Frédérique Constant

In February 2007, Frederique Constant began production of the Silicon escapement wheel (first introduced to the industry by Patek Philippe in 2005). The company introduced the Heart Beat Calibre FC 935 Silicium in October 2007. It implements new high-tech materials to create better, more precise and more reliable mechanical watches. Deep reactive-ion etching is used to shape silicon wafers into escapement wheels, pallets, and plateaus. Silicon is lighter, harder and stronger than metal. Etched into tiny skeletal structures that would be impossible to form with metal, it becomes the featherweight heart of a mechanism that can run at a far higher accuracy.


Richemont GroupCompagnie Financière RichemontCompagnie Financière Richemont S.A.
Piaget — jewellery, watches; based in Geneva, Switzerland. Purdey — firearms, ammunition; based in London, United Kingdom. Roger Dubuis — watches; based in Geneva, Switzerland. Vacheron Constantin — watches; based in Geneva, Switzerland. Van Cleef & Arpels — jewellery, watches; based in Paris, France.


JaegerJaeger instrument panelJaeger-Le Coultre
From 1902 and for the next 30 years, LeCoultre & Cie. produced most of the movement blanks for Patek Philippe of Geneva. In 1903, Paris-based watchmaker to the French Navy, Edmond Jaeger, challenged Swiss manufacturers to develop and produce the ultra-thin movements that he had invented. Jacques-David LeCoultre, Antoine’s grandson who was responsible for production at LeCoultre & Cie., accepted the challenge, giving rise to a collection of ultra-thin pocket watches, including the thinnest in the world in 1907, equipped with the LeCoultre Calibre 145.

Cartier (jeweler)

CartierCartier InternationalHouse of Cartier
Cartier continued to use movements from other makers: Vacheron Constantin, Audemars Piguet, Movado and LeCoultre. It was also during this period that Cartier began adding its own reference numbers to the watches it sold, usually by stamping a four-digit code on the underside of a lug. Jacques took charge of the London operation and eventually moved to the current address at New Bond Street. Pierre Cartier established the New York City branch in 1909, moving in 1917 to 653 Fifth Avenue, the Neo-Renaissance mansion of Morton Freeman Plant (son of railroad tycoon Henry B. Plant) and designed by architect C.P.H. Gilbert.

La Chaux-de-Fonds

La Chaux de FondsLa Chaux-de-Fonds NELa-Chaux-de-Fonds
Rolex trademark, registered by Hans Wilsdorf, in 1908. His company, Wilsdorf and Davis, London, was later renamed Rolex Watch Company, Geneva and Biel/Bienne. Rotary, by Moise Dreyfuss, in 1895. Solvil et Titus, by Paul Ditisheim, in 1892. Venus by Paul Arthur Schwarz and Olga Etienne, in 1902. Vulcain by Maurice Ditisheim, in 1858. Watchmaking Heritage Day: Saturday 7 November 2009. Official website of the City of La Chaux-de-Fonds. La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle: Pictures Gallery. International watchmaking museum website. The Art Nouveau season of events in the city.

Adrien Philippe

Jean Adrien Philippe (16 April 1815, La Bazoche-Gouet, Eure-et-Loir – 5 January 1894) was a French horologist and cofounder of watchmaker Patek Philippe & Co. of Geneva, Switzerland. In 1842 Adrien Philippe invented a mechanism for watches which allowed them to be wound and set by means of a crown rather than a key. His patented invention earned him a Gold Medal at the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 (World's Fair). At the Exhibition, Adrien Philippe first met Antoni Patek and a year later became head watchmaker at Patek & Co. in Geneva under an agreement that entitled him to one third of all company profits.

Henry Graves (banker)

Henry GravesHenry Graves Jr.Henry Graves Jr
The watch was on loan to the Patek Philippe Museum in Geneva, Switzerland for several years, and was the most expensive single piece on display. On July 10, 2014, Sotheby's announced that in November 2014, the watch would once again be auctioned. It sold for 23.2 million Swiss francs (≈USD $24 million/ ≈19.3 million Euros) at Sotheby’s in Geneva on November 11, 2014, setting a new record price for any timepiece sold at auction. In 1896, Henry Graves married Florence Isabel Preston of Irvington-on-Hudson, New York, and they had four children. Mr. and Mrs. Graves owned several vacation homes in addition to their residence in New York City.


The Gyromax is the trade name for an adjustable mass (or adjustable inertia) balance wheel used in Patek Philippe wristwatches. Instead of weight adjustment screws on the outside of the rim, as in traditional balances, the Gyromax has turnable weights recessed into the top of the rim. The advantages claimed for this design are that, without projecting weight screws, the diameter of the balance can be increased, giving it a larger moment of inertia, and that it has less air resistance. The Gyromax balance has six to eight small turnable weights that fit on pins located in recesses around the top of the balance wheel rim.

Bernard Tschumi

Bernard Tschumi Architects
Vacheron Constantin Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland (2004). Lindner Athletic Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (2006). Blue Condominium, 105 Norfolk Street in the Lower East Side of New York City (2007). Limoges Concert Hall, France (2007). Paris Zoo, France (2014). Paul & Henri Carnal Hall, Institut Le Rosey, Rolle, Switzerland (2014). The Hague Passage, Netherlands (2014). Alésia MuséoParc, Dijon, France (2013). le fresnoy contemporary art center (1997). Alésia, Archeo Museum, Dijon, France (2018). Elliptic City: International Financial Center of the Americas, Guayacanes, Dominican Republic (completion after 2008). 1979.

Reference 57260

Patek Philippe Calibre 89 (1989) — 33 complications. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication (1933) — 24 complications.

Patek Philippe Calibre 89

Roughly 27 years later, on September 17, 2015, Vacheron Constantin introduced the Reference 57260 which took over the title of 'most complicated watch in the world' with a total of 57 complications. Day of the month. 12-hour recorder. Day of the week. Hour of second time zone. Moon phase display. Winding crown position indicator. Century decade and year displays. Leap year indicator. Power reserve. Month. Thermometer. Date of Easter. Time of sunrise. Equation of time. Star chart. Sun hand. Time of sunset. Split second hand. Total diameter 89 mm. Total thickness 41 mm. Total weight 1100 grams. The Vacheron Constantin Reference 57260. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication.

Calvin Auditory

Church of Sainte-Marie-la-Neuve (Auditoire)
The Church of Scotland, Geneva. official Geneva tourist information (accessed February 8, 2007).

Quartz crisis

Quartz Revolutionadventchallenge
Paradoxically, the quartz revolution drove many Swiss manufacturers to seek refuge in (or be winnowed out to) the higher end of the market, such as Rolex and Patek Philippe. Le Rouage dégrippé, Les crises horlogères, une fatalité en voie de disparition?. Watch Wars (the Smithsonian). Watches tick to a different beat. Swatch Print Ads from the Early 1980's.


London, EnglandLondon, UKLondon, United Kingdom
Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Further out is, for example, the Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey c. undefined1515. Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Wren, neoclassical financial institutions such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate.

Mechanical watch

mechanicalmechanical watchesmanual winding
Video Assembly of a Rolex 3135 Mechanical Watch Movement, Alliance Horlogere. Hand-winding Mechanical Watch Movement Disassembly. Disassembling a mechanical wristwatch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Reassembling a mechanical wristwatch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Working of a simple mechanical watch, Horlogerie-Suisse. Explanations Of The Mechanical Movements In A Watch, Automatic Movements Of A Mechanical Watch, How Stuff Works. Video: The Inner Workings of a Mechanical Watch.

Quartz clock

quartz watchquartzquartz movement
The Astron was released less than a year prior to the introduction of the Swiss Beta 21, which was developed by 16 Swiss Watch manufacturers and used by Rolex, Patek and Omega in their electroquartz models. The inherent accuracy and low cost of production has resulted in the proliferation of quartz clocks and watches since that time. By the 1980s, quartz technology had taken over applications such as kitchen timers, alarm clocks, bank vault time locks, and time fuzes on munitions, from earlier mechanical balance wheel movements, an upheaval known in watchmaking as the quartz crisis. Quartz timepieces have dominated the wristwatch and clock market since the 1980s.

Great Depression

Depressionthe Great DepressionDepression-era
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

Prisoner of war

prisoners of warPOWPOWs
These provisions were further expanded in the 1929 Geneva Convention on the Prisoners of War and were largely revised in the Third Geneva Convention in 1949. Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention protects captured military personnel, some guerrilla fighters, and certain civilians. It applies from the moment a prisoner is captured until he or she is released or repatriated. One of the main provisions of the convention makes it illegal to torture prisoners and states that a prisoner can only be required to give their name, date of birth, rank and service number (if applicable).


chronographschronographic wristwatchtimer
Patek Philippe Chronograph Comparison Gray & Sons NOV 2014. A technical perspective, the chronograph, Monochrome-watches, Xavier Markl, February 2016. TAG Heuer’s 01 chronograph watch movement explained with videos WatchTime June 2016. Cronosurf - The online chronograph.

Balance wheel

foliotcompensation balanceauxiliary temperature compensation
Audemars Piguet currently produces a movement that allows for a very high balance vibration of 12 beats/s (43,200 BPH). The precision of the best balance wheel watches on the wrist is around a few seconds per day. The most accurate balance wheel timepieces made were marine chronometers, which were used on ships for celestial navigation, as a precise time source to determine longitude. By WWII they had achieved accuracies of 0.1 second per day. In watchmaking the term "wheel" usually means a large gear with teeth on its periphery – great wheel, centre wheel, third wheel, etc. The "balance wheel" has no teeth and therefore is not a wheel in this sense.


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Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth IIthe QueenQueen
From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George. Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign.

Phillips (auctioneers)

PhillipsPhillips de Pury & CompanyPhillips de Pury
On November 12th, 2016, Phillips sold a Patek Philippe Stainless Steel Ref. 1518, which was then the most expensive wristwatch in the world, reaching a final price of 11.14 million US dollars (CHF 11,002,000) in Geneva. Currently, it ranks as the second most expensive wristwatch and the third most expensive watch ever auctioned in the world. On October 26th, 2017, Phillips sold the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch ever auctioned in the world, the Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona, reaching a final price of 17.75 million US dollars in New York.

James Ward Packard

J.W. PackardJames PackardJames W. Packard
James Ward Packard (November 5, 1863 – March 20, 1928) was an American automobile manufacturer who founded the Packard Motor Car Company and Packard Electric Company with his brother William Doud Packard.


Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleonic
Napoléon Bonaparte (, ; Napoleone Bonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815.