Sons of the Revolution

General Society of the Sons of the RevolutionConnecticut Society of the Sons of the RevolutionGeneral Society Sons of the Revolution
Daughters of the American Revolution. Society of the Cincinnati. Sons of the American Revolution. The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada. Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York. The Daughters of the Cincinnati. Order of Washington. The Order of the Founders and Patriots of America. National Society Daughters of the Founders and Patriots of America. Descendents of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Hereditary Order of the Descendants of the Loyalists & Patriots of the American Revolution. Society of the Descendants of Washington's Army at Valley Forge. Presidential Families of America.


There is another measure for the degree of relationship, which is determined by counting up generations to the first common ancestor and back down to the target individual, which is used for various genealogical and legal purposes. In his book Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Although much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that kinship terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions.


kinship systemsciondescendants
A phratry is a descent group composed of two or more clans each of whose apical ancestors are descended from a further common ancestor. If a society is divided into exactly two descent groups, each is called a moiety, after the French word for half. If the two halves are each obliged to marry out, and into the other, these are called matrimonial moieties.

Ethnic group

ethnicityethnicethnic groups
Ancestor. Clan. Diaspora. Ethnic cleansing. Ethnic flag. Ethnic nationalism. Ethnic penalty. Ethnocentrism. Ethnocultural empathy. Ethnogenesis. Ethnocide. Ethnographic group. Genealogy. Genetic genealogy. Homeland. Human Genome Diversity Project. Identity politics. Ingroups and outgroups. Intersectionality. Kinship. List of contemporary ethnic groups. List of indigenous peoples. Meta-ethnicity. Minority group. Multiculturalism. Nation. National symbol. Passing (sociology). Polyethnicity. Population genetics. Race (human categorization). Race and ethnicity in censuses. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census. Race and health. Segmentary lineage. Stateless nation. Tribe.

Veneration of the dead

ancestor worshipancestor venerationancestral worship
The images were stored in the treasury and worshiped at the Zetawunzaung (, "Hall of Ancestors"), along with a book of odes. Some scholars attribute the disappearance of ancestor worship to the influence of Buddhist doctrines of anicca and anatta, impermanence and rejection of a 'self'. In the animistic indigenous religions of the precolonial Philippines, ancestor spirits were one of the two major types of spirits (anito) with whom shamans communicate. Ancestor spirits were known as umalagad (lit. "guardian" or "caretaker"). They can be the spirits of actual ancestors or generalized guardian spirits of a family.

Genetic genealogy

genetic ancestryGeneticgenetic genealogist
Journal of Genetic Genealogy 8.1 (2016): 35-37. International Society of Genetic Genealogy. MSNBC – Genetic genealogy links from MSN. Guide to ancestry testing from Sense about Science. "Debunking Genetic Astrology" a set of webpages at University College London.

One-name study

one-name studiesOne Name Study
A one-name study is a project researching a specific surname, as opposed to a particular pedigree (ancestors of one person) or descendancy (descendants of one person or couple). Some people who research a specific surname may restrict their research geographically and chronologically, perhaps to one country and time period, while others may collect all occurrences world-wide for all time. A one-name study is not limited to persons who are related biologically. Studies may have a number of family trees which have no link with each other. Findings from a one-name study are useful to genealogists.

Sons of the American Revolution

National Society of the Sons of the American RevolutionSonsNational Society, Sons of the American Revolution
In addition to organizing the SAR, McDowell worked with six women to organize the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution on July 29, 1890. The SAR was formally granted a congressional charter by an act of Congress under Title 36 of the United States Code on June 9, 1906. The act was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, who was a member. Membership in the society is open to any male of "good repute" who can prove lineal bloodline descent from an ancestor who actively supported the American Revolution. Acceptable ancestors include: No state society or chapter may discriminate against an applicant on the basis of race or creed.

Family History Library

Family History librarieslargest genealogical libraryLDS family history library
Genealogy. Genealogical Society of Utah. Immigrant Ancestors Project. List of Mormon family organizations. Find a family history center near you. FamilySearch Indexing. Family History Library in the FamilySearch Research Wiki.

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
Genealogical DNA test - used to determine ancestry or ethnic heritage for genetic genealogy. Research testing - includes finding unknown genes, learning how genes work and advancing understanding of genetic conditions. The results of testing done as part of a research study are usually not available to patients or their healthcare providers. DNA profiling. Genographic Project. Personalized medicine. Elective genetic and genomic testing. Eugenics. Full Genome Sequencing. Whole Genome Sequencing. Whole Exome Sequencing. Genetic counseling. List of genetic disorders. List of genetic genealogy topics. Non-paternity event.

Family History Research Wiki

The Family History Research Wiki (also known as the FamilySearch Research Wiki or the FamilySearch Wiki) provides handbook reference information, and educational articles to help genealogists find and interpret records of their ancestors. It is a free-access, free-content, online encyclopedia on a wiki, hosted as part of the FamilySearch site. It is sponsored by FamilySearch, a non-profit organization, and a genealogical arm of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Anyone with access to the Internet may read any of the over 91,000 articles, and almost all articles can be edited by registered users (contributors). Registration is free.


progenitorsancestral principlesdeified ancestors
In genealogy, the progenitor (rarer: primogenitor; Stammvater or Ahnherr) is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group. Genealogy (commonly known as family history) understands a progenitor to be the earliest recorded ancestor of a consanguineous family group of descendants. Progenitors are sometimes used to describe the status of a genealogical research project, or in order to compare the availability of genealogical data in different times and places. Often, progenitors are implied to be patrilineal. If a patrilineal dynasty is considered, each such dynasty has exactly one progenitor.

United Kingdom

Another 2005 genetic analysis indicates that "about 75 per cent of the traceable ancestors of the modern British population had arrived in the British isles by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the British Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the British broadly share a common ancestry with the Basque people. The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the 1730s during the period of the African slave trade. During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10,000 to 15,000 which later declined due to the abolition of slavery.


deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.


autosomalautosomal DNAautosomes
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome). The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same morphology, unlike those in allosome pairs which may have different structures. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
Because of this and because the mutation rate of animal mtDNA is higher than that of nuclear DNA, mtDNA is a powerful tool for tracking ancestry through females (matrilineage) and has been used in this role to track the ancestry of many species back hundreds of generations. The rapid mutation rate (in animals) makes mtDNA useful for assessing genetic relationships of individuals or groups within a species and also for identifying and quantifying the phylogeny (evolutionary relationships; see phylogenetics) among different species. To do this, biologists determine and then compare the mtDNA sequences from different individuals or species.

Pedigree chart

In the practice of selective breeding of animals, particularly in animal fancy and livestock, including horses, pedigree charts are used to track the ancestry of animals and assist in the planning of suitable breeding programs to enhance desirable traits. Breed registries are formed and are dedicated to the accurate tracking of pedigrees and maintaining accurate records of birth, death and identifying characteristics of each registered animal. Ahnentafel. Cousin chart. Family tree. Genealogical numbering systems. Genogram. Foundation bloodstock. Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood.

Spirit tablet

memorial tabletspirit tabletsancestral tablet
A spirit tablet, memorial tablet, or ancestral tablet, is a placard used to designate the seat of a deity or past ancestor as well as to enclose it. The name of the deity or past ancestor is usually inscribed onto the tablet. With origins in traditional Chinese culture, the spirit tablet is a common sight in many East Asian countries where any form of ancestor veneration is practiced. Spirit tablets are traditional ritual objects commonly seen in temples, shrines, and household altars throughout China and Taiwan. A spirit tablet is often used for deities or ancestors (either generally or specifically: i.e. you might have one for your grandmother or one for your entire family tree).

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Order of the Confederate RoseUnited Sons of Confederate VeteransS.C.V.
Kinship to a veteran must be documented genealogically. The minimum age for full membership is 12 years, but no minimum exists for cadet membership. Forty delegates from 24 camps and societies from the various Southern states were called by the R. E.


ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
Shangdi was conceived as the first ancestor of the Shang royal house, an alternate name for him being the "Supreme Progenitor" (上甲 Shàngjiǎ). In Shang theology, the multiplicity of gods of nature and ancestors were viewed as parts of Di, and the four 方 fāng ("directions" or "sides") and their 風 fēng ("winds") as his cosmic will. With the Zhou dynasty, which overthrew the Shang, the name for the supreme godhead became Tian (天 "Heaven"). While the Shang identified Shangdi as their ancestor-god to assert their claim to power by divine right, the Zhou transformed this claim into a legitimacy based on moral power, the Mandate of Heaven.

Pedigree collapse

Ahnenschwundgenerations of inbreedingher nephew and cousin
In genealogy, pedigree collapse describes how reproduction between two individuals who share an ancestor causes the number of distinct ancestors in the family tree of their offspring to be smaller than it could otherwise be. Robert C. Gunderson coined the term; synonyms include implex and the German Ahnenschwund (loosely translated: “loss of lineage”). Without pedigree collapse, a person's ancestor tree is a binary tree, formed by the person, the parents (2), the grandparents (4), great-grandparents (8), and so on. However, the number of individuals in such a tree grows exponentially and will eventually become impossibly high.

National Archives and Records Administration

National ArchivesU.S. National ArchivesNARA NARA−National Archives and Records Administration—research Wiki for genealogists. National Archives and Records Administration's Our Archives wiki—information about NARA + its archived records. "Things to Do in D.C.—National Archives and Library of Congress"— on visiting the National Archives.

List of hereditary and lineage organizations

hereditary societyhereditary organizationlineage society
Daughters of the American Revolution. Daughters of the Cincinnati. Daughters of the Republic of Texas. General Society of Colonial Wars. General Society of the War of 1812. General Society Sons of the Revolution. Guild of Colonial Artisans and Tradesmen 1607-1783. Hereditary Order of Descendants of Colonial Governors. Holland Society of New York. The Huguenot Society of America. Jamestowne Society. Job's Daughters International. Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic. Legion of Valor of the United States of America. La Société des Filles du roi et soldats du Carignan (SFRSC). The Mayflower Society. Military Order of Foreign Wars of the United States. Military Order of the Carabao.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
In recent years, genetic genealogists have been able to determine the proportion of Native American ancestry carried by the African-American population. The literary and history scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr., had experts on his TV programs who discussed African-American ancestry. They stated that 5% of African Americans have at least 12.5% Native American ancestry, or the equivalent to one great-grandparent, which may represent more than one distant ancestor. A greater percentage could have a smaller proportion of Indian ancestry, but their conclusions show that popular estimates of Native American admixture may have been too high.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
Genetic genealogy, the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genealogical DNA tests, examination of nucleotides at specific locations on a person's DNA for genetic genealogy purposes. Nature timeline. Last universal common ancestor, the most recent common ancestor of all life on Earth. Lowest common ancestor, an analogous concept in graph theory and computer science. Pedigree collapse. Phylogenetic tree, a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species. Timeline of evolution, outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth.