meatcattleFrozen Beef
After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry (also the less common goat/chevon).


pig meatpigpigs
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers. The members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard. The charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, rillettes, sausages, bacon, trotters, and head cheese.


potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potatoes
In Western Europe, especially in Belgium, sliced potatoes are fried to create frieten, the original French fried potatoes. Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. The pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions.


beef tripetripestrippa
Tripas à moda do Porto — tripe with white beans, in Portuguese cuisine, a dish typical of the city of Porto. It is called dobrada elsewhere in Portugal. Tripe soup — in Jordan, this is a stew made with tripe and tomato sauce. Tripe soup — in Somalia, and Djibouti known as calooley is a stew made with different sauces.

American cuisine

AmericanUnited StatesAmerican food
Early German-American or Pennsylvania Dutch and Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine. French Americans and their New World regional identities such as:. Acadian. Cajun and Cajun cuisine. Louisiana Creole and Louisiana Creole cuisine. Louisiana Creole (also called French Créole) refers to native born people of the New Orleans area who are descended from the Colonial French and Spanish settlers of Colonial French Louisiana, before it became part of the United States in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. The various ethnicities originating from early social factors of Race in the United States and the gastronomy and cuisines of the New World, Latin American cuisine and North American cuisine:.

European cuisine

Latin American cuisine. Medieval cuisine. Mediterranean cuisine.


oystersoyster bedoyster beds
Within Europe, France remained the industry leader. Common oyster predators include crabs, seabirds, starfish, and humans. Some oysters contain crabs, known as oyster crabs. Bivalves, including oysters, are effective filter feeders and can have large effects on the water columns in which they occur. As filter feeders, oysters remove plankton and organic particles from the water column. Multiple studies have shown individual oysters are capable of filtering up to 50 gallons of water per day, and thus oyster reefs can significantly improve water quality and clarity.

Hot chocolate

cocoahot cocoadrinking chocolate
In addition, many Peruvians will add a sweet chocolate syrup to their drink. The Argentinian submarino is a hot chocolate drink made from adding a chocolate bar and sugar to hot steamed milk. In the Philippines, the native hot chocolate drink is known as tsokolate. It is made from tabliya (or tablea), tablets of pure ground roasted cacao beans, dissolved in water and milk. Like in Spanish and Latin American versions, the drink is traditionally made in a tsokolatera and briskly mixed with a wooden baton called the molinillo (also called batidor or batirol), causing the drink to be characteristically frothy.


carrotsblack carrotcarrot curls
The word is first recorded in English circa 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte, itself from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν or karōton, originally from the Indo-European root *ker- (horn), due to its horn-like shape. In Old English, carrots (typically white at the time) were not clearly distinguished from parsnips: the two were collectively called moru or more (from Proto-Indo-European *mork- "edible root", cf. German Möhre). Various languages still use the same word for "carrot" as they do for "root"; e.g. Dutch wortel. Both written history and molecular genetic studies indicate that the domestic carrot has a single origin in Central Asia.

Lamb and mutton

Mutton used to be an important part of Hungarian cuisine due to strong pastoral traditions but began to be increasingly looked down on with the spread of urbanisation. It is also very popular in Australia. Lamb and mutton are very popular in Central Asia and in certain parts of China, where other red meats may be eschewed for religious or economic reasons. Barbecued mutton is also a specialty in some areas of the United States (chiefly Owensboro, Kentucky) and Canada.

Beef tongue

tonguecow tonguelengua
Also, tongue is a part of Albanian, Argentine, Brazilian, Bulgarian (tongue with butter), British, French, Indonesian (semur lidah or beef tongue stew), Italian (typical dish in Piemonte and Liguria), Chinese (braised), Japanese, Korean (hyeomit gui), Filipino, Lithuanian, Latvian, Mexican, Mongolian, Nicaraguan, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Turkish and Persian (as forms of fried, roasted, boiled and eaten cold in a sandwich), and Uruguayan cuisine. List of beef dishes. Foreleg, cheeks and maw.


Rablóhús (Hungarian). Kebakko (Finnish). Brochette (French). Espetada (Portuguese). Souvlaki (Σουβλάκι; Greek). Arrosticini (Italian). Afghan Cuisine. Arab cuisine. Armenian cuisine. Azerbaijani cuisine. Iranian cuisine. Iraqi cuisine. Israeli cuisine. Levantine cuisine. List of barbecue dishes. List of kebabs. List of spit-roasted foods. Ottoman cuisine. Syrian cuisine. Turkish cuisine.


Castaneachestnutschestnut tree
The main regions in France for chestnut production are the départements of Ardèche, with the famous "Châtaigne d'Ardèche" (A.O.C), of the Var (Eastern Provence), of the Cévennes (Gard and Lozère départements) and of the Lyon region. France annually produces over 1,000 metric tons, but still imports about 8,000 metric tons, mainly from Italy. In Portugal's archipelago of Madeira, chestnut liquor is a traditional beverage, and it is gaining popularity with the tourists and in continental Portugal. Always served as part of the New Year's menu in Japan, chestnuts represent both success and hard times—mastery and strength.

List of street foods

List of street foods around the worldList of street foods – JamaicaStreet food
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink typically sold by a vendor on a street and in other public places, such as at a market or fair. It is often sold from a portable food booth, food cart, or food truck and meant for immediate consumption. Some street foods are regional, but many have spread beyond their region of origin. Street food vending is found all around the world, but varies greatly between regions and cultures. Most street foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, and are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study from the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day. Chongqing noodles. Donkey Burger.

List of European cuisines

Dutch cuisine. Dutch wine. French cuisine. French regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity and style. Traditionally, each region of France has its own distinctive cuisine. French cuisine styles include Nouvelle cuisine, Haute cuisine and Cuisine classique. In November 2010 the French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world's "intangible cultural heritage". French wine. Monégasque cuisine. Luxembourgian cuisine. Luxembourg wine. Swiss cuisine. Swiss wine. Regional cuisines. Regional Dutch cuisines can be distinguished by three geographic regions in the Netherlands, northeastern, western and southern cuisine.


Napoleonmillefeuillevanilla slice
List of French desserts.


Sour KroutChoucroutecrout
It took root mostly in Central and Eastern European cuisines, but also in other countries including the Netherlands, where it is known as zuurkool, and France, where the name became choucroute. The English name is borrowed from German where it means literally "sour herb" or "sour cabbage".


cabbageswhite cabbagegreen cabbage
White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves.


seafood productssea foodfood fish
Iceland, Japan, and Portugal are the greatest consumers of seafood per capita in the world. The UK Food Standards Agency recommends that at least two portions of seafood should be consumed each week, one of which should be oil-rich. There are over 100 different types of seafood available around the coast of the UK. Oil-rich fish such as mackerel or herring are rich in long chain Omega-3 oils. These oils are found in every cell of the human body, and are required for human biological functions such as brain functionality.

Tripe soup

In the nineteenth century in parts of the German Empire that are now Poland (like Silesia), "Flaki" was a street food. The tripe was cooked with long bones, celery root, parsley root, onions, and bay leaf. The tripe was then sliced, breaded and fried, and returned to the broth with some vinegar, marjoram, mustard, salt, and pepper. In Hungarian cuisine, tripe soup is called pacalleves or simply pacal. Pacalpörkölt is a tripe soup heavily spiced with paprika. In Polish cuisine, tripe soup is known as flaki or flaczki. In Slovak cuisine, it's known as držková polievka. In French cuisine, tripes à la mode de Caen is a traditional dish of the cuisine of Normandy.

Pickled cucumber

Another kind of pickled cucumber popular in Poland is ogórek konserwowy ("preserved cucumber") which is rather sweet and vinegary in taste, due to different composition of the preserving solution. In Hungary, while regular vinegar-pickled cucumbers (savanyú uborka) are made during most of the year, during the summer kovászos uborka ("leavened pickles") are made without the use of vinegar. Cucumbers are placed in a glass vessel along with spices (usually dill and garlic), water and salt.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval period
The conflict with France also helped create a national culture in England separate from French culture, which had previously been the dominant influence. The dominance of the English longbow began during early stages of the Hundred Years' War, and cannon appeared on the battlefield at Crécy in 1346. In modern-day Germany, the Holy Roman Empire continued to rule, but the elective nature of the imperial crown meant there was no enduring dynasty around which a strong state could form. Further east, the kingdoms of Poland, Hungary, and Bohemia grew powerful.

Rice pudding

Arroz con lecheArroz docearroz con dulce
In the latter half of the twentieth century, Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latin American recipes have also become more common. In New England, a popular pudding is made with long grain rice, milk, sugar, or in Vermont, maple syrup. This may be combined with nutmeg, cinnamon, and/or raisins. The pudding is usually partially cooked on top of the stove in a double boiler, and then "finished" in an oven. In the Nordic countries, rice porridge is a common breakfast and sometimes lunch. It is made as a warm dish from rice cooked in milk. When served, it is commonly sprinkled with cinnamon, sugar and a small knob of butter, and served with milk or fruit juice.


blanc de blancsblanc de noirschampagne wine
Champagne is sparkling wine or, in the EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France. Where EU law applies, this alcoholic drink is produced from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to create carbonation, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from specific parcels in the Champagne appellation and specific pressing regimes unique to the region.

Bay leaf

bay leavesbayBayleaf
The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean and Latin American cuisine. The fresh leaves are very mild and do not develop their full flavour until several weeks after picking and drying. California bay leaf – the leaf of the California bay tree (Umbellularia californica, Lauraceae), also known as California laurel, Oregon myrtle, and pepperwood, is similar to the Mediterranean bay laurel, but has a stronger flavor.