralEstates GeneralStates-General
The Estates-General had ceased to exist, having become the National Assembly (and after 9 July 1789, the National Constituent Assembly). * The French Revolution: A History ;Bibliography Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution (2003). Furet, Francois, and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989) pp. 45–53.


interracialinterracial relationshipsinterracial relationship
Thus the Comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French Revolution, equated class difference in 18th-century France with racial difference. Borrowing Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", he showed his contempt for the lowest social class, the Third Estate, calling it "this new people born of slaves ... mixture of all races and of all times". Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere, "to mix" and genus, "kind".

François Barbé-Marbois

Barbé-MarboisMarboisThe Marquis Barbé-Marbois
Letter from George Washington. Exhibits.

French Directory

DirectoryDirectoirethe Directory
Washington and Voltaire.

Virginia Conventions

First Virginia Conventionprovisional assemblyspecial convention
It was resolved that the colony be "put into a posture of defence: and that Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Robert Carter Nicholas, Benjamin Harrison, Lemuel Riddick, George Washington, Adam Stephen, Andrew Lewis, William Christian, Edmund Pendleton, Thomas Jefferson and Isaac Zane, Esquires, be a committee to prepare a plan for the embodying arming and disciplining such a number of men as may be sufficient for that purpose."