Proto-Germanic language

Proto-GermanicCommon GermanicGermanic
According to the Germanic substrate hypothesis, it may be influenced by non-Indo-European cultures, such as the Funnelbeaker culture, but the sound change in the Germanic languages known as Grimm's law points to a non-substratic development away from other branches of Indo-European. Proto-Germanic itself was likely spoken after c. undefined 500 BC, and Proto-Norse from the 2nd century AD and later is still quite close to reconstructed Proto-Germanic, but other common innovations separating Germanic from Proto-Indo-European suggest a common history of pre-Proto-Germanic speakers throughout the Nordic Bronze Age.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
For example, in 1933 Sigmund Feist postulated a creole origin for the Germanic languages. Other scholars, such as Salikoko Mufwene, argue that pidgins and creoles arise independently under different circumstances, and that a pidgin need not always precede a creole nor a creole evolve from a pidgin. Pidgins, according to Mufwene, emerged in trade colonies among "users who preserved their native vernaculars for their day-to-day interactions."

Sigmund Feist

He was the author of the Germanic substrate hypothesis as well as a number of important works concerning Jewish ethnic and racial identity. Feist served as the director of the Jewish Reichenheim Orphanage in Berlin from 1906 to 1935. In 1907 he became a member of the Gesellschaft der Freunde society. Feist emigrated to Denmark in 1939 where he died four years later. As director of the Reichenheim Orphanage, Feist established and maintained close relationships with his wards, 77 of whom corresponded with him during their time of service in the First World War.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
Germanic substrate hypothesis. South Germanic languages. Gothic. Germanic Lexicon Project. 'Hover & Hear' pronunciations of the same Germanic words in dozens of Germanic languages and 'dialects', including English accents, and compare instantaneously side by side. Bibliographie der Schreibsprachen: Bibliography of medieval written forms of High and Low German and Dutch. Swadesh lists of Germanic basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix). Germanic languages fragments—YouTube (14:06).

Stratum (linguistics)

For example, the earliest form of the Germanic languages may have been influenced by a non-Indo-European language, purportedly the source of about one quarter of the most ancient Germanic vocabulary. There are similar arguments for a Sanskrit substrate, a Greek one, and a substrate underlying the Sami languages. Relatively clear examples are the Finno-Ugric languages of the Chude and the "Volga Finns" (Merya, Muromian, and Meshcheran): while unattested, their existence has been noted in medieval chronicles, and one or more of them have left substantial influence in the Northern Russian dialects.

Corded Ware culture

Corded WareBattle Axe cultureSingle Grave culture
The Corded Ware culture, CWC (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between c. undefined 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age. Corded Ware culture encompassed a vast area, from the Rhine on the west to the Volga in the east, occupying parts of Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe.


Germanic substrate hypothesis. Old Europe (archaeology). Hans Kuhn, Vor- und frühgermanische Ortsnamen in Nord-Deutschland und in den Niederlanden, Westfälische Forschungen 12, pp. 5 – 44, 1959. (German). Translation: "Pre- and early Germanic Place Names in Northern Germany and the Netherlands". Wolfgang Meid, Hans Kuhns 'Nordwestblock' Hypothese: zur Problematik der Völker zwischen Germanen und Kelten", in Germanenproblemen in heutiger Sicht, Berlin, De Gruyter, 1986. (German; translation: 'Hans Kuhn's "Northwest Block" Hypothesis: The Problem of the Peoples between Germani and Celts'.

Neolithic Europe

NeolithicEuropean NeolithicPre-Indo-European
Germanic substrate hypothesis. Indo-Iranian migration. Neolithic tomb. Old European culture. Pre-Indo-European languages. Proto-Indo-European language. Proto-Indo-Europeans. Vinča symbols. Fu, Qiaomei et al. " The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature 534, 200–205 (9 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17993. Fu, Qiaomei et al. " The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature 534, 200–205 (9 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17993. Fu, Qiaomei et al. " The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature 534, 200–205 (9 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17993. Fu, Qiaomei et al. " The genetic history of Ice Age Europe". Nature 534, 200–205 (9 June 2016) doi:10.1038/nature17993.

Pre–Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-EuropeanPre-Indo-European languagesPre-Indo-European language
Pre-Germanic: see Germanic substrate hypothesis. Pre-Celtic languages:. Insular Celtic:. Goidelic substrate hypothesis. Pictish language (since about 2000, generally classified as Celtic). For the British Isles, see Celtic settlement of Great Britain and Ireland. Continental Celtic:. Paleohispanic languages. Vasconic languages. Proto-Basque. Aquitanian language (often thought to be the direct ancestor of Basque). Iberian language. Tartessian language (classification as Celtic has been proposed). Italic languages:. Tyrsenian languages. Etruscan language. Raetic language (probably close to Etruscan). Camunic language (probably Raetic). Elymian language (probably Indo-European).

Language shift

Germanic substrate hypothesis. Koiné language. Language death. Linguistic imperialism. Second language. World Englishes. Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2007), "Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity", Glossa. An Interdisciplinary Journal (on-line), vol. 2, n. 2. Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2002), "Biological and linguistic diversity: Transdisciplinary explorations for a socioecology of languages", Diverscité langues, vol. VII, Analyses et réflexions (on-line). Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2002), "Biological and linguistic diversity: Transdisciplinary explorations for a socioecology of languages", Diverscité langues, vol. VII, Analyses et réflexions (on-line).

Old European hydronymy

Old EuropeanBaltic hydronymydur-
Germanic substrate hypothesis. Pre-Celtic. Vasconic substratum theory.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

Language contact

contact languagecontactcontact linguistics
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for their languages to influence each other. Language contact can occur at language borders, between adstratum languages, or as the result of migration, with an intrusive language acting as either a superstratum or a substratum.

Applied linguistics

applied linguistappliedapplied linguistic
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, psychology, communication research, anthropology, and sociology.


pidgin languagepidginsPidgin English
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups).

Archaeological culture

cultureculturesmaterial culture
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society. The connection between the artifacts is based on archaeologists' understanding and interpretation and does not necessarily relate to real groups of humans in the past. The concept of archaeological culture is fundamental to culture-historical archaeology.

Maglemosian culture

MaglemosianMaglemoseMaglemosian people
Maglemosian (c. 9000 – c. 6000 BC) is the name given to a culture of the early Mesolithic period in Northern Europe. In Scandinavia, the culture was succeeded by the Kongemose culture and Tardenoisian culture.

Funnelbeaker culture

Funnel Beaker cultureFunnelbeakerFunnel Beaker
The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; Danish: Tragtbægerkultur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe. It developed as a technological merger of local neolithic and mesolithic techno-complexes between the lower Elbe and middle Vistula rivers, introducing farming and husbandry as a major source of food to the pottery-using hunter-gatherers north of this line. It was preceded by Lengyel-influenced Stroke-ornamented ware culture (STK) groups/Late Lengyel and Baden-Boleráz in the southeast, Rössen groups in the southwest and the Ertebølle-Ellerbek groups in the north.

Hamburg culture

HamburgianHamburgian cultureHamburg
The Hamburg culture or Hamburgian (15,500-13,100 BP) was a Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation beginning during the Bölling interstadial. Sites are found close to the ice caps of the time. They extend as far north as the Pomeranian ice margin.


Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician (LRJ) was a culture or technocomplex (industry) dating to the beginning Upper Paleolithic, about 43,000 years ago. It is characterised by leaf points made on long blades, which are thought to have been made by the last Neanderthals, although some researchers have suggested that it could be a culture of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe. It is rarely found, but extends across northwest Europe from Wales to Poland.

University of Cambridge

Cambridge UniversityCambridgeUniversity
The University of Cambridge (legally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'.


Creolization is the process through which creole languages and cultures emerge. Creolization was first used by linguists to explain how contact languages become creole languages, but now scholars in other social sciences use the term to describe new cultural expressions brought about by contact between societies and relocated peoples. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean, although it is not exclusive to the Caribbean and some scholars use the term to represent other diasporas. Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture.