Watch

wristwatchwatcheswristwatches
In 1970, 18 manufacturers exhibited production versions of the beta 21 wristwatch, including the Omega Electroquartz as well as Patek Philippe, Rolex Oysterquartz and Piaget. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, swiftly followed by the Swiss Beta 21, and then a year later the prototype of one of the world's most accurate wristwatches to date: the Omega Marine Chronometer.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
Geneva is the birthplace of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the Geneva Conventions and, since 2006, hosts the United Nations Human Rights Council. Even though Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, the Palace of Nations in Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member and home to the League of Nations.

Watchmaker

watchmakingwatchmakerswatch-maker
One major Swiss watch brand – Rolex – now pre-qualifies independent watchmakers before they provide them with spare parts. This qualification may include, but is not limited to, holding a modern training certificate from one of several reputable schools; having a workshop environment that meets Rolex's standards for cleanliness; using modern equipment; and being a member of the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute. The Omega brand has the same approach. However, the vast majority of modern Swiss brands do not sell parts to independent watchmakers, irrespective of the watchmaker's expertise, training or credentials.

List of most expensive watches sold at auction

most expensive watches ever sold at auctionmost expensive watch ever sold at auctionmost expensive watches ever sold at auctions
Europe: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in Europe is the Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication, which fetched 23.98 million US dollars (23,237,000 CHF) in Geneva on November 11, 2014 (by Sotheby's). North America: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in North America is the Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona, which fetched 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017 (by Phillips). List of watch manufacturers. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication. Patek Philippe Calibre 89. Rolex Daytona.

Vallée de Joux

Joux Valleyvalley of Joux
The Vallée de Joux is, along with Neuchâtel, the birthplace of Swiss horology and it is still the home of the most famous Swiss watch factories, like Audemars Piguet, Blancpain, Breguet, Patek Philippe & Co., Vacheron Constantin, and Jaeger-LeCoultre. The Vallée de Joux welcomes four ski resorts, a common fofetary offer is proposed : *Dent de Vaulion (2 ski-lifts); *L'Abbey (4 ski-lifts); *L'Orient (3 ski-lifts); *Le Brassus (2 ski-lifts). This is the largest ski area in the Swiss Jura. The ski resorts are not connected to each other. It takes a few kilometers between each station.

Universal Genève

Universal Genève SA is a Swiss luxury watch company, founded in 1894 as Universal Watch. Since its beginnings, the company has produced complete watches with in-house movements, and throughout the 20th century, distributed many notable and important timepieces. Along with neighboring Geneva companies Audemars Piguet, Girard-Perregaux, Patek Philippe and Rolex, Universal is internationally regarded for its style of craftsmanship and manufacture. In addition, the brand also makes historical claim for creating the first-ever chronographic wristwatch in 1917.

Breguet (brand)

BreguetBreguet (watch)Breguet S. A.
Breguet, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet and Rolex, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change. There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation. The situation is especially serious in the developing countries which are top producers of gold, including China, Russia and South Africa.

Manufacture d'horlogerie

manufacturemanufacturerwatch manufacturer
Audemars Piguet. Blancpain. Breguet. Breitling SA. Chopard. Citizen Holdings. Frédérique Constant (some models). F. P. Journe. Girard-Perregaux. Moritz Grossman. H. Moser & Cie. Hublot. IWC. Jaeger-LeCoultre. Lang & Heyne. Maurice Lacroix. Nomos Glashütte. Omega SA. Panerai. Parmigiani Fleurier. Patek Philippe & Co. Piaget SA. Roger Dubuis. Rolex. Seiko. The Swatch Group. Tudor. Ulysse Nardin. Vacheron Constantin. Vostok. Vulcain Watches. Zenith. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. Ébauche. ETA SA.

Quartz crisis

quartz revolutionadventCentre Electronique Horloger
On the other hand, the quartz revolution drove many Swiss manufacturers to seek refuge in (or be winnowed out to) the higher end of the market, such as Patek Philippe, Vacheron Constantin, Audemars Piguet and Rolex. Mechanical watches have gradually become luxury goods appreciated for their elaborate craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal and glamorous design, sometimes associated with the social status of their owners, rather than simple timekeeping devices. Since 2010s, smartwatches have begun to significantly increase their shares in global watch market, especially after the launch of Apple Watch in 2015.

List of watch manufacturers

List of watch manufacturesmanufacture
Tudor. Tutima. TW Steel. Titoni. Ulysse Nardin. Universal Genève. Vacheron Constantin. Vacuum Chronometer Corporation. Valjoux. Versus (Versace). Victorinox. Visconti (company). Vostok watches. Waltham International SA. Waltham Watch Company. Christopher Ward (watchmaker). Wenger. Westclox. WeWOOD. West End Watch Co. Wittnauer. Joseph Windmills. Harry Winston. Zenith. Zeno-Watch Basel. Zodiac Watches.

Complication (horology)

complicationscomplicationcomplicated
Some watchmaking companies known for making ultra-complicated watches are Breguet, Patek Philippe, and Vacheron Constantin. A grand complication is a watch with several complications, the most complex achievements of haute horlogerie, or fine watchmaking. Although there is no 'official' definition, one common definition is a watch that contains at least three complications, with at least one coming from each of the groups listed below: As of November 2018, the top four most complicated mechanical watches ever created are manufactured by Vacheron Constantin and Patek Philippe, respectively.

Swiss franc

CHFSwiss francsfrancs
The local Swiss currencies included the Basel thaler, Berne thaler, Fribourg gulden, Geneva thaler, Geneva genevoise, Luzern gulden, Neuchâtel gulden, St. Gallen thaler, Schwyz gulden, Solothurn thaler, Valais thaler, and Zürich thaler. By the end of the 18th century and the 1st half of the 19th century, most of these local Swiss currencies are either mere uncoined accounting units, or local billon coins known only to residents of the issuing canton. Larger payments are done via foreign trade coins like German reichsthalers or French écus which are recognizable within and outside Switzerland.

Movement (clockwork)

movementmovementswatch movement
This style is called a three finger or Geneva movement. Manual or hand winding: In this type the wearer must turn the crown periodically, often daily, in order to wind the mainspring, storing energy to run the watch until the next winding. Automatic or self-winding: In this type, used in most mechanical watches sold today, the mainspring is automatically wound by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist while it is being worn, eliminating the need for manual winding. Clockwork. Chinese standard movement. Spring Drive. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry: Glossary. Easy Guide to Watch Movements. Caliber Guide.

Mechanical watch

mechanicalmechanical watchesmanual winding
Video Assembly of a Rolex 3135 Mechanical Watch Movement, Alliance Horlogere. Hand-winding Mechanical Watch Movement Disassembly. Disassembling a mechanical wristwatch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Reassembling a mechanical wristwatch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Working of a simple mechanical watch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Explanations Of The Mechanical Movements In A Watch, TimeZone.com. Automatic Movements Of A Mechanical Watch, How Stuff Works. Video: The Inner Workings of a Mechanical Watch.

World Wide Fund for Nature

World Wildlife FundWWFWorldwide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Global warming is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system. It is a major aspect of climate change, and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming. The terms global warming and climate change are often used interchangeably. However, speaking more accurately, global warming denotes the mainly human-caused increase in global surface temperatures and its projected continuation, but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes in precipitation.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium.

Environmental impact of mining

major cause of environmental issuesMiningEnvironmental issues with mining
Environmental impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices. Impacts can result in erosion, sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, or the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by the chemicals emitted from mining processes. These processes also have an impact on the atmosphere from the emissions of carbon which have effect on the quality of human health and biodiversity.

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationSoils retrogression and degradation
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state. Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human activity.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
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China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
China (undefined), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9600000 km2, it is the third largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Russia, or officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17125200 km2, it is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 km of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 24th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 58 million people, is also the world's 24th-most populous nation.