He fled to New York, where he cofounded the Armed Forces of National Liberation (Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional) (FALN) with former MIRA members as a membership base. In 1976 Ojeda Ríos founded the Boricua Popular Army (Ejército Popular Boricua), also known as Los Macheteros (The Machete Wielders), named after the sugar cane harvesters who use machetes to harvest the canes. The group was involved in the killing of a Puerto Rican policeman who refused to surrender his car. The group was responsible for nearly 120 bombings in the United States between 1974 and 1983.
Filiberto Ojeda Rios
Carlos Alberto TorresCarlos TorresTorres
Torres was convicted of a seditious conspiracy carried out by the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN), which claimed responsibility for numerous bombings, leading to six deaths. Torres was first linked to the criminal conspiracy carried out by the FALN in 1976. That year, a burglar was arrested in Chicago who was attempting to peddle stolen explosives.
Oscar Lopez RiveraÓscar López RiveraOscar López
López Rivera joined the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña (FALN), a Marxist-Leninist organization which in the 1970s fought to make Puerto Rico an independent communist nation. The FALN was involved in more than 100 bombings in New York, Chicago and other cities, including the 1975 bombing at Fraunces Tavern in Manhattan that killed four people. López Rivera was never conclusively linked to the bombings. The FALN was one of the targets of the first terrorism task force in the United States; the US Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF), established in April 1980, had as one of its goals to pursue threats from the Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN).
Lolita LebronLebrón, Lolita
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (Puerto Rico).
Puerto Rican independence movementPuerto Rican independenceindependence
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (Puerto Rico). Puerto Rico (proposed state). Proposed political status for Puerto Rico. Sovereigntism (Puerto Rico). Special Committee on Decolonization. United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Bill Clinton pardons controversyClinton's last day in office140 pardons
Carmen Valentin, sentenced to 90 years in prison. Alberto Rodriguez, sentenced to 35 years in prison. Alejandrina Torres, sentenced to 35 years in prison. Juan Enrique Segarra-Palmer, sentenced to 55 years in prison; released on 25 January 2004. Antonio Camacho-Negron, sentenced to 15 years in prison; released in 2006. Oscar López Rivera, sentenced to 70 years in prison, released in 2017 after sentence was commuted by President Barack Obama. Peter MacDonald had been sentenced to 14 years at a Federal Prison in Texas for fraud, extortion, inciting riots, bribery, and corruption stemming from the Navajo purchase of the Big Boquillas Ranch in Northwestern Arizona.
Alejandrina Torres (born June 18, 1939) is a Puerto Rican woman whose trial as a member and role in Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) resulted in her conviction and sentencing of 35 years for seditious conspiracy. Torres was linked to FALN, which claimed responsibility for 100 bombings and six deaths. Her sentence was commuted by President Bill Clinton in 1999. Alejandrina Torres was born in San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico, in 1939 and grew up in New York City. Her family emigrated to the United States when she was 11 years old. During the 1960s and 1970s, she was a leader in her community. During the time of her arrest, she was married to Reverend Jose A.
ClintonPresident ClintonPresident Bill Clinton
William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to his presidency, he served as governor of Arkansas (1979–1981 and 1983–1992) and as attorney general of Arkansas (1977–1979). A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was known as a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. He is the husband of former Secretary of State and former U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives.
CarterPresident CarterPresident Jimmy Carter
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Since leaving the presidency, Carter has remained active in the private sector; in 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.
Óscar CollazoCollazo, Oscar
Oscar Collazo (January 20, 1914 – February 21, 1994) was one of two Puerto Rican militants of the Nationalist Party who on November 1, 1950, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Harry S. Truman in Washington, DC. He had been living in New York City after growing up in Puerto Rico.
Of them, five were based in Puerto Rico and besides the EPB also included the FARP, FALN, COR and MLN. In 2001, then-FBI Director Louis J. Freeh reaffirmed the agency's historical stance that the group committed acts of terrorism.
Fraunces Tavern Museum1975 bombing of Fraunces TavernBolton and Sigel's Tavern
The Puerto Rican clandestine paramilitary organization "Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña" (Armed Forces of Puerto Rican National Liberation, or FALN), which had executed other bomb incidents in New York in the 1970s, claimed responsibility. No one had been prosecuted for the bombing as of April 17, 2013. Among the victims who died was a young banker, Frank Connor (33), who had worked his way up over 15 years from clerk to assistant vice president at Morgan Guaranty Trust. Connor left behind his wife and two sons. A second New York worker was Harold H. Sherburne (66), whose career on Wall Street spanned four decades.
Haydee Torres BeltranMarie Haydee Beltran Torres
*Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña * Marie Haydee Beltran Torres vs. United States of America (complete text) Retrieved on 2008-11-19
The arrest in April 1980 of a dozen FALN members in Evanston led to the identification of Edwin Cortes as a suspect. Nicknamed The Rabbit by law enforcement, a large team of local and federal agents placed him under nearly constant surveillance, which was used to identify a FALN safe house, which then was placed under surveillance. The surveillance team was able to place cameras and listening equipment in the apartment. In the apartment, they found approximately 24 pounds of dynamite, 24 blasting caps, weapons, disguises, false identification and thousands of rounds of ammunition.
Ricardo JimenezPresident Jiménez
Ricardo Jiménez Puerto Rican member of the FALN who was sentenced to 90 years in prison for seditious conspiracy and other charges. He was sentenced on February 18, 1981, and incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. However, he was released early from prison, after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to him on September 7, 1999. Jiménez was born in Puerto Rico in 1956. His family moved to the U.S. when he was still an infant. He attended Tuley High School in Chicago when the school was in the midst of a crisis brought about by the lack of a relevant curriculum for Puerto Rican students.
He served a lengthy prison sentence after being convicted while a member of the FALN. Escobar was born in Puerto Rico's second largest city, Ponce, Puerto Rico, on the southern part of the island. There he received his primary and secondary education. As a child, he always enjoyed drawing and painting. After Escobar graduated from high school he enrolled and attended the University of Puerto Rico to pursue his artistic studies. During his years as a student, he became actively involved in the Puerto Rican independence movement. He became a member of the underground group called Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN).
Adolfo Matos Puerto Rican member of the FALN (a group which fought for Puerto Rican independence during the 1970s) who received a sentence of 70 years for seditious conspiracy and other charges. He was sentenced on February 18, 1981, and incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. However, he was released early from prison, after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to him on September 7, 1999. Matos was born in Lajas, Puerto Rico on September 18, 1950. He moved to New York City at a very young age where he later married Helen Rosado, and with whom he fathered two daughters, Rosa Maria and Lydia.
Dylcia Noemi Pagan (born 1946) was a Puerto Rican member of the FALN (a group which fought for Puerto Rican independence during the 1970s) who received a sentence of 55 years for seditious conspiracy and other charges. She was sentenced on February 18, 1981, and incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. However, she was released early from prison, after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to her on September 7, 1999. Dylcia Noemi Pagan was born in New York City in 1946. At an early age she became involved in the civil rights movement, participating in voter registration drives and ran as a Democratic candidate in Shirley Chrisholm's campaign.
A series of arrests against purported FALN members began in 1977 and culminated around 1985. Rodriguez was never charged with any bombings. During the trial proceedings from 1983 through 1985, he declared his status as prisoner of war, and refused to participate in the proceedings. Alberto Rodriguez was given a 35-year federal sentence for seditious conspiracy and other charges.
Alicia Rodríguez Puerto Rican member of the FALN who received a sentence of 55 years for seditious conspiracy and other charges. She was sentenced on February 18, 1981, and incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. However, she was released early from prison, after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to her on September 7, 1999. Rodríguez was born in Chicago in 1953, the first in her family to be born in the United States. On entering school, Alicia quickly discovered that being born in the U.S. brought her no privileges, as her Puerto Rican parents, heritage, language, and culture were regarded as foreign, different, and ugly by her teachers and fellow students.
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (Puerto Rico).
Ida Luz Rodriguez
She was previously a member of the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) and was sentenced to 75 years for charges that included seditious conspiracy. She was sentenced on February 18, 1981, and incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. She was released early from prison after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to her on September 7, 1999. Ida Luz was born in Puerto Rico in 1950. She studied at the University of Illinois at Chicago, majoring in psychology and sociology.
William Morales (born February 7, 1950), also known as Willie Morales, Guillermo Morales, and William "No Hands" Morales, is an American bomb maker for Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña (FALN). He was convicted in February 1979 for possession of explosives, and possession and transportation of explosives and a shotgun. He escaped from Bellevue Hospital in May 1979 and subsequently fled to Mexico, where he was held by the authorities, before emigrating to Cuba in 1988. Morales is currently on the FBI Most Wanted domestic terrorists list with a reward of $100,000 for information leading to his arrest. Morales grew up in East Harlem.
Luis Rosa is a Puerto Rican nationalist and member of the FALN who received a sentence of 75 years for seditious conspiracy and related charges. He was sentenced on 18 February 1981 and subsequently incarcerated in a U.S. federal prison. He was released early from prison after President Bill Clinton extended a clemency offer to him on 7 September 1999. Luis was born in Chicago in 1960. At the time of his arrest he was 19 years old and was a young father and university student. He was also an excellent baseball player, recruited by professional teams. At the University of Illinois he became involved in the student movement and was president of the Union for Puerto Rican Students.
Michael BilandicMichael A. BilandicBilandic
Bilandic also had to face social unrest in June 1977 when an FALN bomb exploded in City Hall and started a two-day riot among the Puerto Rican community. Bilandic oversaw the creation of ChicagoFest, a food and music festival held on Navy Pier. The Chicago Marathon had its first running in 1977 and Bilandic participated, finishing with a time of 4 hours. A runner himself, Bilandic arranged to have five miles of unused equestrian paths along the lakefront converted to running paths. During January 1979, a blizzard struck Chicago and effectively closed down the city; dropping a total of thirty-five inches of snow over a two-day period.