American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British coalition victory in the Seven Years' War in 1763. The North American theater of the Seven Years' War is commonly known as the French and Indian War in the United States; it removed France as a major player in North American affairs and led to the territory of New France being ceded to Great Britain. Lawrence Henry Gipson writes: "It may be said as truly that the American Revolution was an aftermath of the Anglo-French conflict in the New World carried on between 1754 and 1763."

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War timeline. Memorial University of Newfoundland's page about the war. Seven Years' War Knowledge Base. 1759: From the Warpath to the Plains of Abraham Virtual Exhibition. The Seven Years' War in Canada. Clash of Empires and The Battle of the Plains of Abraham – The Canadian War Museum.


HuguenotFrench HuguenotFrench Huguenots
Paul Revere was descended from Huguenot refugees, as was Henry Laurens, who signed the Articles of Confederation for South Carolina; Jack Jouett, who made the ride from Cuckoo Tavern to warn Thomas Jefferson and others that Tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king; Reverend John Gano was a Revolutionary War chaplain and spiritual advisor to George Washington; Francis Marion, and a number of other leaders of the American Revolution and later statesmen. The last active Huguenot congregation in North America worships in Charleston, South Carolina, at a church that dates to 1844.

Timeline of Baltimore

Baltimore Town
Paul's Anglican Church on Forest (Charles) Street, some Evangelical Lutherans participate in worship with Reformed friends. 1757 – Smallpox epidemic in colonial capital city of Annapolis to the south, drives General Assembly legislature to meet for sessions in Baltimore. 1759 – Arrival of French Canadian refugees beginning around 1755, expelled by British officials from Acadia (Nova Scotia province in New France (in future Canada) after the British victory at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City in the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War (in Europe).

List of Assassin's Creed characters

Haytham KenwayJacobConnor
George Washington (voiced by Robin Atkin Downes in Assassin's Creed III and by Tod Fennell in Assassin's Creed Rogue) (1732–1799) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783, and served as the first President of the United States from 30 April 1789 to 4 March 1797. Born in the colony of Virginia in the British colonies of America, Washington joined the Virginian militia during his youth and participated in the French and Indian War with the British Army, fighting against the French and their indigenous allies. During the war, he ordered the burning of the neutral village of Kanatahséton.

Benedict Arnold

ArnoldGeneral Benedict ArnoldGen. Benedict Arnold
Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War. Intelligence operations in the American Revolutionary War. Vidkun Quisling, name used as synonym for treason. Jane Tuers. Shy, John. "Arnold, Benedict," American National Biography (1999) short scholarly biography. This book includes a reprint of Arnold's diary of his march. ; Very old and outdated. Case, Stephen and Mark Jacob. Treacherous Beauty: Peggy Shippen, The Woman Behind Benedict Arnold's Plot To Betray America (2012), popular biography. Palmer, Dave Richard. George Washington and Benedict Arnold: A Tale of Two Patriots (2014); Popular dual biography. Philbrick, Nathaniel.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
In the aftermath of the war, both the British and French sought to expand into the Ohio River valley. The French and Indian War (1754–63) was the American extension of the general European conflict known as the Seven Years' War. Previous colonial wars in North America had started in Europe and then spread to the colonies, but the French and Indian War is notable for having started in North America and spread to Europe. One of the primary causes of the war was increasing competition between Britain and France, especially in the Great Lakes and Ohio valley.

United States

During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.

Treaty of Alliance (1778)

Treaty of Alliance1778 Treaty of Alliancetreaty
Those Americans who disliked the proposition of being eternally tied to France, most notably the Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and his supporters in the Federalist Party, seized on the French Revolution as a chance to officially nullify the treaty. Despite a consensus of European monarchs who considered the treaty nullified by the execution of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, President George Washington sided with his Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and declared the treaty would remain in effect, despite the regime change in France.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
He also wrote a constitution for the state; Thomas Jefferson and others sought to have the convention adopt their ideas, but they found that Mason's version could not be stopped. During the American Revolutionary War, Mason was a member of the powerful House of Delegates of the Virginia General Assembly but, to the irritation of Washington and others, he refused to serve in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, citing health and family commitments. Mason was in 1787 named one of his state's delegates to the Constitutional Convention and traveled to Philadelphia, his only lengthy trip outside Virginia.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIKing George
Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the later part of his life, George III had recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown.


Six NationsIroquois ConfederacyFive Nations
During the French and Indian War (the North American theater of the Seven Years' War), the League Iroquois sided with the British against the French and their Algonquian allies, who were traditional enemies. The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. Few Iroquois warriors joined the campaign. By contrast, the Canadian Iroquois supported the French. In 1711, refugees from is now southern-western Germany known as the Palatines appealed to the Iroquois clan mothers for permission to settle on their land. By spring of 1713, about 150 Palatine families had leased land from the Iroquois.


Choctaw IndiansChoctaw NationChoctaw Indian
The French were the main trading partners of the Choctaw before the Seven Years' War, and the British had established some trading. Trade deputes between the eastern and western division led to the Choctaw Civil War being fought between 1747 and 1750, with the pro-French eastern division emerging victorious. After Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, it ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River. From 1763 to 1781, Britain was the Choctaw main trading partner. With Spanish forces based in New Orleans in 1766, when they took over French territory west of the Mississippi, the Choctaw sometimes traded with them to the west.


VACommonwealth of VirginiaVa.
France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War became part of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant Colonel George Washington. The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.

Separation of church and state in the United States

separation of church and stateseparation between church and statewall of separation
An oath had also been imposed on the militia during the French and Indian War requiring them to abjure the pretensions of the Pope, which may or may not have been applied during the Revolution. That law was replaced by 1799. The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 provided: "And each member, before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz: I do believe in one God, the creator and governor of the universe, the rewarder of the good and the punisher of the wicked. And I do acknowledge the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by Divine inspiration.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
He took an early role in the militia as the American Revolutionary War began. In 1777, he became a senior aide to General Washington in running the new Continental Army. After the war, he was elected as a representative from New York to the Congress of the Confederation. He resigned to practice law and founded the Bank of New York. Hamilton was a leader in seeking to replace the weak national government under the Articles of Confederation; he led the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which spurred Congress to call a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
Jefferson the Virginian. Volume 1 of Jefferson and His Time. Boston: Little Brown, 1948. Mayer, Henry. All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN: 0-312-18740-8. McDonald, Robert M. S. "Thomas Jefferson's Changing Reputation as Author of the Declaration of Independence: The First Fifty Years". Journal of the Early Republic 19, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 169–95. McPherson, James. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. ISBN: 0-19-505542-X. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. Revised and expanded edition.

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

LafayetteMarquis de LafayetteGeneral Lafayette
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), known in the United States simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War, commanding American troops in several battles, including the Siege of Yorktown. After returning to France, he was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Lafayette was born into a wealthy land-owning family in Chavaniac in the province of Auvergne in south central France. He followed the family's martial tradition and was commissioned an officer at age 13.

Continental Congress

CongressContinental Congressman from DelawareDelegate to the Continental Congress
It established a Continental Army, giving command to one of its members, George Washington of Virginia. It waged war with Great Britain, made a militia treaty with France, and funded the war effort with loans and paper money. The third Continental Congress was the Congress of the Confederation, under the Articles of Confederation. The idea of a congress of British North American Colonies was first broached in 1754 at the start of the French and Indian war, which started as the North American front of the Seven Years War between Great Britain and France. It met in Albany, New York from June 18 to July 11, 1754, and was attended by representatives from seven colonies.

John Adams

AdamsJohnJ. Adams
On July 14, 1789, the French Revolution began. Republicans were jubilant. Adams at first expressed cautious optimism, but soon began denouncing the revolutionaries as barbarous and tyrannical. Washington eventually consulted Adams more often, but not until near the end of his administration, by which point Hamilton, Jefferson, and Edmund Randolph had all resigned. The British had been raiding American trading vessels, and John Jay was sent to London to negotiate an end to hostilities. When he returned with a peace treaty on terms unfavorable to the United States, Adams urged Washington to sign it to prevent war. Washington chose to do so, igniting protests and riots.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
After a series of "French and Indian wars", the British took over most of France's North American operations in 1763. New France became Quebec. Great Britain's policy was to respect Quebec's Catholic establishment as well as its semi-feudal legal, economic, and social systems. By the Quebec Act of 1774, the Province of Quebec was enlarged to include the western holdings of the American colonies. In the American Revolutionary War, Halifax, Nova Scotia became Britain's major base for naval action. They repulsed an American revolutionary invasion in 1776, but in 1777 a British invasion army was captured in New York, encouraging France to enter the war.

Franco-American alliance

American allyan American allyalliance with France
France in the Seven Years War. Franco-Indian alliance. French weapons in the American Civil War. List of French units in the American Revolutionary War.

Intolerable Acts

Coercive Actsactsamong other actions
Relations between the Thirteen Colonies and the British Parliament slowly but steadily worsened after the end of the Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) in 1763. The war had plunged the British government deep into debt, and so the British Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase tax revenue from the colonies. Parliament believed that these acts, such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767, were legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs of maintaining the British Empire.

Nova Scotia

NSProvince of Nova ScotiaNova Scotia, Canada
During the French and Indian War of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters to resettle the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the Burial of the Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made treaties with the Mi’kmaq. The American Revolution (1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia.

Mississippi River

MississippiMississippi ValleyMississippi River Valley
The French built the small fort of La Balise there to control passage. In 1718, about 100 mi upriver, New Orleans was established along the river crescent by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, with construction patterned after the 1711 resettlement on Mobile Bay of Mobile, the capital of French Louisiana at the time. Following Britain's victory in the Seven Years War the Mississippi became the border between the British and Spanish Empires. The Treaty of Paris (1763) gave Great Britain rights to all land east of the Mississippi and Spain rights to land west of the Mississippi. Spain also ceded Florida to Britain to regain Cuba, which the British occupied during the war.