genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Many organisms have been genetically modified for applications in agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. For multicellular organisms, typically the embryo is engineered which grows into the adult genetically modified organism.


The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. As of 2011 several hundred genetic tests were in use. Since genetic testing may open up ethical or psychological problems, genetic testing is often accompanied by genetic counseling. Genetically modified crops ("GM crops", or "biotech crops") are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified with genetic engineering techniques. In most cases, the main aim is to introduce a new trait that does not occur naturally in the species.


mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Large scale changes to the structure of chromosomes called chromosomal rearrangement that can lead to a decrease of fitness but also to speciation in isolated, inbred populations. These include:. Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. Chromosomal inversions: reversing the orientation of a chromosomal segment. Non-homologous chromosomal crossover. Interstitial deletions: an intra-chromosomal deletion that removes a segment of DNA from a single chromosome, thereby apposing previously distant genes.

Index of genetics articles

List of genetics-related topicsIndex of genetic engineering articlesGenetic engineering topics
Cat coat genetics. cDNA. cDNA library. Cell. Centimorgan. Central dogma of molecular biology. Centromere. Chemical base. Chimeraplasty. Chromomere. Chromosomal crossover. Chromosomal deletion. Chromosome. Chromosome aglet. Chromosome banding. Chromosome painting. Chromosome region p. Chromosome region q. Classical genetics. Cleft lip. Cleft palate. Clinical geneticist. Clone (genetics). Clone bank. Cloned DNA. Cloning. Cloning vector. Coccus. Code. Code dictionary. Coding strand. Codominance. Codon. Codon usage bias aka Codon preference. Cohesive end. Cointegrate. Col plasmid. Colicinogenic factor. Colonoscopy. Colony. Common ancestry. Comparative genomics. Compartment. Competence factor.

Outline of genetics

History of genetic engineering. History of genomics. History of paleontology. History of plant systematics. Neanderthal genome project. Timeline of paleontology. Molecules. amino acids. Nucleobase. Adenine. Cytosine. Guanine. Thymine. Uracil. Adenovirus. Antibody. Bacteria. Codon. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Messenger RNA. mRNA. Enzyme. Exon.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Single Specific Primer-PCR (SSP-PCR): allows the amplification of double-stranded DNA even when the sequence information is available at one end only. This method permits amplification of genes for which only a partial sequence information is available, and allows unidirectional genome walking from known into unknown regions of the chromosome.


An example of random variation in Drosophila flies is the number of ommatidia, which may vary (randomly) between left and right eyes in a single individual as much as they do between different genotypes overall, or between clones raised in different environments. The concept of phenotype can be extended to variations below the level of the gene that affect an organism's fitness. For example, silent mutations that do not change the corresponding amino acid sequence of a gene may change the frequency of guanine-cytosine base pairs (GC content).

Cell (biology)

Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence. RNA is used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during protein translation. Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular bacterial chromosome in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm.


Many bacteria can naturally take up DNA from the environment, while others must be chemically altered in order to induce them to take up DNA. The development of competence in nature is usually associated with stressful environmental conditions, and seems to be an adaptation for facilitating repair of DNA damage in recipient cells. The second way bacteria transfer genetic material is by transduction, when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome.


Genetic changes can occur at different levels and by different mechanisms. The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur through errors in mitosis. More common are mutations, which are changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA. Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic engineering in public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured. He has also suggested that beauty could be genetically engineered, saying in 2003, "People say it would be terrible if we made all girls pretty. I think it would be great." In 2007, James Watson became the second person to publish his fully sequenced genome online, after it was presented to him on May 31, 2007, by 454 Life Sciences Corporation in collaboration with scientists at the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine.

Gene expression

They are divided into two groups based on their degree of multiplexity. • AlloMap molecular expression testing • Bookmarking • Expressed sequence tag • Expression Atlas • Expression profiling • Gene structure • Genetic engineeringGenetically modified organism • List of biological databases • List of human genes • Oscillating gene • Paramutation • Protein production • Protein purification • Ribonomics • Ridge • Sequence profiling tool • Transcriptional bursting • Transcriptional noise • Transcript of unknown function * Plant Transcription Factor Database and Plant Transcriptional Regulation Data and Analysis Platform A constitutive gene is a gene that is transcribed continually as opposed to

Restriction enzyme

restriction enzymesrestriction endonucleaserestriction endonucleases
The mirror-like palindrome is similar to those found in ordinary text, in which a sequence reads the same forward and backward on a single strand of DNA, as in GTAATG. The inverted repeat palindrome is also a sequence that reads the same forward and backward, but the forward and backward sequences are found in complementary DNA strands (i.e., of double-stranded DNA), as in GTATAC (GTATAC being complementary to CATATG). Inverted repeat palindromes are more common and have greater biological importance than mirror-like palindromes.

Index of biochemistry articles

carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic engineering - genetic fingerprint - genetic recombination - Genetics - Genome - genomics - genotype - glial fibrillary acidic protein - globin - glucagon - glucagon receptor - glucocorticoid receptor - glucose - glutamate - glutamate receptor - Glutamic acid - Glutamine - Glycerine - Glycine - glycine receptor - glycolipid - Glycolysis - glycoprotein - gonadorelin - gradient - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor - granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor - granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor - granzyme - growth factor receptor - GTP-binding protein - GTPase - hair

Index of molecular biology articles

List of molecular biology topicsMolecular biology topics
artificial chromosome - bacteriophage - bacteriophage lambda - band shift assay - base - base pair - binding site - biological organisation - biological process - biotin - birth defect - blotting - blunt end - bone marrow transplantation - box - BP - BRCA1 - BRCA2 - C terminus - cancer - candidate gene - Canonical sequence - cap - cap site - carboxyl terminus - carcinoma - carrier - CAT assay - CCAAT box - cDNA - cDNA clone - cDNA library - cell - centimorgan - centromere - chain terminator - chaperone protein - chromosome - Chromosomal translocation - chromosome walking - CIS - cistron - clone (genetics) - clone (noun) - clone (verb) - cloning - coding sequence - coding strand - codon - codon


biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, or other locations is collectively known as a cell's genome. In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is localized in the cell nucleus, or with small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is held within an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called the nucleoid. The genetic information in a genome is held within genes, and the complete assemblage of this information in an organism is called its genotype.

Natural selection

The concept of natural selection originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of heredity; at the time of Darwin's writing, science had yet to develop modern theories of genetics. The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subsequent discoveries in classical genetics formed the modern synthesis of the mid-20th century. The addition of molecular genetics has led to evolutionary developmental biology, which explains evolution at the molecular level. While genotypes can slowly change by random genetic drift, natural selection remains the primary explanation for adaptive evolution.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
Diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders are usually performed by a geneticist-physician trained in clinical/medical genetics. The results of the Human Genome Project are likely to provide increased availability of genetic testing for gene-related disorders, and eventually improved treatment. Parents can be screened for hereditary conditions and counselled on the consequences, the probability it will be inherited, and how to avoid or ameliorate it in their offspring. As noted above, there are many different kinds of DNA sequence variation, ranging from complete extra or missing chromosomes down to single nucleotide changes.


genomesgenetic materialgenomic
The protagonist of the film is an In-Valid who works to defy the supposed genetic odds and achieve his dream of working as a space navigator. The film warns against a future where genomic information fuels prejudice and extreme class differences between those who can and can't afford genetically engineered children. * Bacterial genome size. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Genome Browser. Genome Compiler. Genome topology. Genome-wide association study. List of sequenced animal genomes. List of sequenced archaeal genomes. List of sequenced bacterial genomes. List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. List of sequenced fungi genomes. List of sequenced plant genomes.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
However, some people (such as fellow researcher and colleague Esther Lederberg) thought that Crick was unduly optimistic It was clear that some macromolecule such as a protein was likely to be the genetic molecule. However, it was well known that proteins are structural and functional macromolecules, some of which carry out enzymatic reactions of cells. In the 1940s, some evidence had been found pointing to another macromolecule, DNA, the other major component of chromosomes, as a candidate genetic molecule.


plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that benefit the survival of the organism, such as by providing antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful in certain situations or conditions.


Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits. Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus (mushroom), used in the writings of Horace and Pliny.


proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein. The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid, for example AUG (adenine-uracil-guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon. Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase.


Some primer sequences may also include the character "I", which codes for the non-standard nucleotide inosine. Inosine occurs in tRNAs, and will pair with adenine, cytosine, or thymine. This character does not appear in the following table however, because it does not represent a degeneracy. While inosine can serve a similar function as the degeneracy "D", it is an actual nucleotide, rather than a representation of a mix of nucleotides that covers each possible pairing needed. * GART (reactions 2, 3, and 5). PAICS (reactions 6, and 7). ATIC (reactions 9, and 10). Biology. Chromosome. Gene. Genetics. Nucleic acid analogues. Nucleic acid sequence. Nucleobase.

2012 in science

A new genetic test can fully sequence the genome of a newborn baby in just 50 hours, a major improvement over the usual month-long sequencing process. The test can screen for 3,500 genetic diseases, allowing critically ill infants to be diagnosed and treated much more effectively. (TIME). Nissan unveils the NSC-2015, a prototype electric driverless car that can park itself, understand road markings and quickly report attempted thefts. A commercial version is planned for 2015. (BBC). 5 October. DARPA successfully tests technology which enables drones to conduct aerial refueling autonomously. (BBC) (DARPA).