wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
In 1970, 18 manufacturers exhibited production versions of the beta 21 wristwatch, including the Omega Electroquartz as well as Patek Philippe, Rolex Oysterquartz and Piaget. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, swiftly followed by the Swiss Beta 21, and then a year later the prototype of one of the world's most accurate wristwatches to date: the Omega Marine Chronometer.


Geneva is the birthplace of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the Geneva Conventions and, since 2006, hosts the United Nations Human Rights Council. Even though Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, the Palace of Nations in Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member and home to the League of Nations.


One major Swiss watch brand – Rolex – now pre-qualifies independent watchmakers before they provide them with spare parts. This qualification may include, but is not limited to, holding a modern training certificate from one of several reputable schools; having a workshop environment that meets Rolex's standards for cleanliness; using modern equipment; and being a member of the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute. The Omega brand has the same approach. However, the vast majority of modern Swiss brands do not sell parts to independent watchmakers, irrespective of the watchmaker's expertise, training or credentials.

List of watch manufacturers

Tudor. Tutima. TW Steel. Titoni. Ulysse Nardin. Universal GenĂšve. Vacheron Constantin. Vacuum Chronometer Corporation. Valjoux. Versus (Versace). Victorinox. Visconti (company). Vostok watches. Waltham International SA. Waltham Watch Company. Christopher Ward (watchmaker). Wenger. Westclox. WeWOOD. West End Watch Co. Joseph Windmills. Harry Winston. Zenith. Zeno-Watch Basel. Zodiac Watches.

List of most expensive watches sold at auction

most expensive watch ever sold at auctionmost expensive watches ever sold at auctionmost expensive watches ever sold at auctions
Europe: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in Europe is the Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication, reaching a final price of 23.98 million US dollars in Geneva on November 11th, 2014 (by Sotheby's). North America: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in North America is the Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona, reaching a final price of 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26th, 2017 (by Phillips). List of watch manufacturers. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication. Patek Philippe Calibre 89. Rolex Daytona.

Universal GenĂšve

Universal GenĂšve SA is a Swiss luxury watch company, founded in 1894 as Universal Watch. Since its beginnings, the company has produced complete watches with in-house movements, and throughout the 20th century, distributed many notable and important timepieces. Along with neighboring Geneva companies Audemars Piguet, Girard-Perregaux, Patek Philippe and Rolex, Universal is internationally regarded for its style of craftsmanship and manufacture. In addition, the brand also makes historical claim for creating the first-ever chronographic wristwatch in 1917.

Vallée de Joux

valley of Joux
The Vallée de Joux is, along with Neuchùtel, the birthplace of Swiss horology and it is still the home of the most famous Swiss watch factories, like Audemars Piguet, Blancpain, Breguet, Patek Philippe & Co., Vacheron Constantin, and Jaeger-LeCoultre. * Official Website Reymond, Lucien ; Notice sur la vallée du Lac de Joux, 1864 ; Les CharbonniÚres : Le PÚlerin, 1995. Devicque, Julien-Hippolyte and Rochat, Rémy ; Merveilleuse vallée du Lac-de-Joux ; Les CharbonniÚres : Editions Le PÚlerin, 1992.

Breguet (brand)

BreguetBreguet S. A.Breguet" company
Breguet, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet and Rolex, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change. There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation.

Complication (horology)

Some watchmaking companies known for making ultra-complicated watches are Breguet, Patek Philippe, and Vacheron Constantin. A grand complication is a watch with several complications, the most complex achievements of haute horlogerie, or fine watchmaking. Although there is no 'official' definition, one common definition is a watch that contains at least three complications, with at least one coming from each of the groups listed below: As of November 2018, the top four most complicated mechanical watches ever created are manufactured by Vacheron Constantin and Patek Philippe, respectively.

Manufacture d'horlogerie

manufacturermanufacturewatch manufacturer
Audemars Piguet. Blancpain. Breguet. Breitling SA. Chopard. Citizen Holdings. FrĂ©dĂ©rique Constant (some models). F. P. Journe. Girard-Perregaux. Moritz Grossman. Hublot. IWC. Jaeger-LeCoultre. Lang & Heyne. Maurice Lacroix. Moser & Cie. Nomos GlashĂŒtte. Omega SA. Panerai. Parmigiani Fleurier. Patek Philippe & Co. Piaget SA. Roger Dubuis. Rolex. Seiko. The Swatch Group. Ulysse Nardin. Vacheron Constantin. Vostok. Vulcain Watches. Zenith. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. Ébauche. ETA SA.

Swiss franc

The local Swiss currencies included the Basel thaler, Berne thaler, Fribourg gulden, Geneva thaler, Geneva genevoise, Luzern gulden, NeuchĂątel gulden, St. Gallen thaler, Schwyz gulden, Solothurn thaler, Valais thaler, and ZĂŒrich thaler. In 1798, the Helvetic Republic introduced the franc, a currency based on the Berne thaler, subdivided into 10 batzen or 100 centimes. The Swiss franc was equal to 6 3⁄4 grams of pure silver or 1 1⁄2 French francs. This franc was issued until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, but served as the model for the currencies of several cantons in the Mediation period (1803–1814).

World Wide Fund for Nature

WWFWorld Wildlife FundWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.

Climate change

climatic changeclimatechanging climate
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions and certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; either "global warming" or "climate change" may be used.

Gold and Company

goldAugold dust
Gold and Company (Gold's) was a department store located in downtown Lincoln, Nebraska. The store was founded in 1915 and quickly grew into one of Lincoln's dominant retailers throughout the 20th century. Gold's merged with the Brandeis department store in 1964 and closed in 1980.


pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationdegradation of soils
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state. Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human activity.


deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.

United Kingdom

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List of watchmakers

Calabrese, VincentChristophe Claret
Powell (born 1954), American born watchmaker at Patek Philippe.''. Antoine Preziuso (born 1957), ((AHCI)), Swiss watchmaker, Patek Philippe, Antiquorum, tourbillon. Franck Muller (born 1958), Swiss watchmaker, Genthod, Franck Muller SA. Christophe Claret (born 1962), Swiss watchmaker, Christophe Claret SA. Beat Haldimann (born 1964), (AHCI), Swiss watchmaker, double regulator, tourbillon. Giulio Papi (born 1965), Swiss watchmaker, former Renaud & Papi SA, today Audemars Piguet. Thomas Prescher (born 1966), (AHCI), German watchmaker, Triple-Achs-Tourbillon. Andreas Strehler (born 1971), (AHCI), Swiss watchmaker, Pendule Sympathique, moon phase, complication (horology).

Revolution (magazine)

RevolutionRevolution'' (magazine)
The publication also features coverage of watch related events especially for Rolex, Tudor, Patek Philippe, IWC Schaffhausen, Audemars Piguet. They also cover boutique openings, product launches and new collaborations. Brands discussed within the pages of Revolution include the major horological players such as those from the Richemont Group (Cartier, IWC, Jaeger-LeCoultre, Vacheron Constantin, etc.), Swatch Group (Breguet, Blancpain, Longines, Omega, etc.), Audemars Piguet, Chopard, Franck Muller, Patek Philippe and Rolex. Independent, niche brands (such as URWERK, MB&F, and Greubel Forsey) that produce in small quantities and are favored by connoisseurs are also covered at length.

Repeater (horology)

repeaterminute repeaterrepeating clock
The watches are Audemars Piguet, Bvlgari, Corum, Franck Muller, IWC, Jaeger LeCoultre, Piaget and Vacheron Constantin. The recordings were made in an anechoic chamber. What is a Minute Repeater?.

GĂ©rald Genta

GĂ©rald Charles Genta, better known by his short name (GĂ©rald Genta) (Geneva 1931 - Monaco 2011) was a luxury watch designer and artist. He is one of the few watch designers that we know by name as he created and designed some of the most iconic and precious mechanical timepieces of the contemporary history; currently highly demanded by watch enthusiasts and collectors. He is noted for his eponymous line of timepieces as well as his design work with other high-end watch Manufacturers. These including IWC, Universal GenĂšve, Patek Philippe and Audemars Piguet, among others.

Canton of Geneva

GenevaGenevanRepublic of Geneva
L'Escalade, or FĂȘte de l'Escalade (from escalade, the act of scaling defensive walls), is an annual festival held in December in Geneva, Switzerland, celebrating the defeat of the surprise attack by troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy during the night of 11–12 December 1602 (Old style). The celebrations and other commemorative activities are usually held on 12 December or the closest weekend. GenĂšve, residents. Vernier, residents. Lancy, residents. Meyrin, residents. Carouge, residents. Onex, residents. ThĂŽnex, residents. Versoix, residents. Le Grand-Saconnex, residents. ChĂȘne-Bougeries, residents. Veyrier, residents. Plan-les-Ouates, residents. Bernex, residents.

Pocket watch

pocketwatchfob watchwatch fob
The Vacheron Constantin Reference 57260 (2015) — 57 complications. Patek Philippe Calibre 89 (1989) — 33 complications. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication (1933) — 24 complications. List of watch manufacturers. List of most expensive watches sold at auction.


In November 2009 and March 2004, Antiquorum sold the yellow-gold and the white-gold Patek Philippe Calibre 89, respectively, and both watches currently rank among the top 10 most expensive watches ever sold at auction, with final prices over 5 million US dollars.